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198 matches

Program: Fellowships for University Teachers
Date range: 2011-2014
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FA-57564-14

Stefania Tutino
University of California, Santa Barbara (Santa Barbara, CA 93106-0001)
Probabilism in Early Modern Europe: Epistemology, Politics, and Moral Theology

As David Foster Wallace said in his 2005 commencement speech at Kenyon College, nowadays 'the only thing that's capital-T True is that you get to decide how you're gonna try to see it.' Every day we face clashes between contrasting truths. Abortion or gay marriages are controversial because different people hold different beliefs as true, and it is hard to find a compromise when opposite truths are at stake. In the early modern world opposite Truths fought one another, and theologians were tasked with asserting their own Truth as absolutely certain. Probabilism was a novel and controversial kind of Catholic moral theology: it stressed the uncertainty and fallibility of all human religious and political norms, and it sought to find theological and epistemological venues for compromise. Examining how early modern probabilists grappled with their moral dilemmas allows us to see more clearly the roots and significance of our own quandaries and to put them in a wider and deeper perspective.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History of Religion; Intellectual History; Renaissance History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2014 – 8/31/2015


FA-57571-14

Jeffrey Einboden
Northern Illinois University (DeKalb, IL 60115-2828)
Islamic Literacy in Early America: Muslim Sources of U.S. Authorship

Uncovering Islam's formative impact on the nation's literature, this project traces covert genealogies of Arabic and Persian influence, extending from Revolutionary beginnings to the Civil War. Complementing NEH's Bridging Cultures initiative, this monograph excavates portraits of our most iconic authors, while also giving voice to unknown Muslim writings penned in the young republic. During the proposed year of work, the author will complete archival research for this book and develop a polished typescript. Two months of targeted library visits will allow for the remainder of the award period to be reserved for textual analysis, translation, and core writing.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
American Literature; Interdisciplinary Studies, Other

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57586-14

Tobias Boes
University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN 46556-4635)
Thomas Mann, American Culture, and the Making of a Modern Writer

This proposed book manuscript will examine the processes by which the work of the German modernist author Thomas Mann was translated, imitated, adapted and interpreted in the United States during the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. During this period Mann reached the zenith of his popular acclaim in America, selling hundreds of thousands of books. I will argue that over the course of these decades, a time in which his works were largely unavailable in Germany because of a ban by the Nazis, Mann became the first author in the history of world literature to write books in the conscious knowledge that they would have their main impact in translation. In this, he anticipates contemporary authors such as Milan Kundera, Haruki Murakami, or Orhan Pamuk.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Literature; Comparative Literature; German Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2015 – 12/31/2015


FA-57612-14

Elizabeth Stinette Bolman
Temple University (Philadelphia, PA 19122-6003)
The Red Monastery Church: Beauty and Asceticism in Upper Egypt

Conservation in Upper Egypt has revealed a unique and previously overlooked Late Antique church. This spectacular monument was built circa 500, at a site called the Red Monastery. Its dramatic triconch sanctuary includes tiers of niches framed by columns, supporting three huge semidomes. The interior is enlivened by a polychromed skin of painted figures and ornamental patterns, including the earliest surviving decorated apse in a church. I have been directing a conservation project there for the last decade, and have invited specialists in late antique monasticism, the Coptic language, the liturgy, archaeology and conservation to collaborate with me on an illustrated, multi-disciplinary volume on the church. The book will be a scholarly study but one that is also accessible to the general public. I have made significant progress on my editorial work, but not on my own contributions, which comprise about half of the volume. This fellowship application is for funding to complete them.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; History of Religion; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 6/30/2015


FA-57651-14

Daina Ramey Berry
University of Texas, Austin (Austin, TX 78712-0100)
The Value of Human Chattel from Preconception to Postmortem

The Price for their Pound of Flesh explores public and private market transactions and appraisals of enslaved men, women, and children in the American domestic slave trade from before birth to after death. Structurally, this study examines slave prices during enslaved people’s "lifecycle" including preconception, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, the senior years, and postmortem. An important component of the study is its illumination of bondpeople’s reaction to being appraised, bartered, and sold. The book explores slaves as commodities and as people and it looks at the monetary values assigned to slaves at different phases of their lives. This study relies on a database of 81,182 individual enslaved values from nine states, of which 72,335 reflect appraisals and 8,847 represent market prices. This book also introduces the Domestic Cadaver Slave Trade, where deceased slaves were illegally sold to physicians and medical schools for anatomical research.

[Grant products][Media coverage][Prizes]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$48,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57671-14

Matthew C. Rubery
Queen Mary University of London (London N10 1DN United Kingdom)
The Untold Story of the Talking Book

I am applying for an NEH Fellowship to complete a book manuscript titled "The Untold Story of the Talking Book." This will be the first scholarly book to examine the significance of recorded literature since Thomas Edison’s invention of the phonograph in 1877. My project traces the tradition of recorded literature from Edison’s phonographic books played on wax cylinders to talking books made in America and Britain for blinded soldiers returning from the First World War and, much later, the commercial audiobooks with which we are familiar today. Attending to the poetics and politics of recorded literature, this book contends that talking books are a distinct medium that have profoundly influenced the way we read.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies; Literature, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2015 – 12/31/2015


FA-57672-14

Marwan M. Kraidy
University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205)
The Tradition of Protest in Arab Uprisings

I seek an NEH Fellowship to complete a book demonstrating that the human body is the indispensable medium of creative insurrection, a nexus of discourse and action, a linchpin of media, politics and revolution in the Arab uprisings. Based on a wealth of primary Arabic-language materials collected during 13 months of field research, and informed by theories of cultural transgression and political humor, the proposed book uses a broadly comparative, transnational, and trans-historical approach to explore how creative insurgents, in life-threatening situations, create rebellious media, promote new social solidarities, and open alternative political imaginaries. I explain how acutely precarious conditions of cultural production shape political, aesthetic and rhetorical dimensions of revolutionary media, offering glimpses of nascent struggles and identities.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Communications; Communications; Interdisciplinary Studies, Other; Media Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 6/30/2016


FA-57676-14

David Fernando Garcia
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, NC 27599-1350)
Music, Africa, and Race in the Mid-20th Century

My project uncovers a crucial moment (1930s-1950s) in the history of the African diaspora when a group of Africans, Americans, and Cubans promulgated a revaluation of black music's African origins in order to sway entrenched attitudes in American and Cuban society towards race and the so-called Dark Continent. Not only anthropologists but musicians, dancers, and activists as well insisted that objectively understanding black music's trajectory from its origins in Africa to the New World would help solve the problem of racism and raise support for Africa's decolonization. The book argues that their work marked a significant shift in, but not a complete break from, the legacy of nineteenth-century evolutionism. When black music "sounded" its African origins, some perceived those performing it as embodying modern man's primitive and barbaric past, whereas for others it signaled an emergent black cultural nationalism that would anticipate black music's politicization in the 1960s.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
African American Studies; Latin American Studies; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$42,000 (approved)
$42,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 4/30/2015


FA-57677-14

Eugene C. Ulrich
University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN 46556-4635)
The First Critical Edition of II-Isaiah

The 2000-year-old Dead Sea Scrolls predate other biblical manuscripts by centuries and have revolutionized study of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament text. Their rich evidence makes possible through the multi-volume Oxford Hebrew Bible a much-improved, critically established edition, as all the Greek and Latin classics and the New Testament have. As Chief Editor of the Biblical Scrolls, I edited the official publication of the 20 Isaiah scrolls and thus was chosen to do the OHB II-Isaiah volume. Every biblical scholar knows that in the medieval textus receptus there are mistakes and secondary readings, yet those are to this day printed in the main text of the Hebrew Bible. The proposed OHB II-Isaiah volume offers the best possible critical text, and will make available in both print and digital form to Bible translators, biblical scholars, students, and eventually the public (through Bible translations) a superior edition of one of the most important and beloved books of the Bible.

Project fields:
History of Religion

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57682-14

James McHugh
University of Southern California (Los Angeles, CA 90089-0012)
Alcohol in Indian History and Religion

Alcohol has always been an ambiguous substance in India. Medieval texts often present intoxicating drinks as forbidden, addictive, and ritually impure. Yet, other sources describe alcohol as nourishing, delicious, and sexually arousing. I would use the period of this fellowship to complete the first draft of a book manuscript on the history of alcohol in early and medieval India. There are very few studies of alcohol in pre-modern India, and no monograph on the topic. Moreover, much previous scholarship focuses on prohibitions, ignoring the flourishing and complex drinking culture of early South Asia. Based on textual sources, my study will highlight the existence of this drinking culture; document the array of beverages and drinking practices; analyze indigenous theories of the religious, legal, medical, and aesthetic aspects of drinking, and discuss these South Asian materials from a comparative and theoretical perspective, together with studies of the global history of alcohol.

Project fields:
History of Religion; South Asian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2015 – 7/31/2016


FA-57722-14

Karen Desmond
University College Cork (Cork 02453-2700 United Kingdom)
The Meaning and Importance of Novelty in 14th-Century European Music

The literary theorist Terry Eagleton once observed: “All periods are modern, but not all of them live their experience in this mode.” Musicians and composers of the early fourteenth century did appear to live their experience in this way: their contemporaries labeled them as “the moderns” (“moderni”) and their compositional art as “new” (Ars nova) in opposition to that of the thirteenth century, which they called “old” (Ars vetus). I seek an NEH fellowship to write my book ‘Novarum rerum cupidus’: The Meaning of Novelty in Early Fourteenth-Century Music, which will explore novelty as a concept in music and other intellectual endeavours in Europe during the later Middle Ages, and identify the moments when fourteenth-century musicians sought out novelty, why they might have done so, and how their music was judged when they did.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History of Science; Medieval Studies; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57726-14

Gregory Blair Kaplan
University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Knoxville, TN 37916-3801)
Saul Levi Morteira, Spinoza's Enlightened Rabbi: A Critical Edition of Obstaculos y oposiciones contra la religion christiana

My project sheds new light on the intersection between Dutch Christian Hebraism and Jewish apologetic writing, and situates Saul Levi Morteira (c. 1596-1660), the rabbi and teacher of Baruch Spinoza (1632-77), as a bridge between rabbinic thought in the nascent Dutch Republic and the political concepts of Spinoza. The project consists of a translation and scholarly introduction to an unedited work composed in Spanish by Morteira around 1630, Obstáculos y oposiciones contra la religión christiana en Amsterdam (Arguments Against the Christian Religion in Amsterdam). I examine this work as a rabbinic manifestation of the respublica Hebraeorum (Hebrew republic) genre that reflects Morteira's awareness of (and possible participation in) early seventeenth century philosophical dialogues, and that speaks to his religious agenda by expressing a democratic motif that influenced the radical thought of Spinoza.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Comparative Religion; Jewish Studies; Philosophy of Religion

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$25,200 (approved)
$25,200 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 12/31/2015


FA-57747-14

Geoffrey Parker
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
A Biography of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500-1558)

I wish to complete a biography of the Emperor Charles V (1500-58) that combines previously unknown archival material with more familiar manuscript and printed sources in many languages. It will address three significant foci: (1) the process of political decision-making at the highest level; (2) the struggle of a perplexed but conscientious ruler to bridge multiple cultures; (3) the strategies used to create the first Transatlantic empire, one that would endure for four centuries. I have completed all the research, and drafted some sections. A year-long fellowship would allow me to complete the task and submit a manuscript in English to Yale University Press, and to a Spanish publisher with all quotations from Spanish sources in their original form. The popularity of biography combined with the appeal of the volume's themes ("decision-making," "bridging cultures," and "empire") should ensure that "Charles V" will appeal to general readers as well as to the academic community.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
European History; History, General; Latin American History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-57755-14

Iris Smith Fischer
University of Kansas, Lawrence (Lawrence, KS 66045-7505)
Charles Peirce and the Role of Aesthetic Expression in 19th-Century U.S. Philosophy and Semiotics

Why did the modern discipline of semiotics--the study of how phenomena come to have meaning--appear in US philosophy at the end of the 19th century? Which cultural contexts made it possible? This project is the first to present evidence that theatre practices putting the actor's craft on a scientific basis contributed crucially to early investigations in semiotic method. Philosopher Charles Peirce noted these practices' intellectual similarities to his own system of modern scientific inquiry. His semiotics might not have developed, though, if he had not engaged in theatrical activities that demonstrated the operations of performance in human cognition. Semiotic method assumes a material reality out of which meaning emerges in mediated forms. This study's greatest humanistic significance lies in revealing the role of performance in 19th-century models of inquiry and demonstrating that current work in the humanities on cognition is grounded in semiotic conceptions of embodied experience.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Literary Criticism; Theater History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57757-14

Carole Paul
University of California, Santa Barbara (Santa Barbara, CA 93106-0001)
The Museo Capitolino and the Origins of the Public Art Museum

Opened in 1734, the Museo Capitolino on the Capitoline Hill, or Campidoglio, in Rome was the earliest institution of international significance to manifest the most essential characteristics of the public art museum as it has evolved into the present day. Despite the obvious importance of the Capitoline, there exists no comprehensive account of this seminal institution, which preceded by some sixty years the opening of the Louvre, conventionally regarded as the archetypal public art museum. The book that I propose to write will examine the origin and growth of the Capitoline and its influence on the development of modern museums from the formation of the oldest civic collection on the Campidoglio in 1471 to 1869, when the city government of Rome was radically restructured with the unification of Italy.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 6/30/2015


FA-57763-14

Quito Jamé Swan
Howard University (Washington, DC 20059-0001)
Pauulu Kamarakafego, Indigenous Technology, and Global Black Power

All of Africa Is On My Back [sic]: Pauulu Kamarakafego, Indigenous Technology and the Global Black Power is a manuscript about the late Pauulu Roosevelt Browne Kamarakafego, who was a significant yet largely unheralded Black Power and Pan-Africanist organizer from Bermuda. Kamarakafego was also an internationally renowned ecological engineer, and UNESCO consultant on rural development, renewable energy and global sustainability. All of Africa aims to make sense of his remarkable ability to fuse his political world-views with his technical expertise, and to utilize indigenous technology in the service of Black Power, Pan-Africanism and decolonization. It offers a global narrative of Black Power that spans the Americas, Africa, Europe, Asia and the Pacific. By highlighting how diverse African Diasporic communities engaged Black Power, this project speaks to NEH's Bridging Cultures Initiative.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
African American History; African American Studies; International Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$33,600 (approved)
$33,600 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57771-14

Nancy E. Henry
University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Knoxville, TN 37916-3801)
Women and the 19th-Century Cultures of Investment

This project defines the cultures that emerged in response to the democratization of the stock market in nineteenth-century Britain when investing provided increased access to financial independence. Women voted in shareholder meetings, as they could not in political elections, and their role as investors complicates notions of separate domestic and public spheres. Women writers often invested income from their writing, becoming contributors to national and global economies, and their novels represent these economic networks in realistic detail while examining the intertwined economic and affective lives of characters. Analyzing evidence about real investors together with a wide range of fictional examples, I argue that investing was not just something women did in Victorian Britain; it was a distinctly modern way of thinking about independence, risk, global communities and the future in general.

Project fields:
British Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-57772-14

Heide Fehrenbach
Northern Illinois University (DeKalb, IL 60115-2828)
The Humanitarian Eye: Photography and the 20th-Century Quest to Save Innocents Abroad

For the past century, photographic images of vulnerable children have been commonly used to raise awareness and funds for humanitarian causes, yet the visual history of international humanitarian advocacy has eluded systematic study. This book project fills the gap by examining how a diverse range of individuals and organizations, based in Britain, Europe, and the U.S., deployed photographic media to stir emotion, shape social values, and stimulate response to distant suffering. Beginning in the late 19th century, it traces the evolution of visual tropes and narratives through different photographic technologies: from public slide lectures and polemical illustrated books and pamphlets, through photojournalism and television to the internet. Drawing upon archival, visual and published sources, it is an interpretative visual history of the rise and spread of humanitarian ethics articulated via the symbolic figure of the child.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Cultural History; History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-57785-14

Bonnie Costello
Boston University (Boston, MA 02215-1300)
The Plural of Us: Poetry and Community in Auden and Others

My subject is the communal possibilities of lyric in general, and as seen specifically in the many uses W.H. Auden makes of the first person plural. I proceed on two fronts: what sort of genre does the use of "we" produce under the burden of modern history, and how is Auden's case a particularly interesting one in this respect? I examine markers of plural voice in relation to lyric theory and practice, ethics and sociolinguistics. I focus on 1930-1950, when questions of the poet's responsibility to the public were especially urgent. This book studies "we" from its most constricted and intimate to its fully unbounded forms, while at the same time showing the movement and ambiguity within its range. Genre-oriented chapters break the pronoun down and offer theoretical accounts of its use through various examples in modern poetry. Auden case studies follow in each section. Throughout, I am concerned with how "we" absorbs questions of voice in democracy.

Project fields:
American Literature; British Literature; Literature, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2014 – 8/31/2015


FA-57813-14

Jocelyn Gladys Wogan-Browne
Fordham University (Bronx, NY 10458-9993)
Women, Multilingualism, and Literate Culture in Late Medieval England

This book-project offers a new account of women's literate culture in late medieval England and further establishes the multilingual nature of English medieval society. Unstudied women's texts and documents in the French of England are a major focus, but are treated in relation to English and some Latin texts. Historical factors differentiate women's multilingualism from men's, but gendering multilingualism does not create a separate feminised space. Rather, it opens up women's participation in a multilingual society's changing configurations of language, literature, and documentation. The book adds new texts and contexts to English literary history, explores the multilingual diversity of late medieval women's culture in hitherto unattempted ways, and shows that although ideas of mother-tongue have sustained fictions of nation, empire, and monolingual literary canons since the Middle Ages, medieval English culture complicates modern notions of nation and language.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
British Literature; French Language; Women's History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$25,200 (approved)
$25,200 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 1/31/2015


FA-57828-14

Arienne M. Dwyer
University of Kansas, Lawrence (Lawrence, KS 66045-7505)
Narratives and Metanarratives of the Silk Road

This book combines critical analysis with linguistics and ethnohistory to analyze stories told by and about the "Chinese Turkmens," the Salars, as a way of understanding ideologies of culture. The Salars are a formerly nomadic indigenous Central Asia group with a historical memory of the Silk Road. Alternately taking the perspective of the Salar storyteller, the Chinese anthropologist, and the Western explorer, this book explores the competing 20th century ideological uses of these texts by storytellers and outsiders. The study is part literary criticism and part case study of regional, national, religious, and cultural ideologies as revealed through Salar literature and what people today say about it. The book analyzes the content, stylistics, and ideologies of these stories and presents 20 sample texts, audio of which will be made freely available over the web. Criticism and translations are combined into one volume to encourage interdisciplinary exploration of the materials.

Project fields:
East Asian Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57835-14

Linda Gale Jones
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona 08002 Spain)
Muslims Living Under Christian Rule: Arabic Preaching in 13th-Century Spain

I am writing The Mudejar Preacher of Aragon: Defending the Faith, Mediating between Cultures, a book that edits, translates and studies a rare anonymous 13th-century manuscript of Arabic sermons from the Crown of Aragon (MS C/3 Bibl. TNT, Madrid). The preacher alludes to being "here in this peninsula under Christian domination," showing that he and his audience were Mudejars, Muslims living under Christian rule. Whereas most studies on the Mudejars rely on more abundant Christian archival sources, my book provides a firsthand account of the Mudejar experience. I argue that the preacher consoled and empowered his community by creating a moralizing discourse justifying and heroizing life as model Muslims in a Christian land. I will use the NEH grant to do the library research on Mudejar interactions with Christian missionaries and other Muslims needed to write two chapters. The resulting book will clarify the role of religion in helping Muslim minorities adapt to social change.

Project fields:
Arabic Literature; History of Religion; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$37,800 (approved)
$37,800 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 3/31/2015


FA-57836-14

Heekyoung Cho
University of Washington (Seattle, WA 98105-6613)
Translation's Forgotten History: Russian Literature, Japanese Mediation, and the Formation of Modern Korean Literature

Translation today is generally considered a lesser form of literary creation. It would sound implausible to us to include translations of foreign literary works into the canon of national literary histories. But the formative period of modern literature in East Asia offers us a different understanding of translation. During this period, around the turn of the twentieth century, translation was considered a creative and authentic activity that stood alongside other forms of prose writing in both fiction and non-fiction. Through examination of Korean intellectuals' translation of Russian prose through Japanese mediation, this project ultimately aims to reinstate translation as a practice that produces new meaning and generates change in society, and to rethink the way that modern literature developed in East Asia. In addition to translation and mediation studies, my research will contribute broadly to humanities scholarship in such fields as the history of writing and authorship.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
East Asian History; East Asian Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 6/30/2015


FA-57860-14

Eva Feder Kittay
SUNY Research Foundation, Stony Brook (Stony Brook, NY 11794-0001)
Philosophy and Cognitive Disability

Historical and contemporary philosophical accounts of persons, both with respect to what is due them (justice, an adequate level of care, full citizenship) and with respect to what is conducive to their good (requirements for well-being and a meaningful life), have given short shrift to individuals with significant cognitive disabilities. As a philosopher and a parent of a child with severe cognitive disabilities, the contradictions between philosophically normative conceptions of the human and those I have formed in my experiences with my disabled daughter have cried out for a resolution. The project, which will issue in a book, asks us to consider how certain traditional and contemporary questions in philosophy are reframed when we include people with serious cognitive disabilities within the scope of the inquiry and urges that actual relationships of care and love undermine a priori certitudes and thus enlarges our vision of who we are.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Interdisciplinary Studies, Other; Philosophy, Other

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57862-14

Marcy Ellen Schwartz
Rutgers University, New Brunswick (New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8559)
Reading Programs, Cultural Engagement, and Civic Participation in Latin America: A Comparative Approach

In Public Pages I study reading programs in Latin American cities that aim to redefine cultural engagement and civic participation and rely on urban infrastructure. My comparative approach examines programs in the last two decades in cities in Colombia, Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Public reading initiatives invest in reading for both social and literary value, use public space, distribute creative writing to a mass public, encourage collective reading, and provide access to literature in unconventional arenas. To enrich public space and human interactions, several cities distribute free books on public transit. Cartonera publishers bind books in recycled cardboard to create inexpensive editions. Postdictatorship libraries of banned books offer public access and spaces of commemoration. This interdisciplinary project contributes to Latin American literary, urban and cultural studies, and public policy, with implications for education, literacy, public safety and political agency.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 6/30/2016


FA-57881-14

Gary C. Hatfield
University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205)
Early Modern Models of the Eye, Vision, and the Seeing Subject

This project challenges a widely accepted narrative according to which the recognition of subjectivity, binocularity, and embodiment in vision was distinctive of nineteenth-century sensory physiology. This narrative views early modern visual theory as dominated by a camera obscura model of vision as objective, geometrical, monocular, and disembodied. The project offers new interpretations of Descartes and Berkeley and delves into the early modern optical tradition and its transmission into artists' perspective manuals. It denies that theorists typically modeled visual experience itself on the camera obscura and seeks to show that theorists predominantly held depth and distance to be immediately experienced through embodied mechanisms. It is part of a larger historical and conceptual project that challenges standard descriptions of how depth and distance are experienced phenomenally by re-analyzing the relationship between perspective images and the experience of a world in depth.

Project fields:
History of Philosophy

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$25,200 (approved)
$25,200 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 12/31/2015


FA-57894-14

Paul Douglas Griffiths
Iowa State University (Ames, IA 50011-2000)
Local Governments and the Gathering of Information in England, 1550-1700

Inside Government is about the development of local information cultures in towns and villages across sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England and the increasing reliance of local government on what we term "surveillance" today. It is the first full study of grass roots surveillance in relation to histories of the long-term decline of public/visual representations and articulations of authority, intellectual and administrative cultures of exactness, and deeper faith in institutions to provide remedies for all maladies from crime to sickness. Public representations of authority while still important in 1700 were little-by-little playing second fiddle to more interior forms of administration on a long and twisting road that brings us to where we are today. As such it has significance for how we today approach the historical development of humanistic concerns like subjectivity, sensitivity, character reform, penal cultures, government, and individual freedoms since 1550.

Project fields:
British History; Cultural History; Urban History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-57899-14

Marsha Lee Weisiger
University of Oregon (Eugene, OR 97403-5219)
Rivers in the American West and the Idea of Wildness: An Environmental History

The River Runs Wild will explore the environmental history of "hybrid rivers"--dammed streams that are simultaneously natural and artificial--in the American West to understand the multiple meanings of wild-ness from the early nineteenth century to the present. Eight selected rivers in the Northwest and the Southwest will allow me to elucidate the meanings of wildness--ecologically, intellectually, and experientially--over time. The existence of wild nature is an unexamined premise of much environmental history, conservation biology, and ecological restoration, one that warrants closer attention. Even in the most constructed environments, an autonomous "wild nature" asserts itself, while those places we imagine as wild are often less than they seem. During the project period, I will complete the archival and primary-source research, draft two book chapters, and prepare two articles for publication in major journals.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History, Other; U.S. History; U.S. Regional Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 6/30/2015


FA-57922-14

Emily Zazulia
University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA 15260-6133)
Concept and Virtuality in 15th-Century Music

The notation of 15th-c. music often prescribes transformations of written material to be realized only in performance—from slowing down a melodic line to turning it backwards or upside-down, or even omitting certain notes or rests. Such elaborate instructions, which appear by turns unnecessary and confounding, challenge traditional conceptions of music writing that understand notation as an incidental consequence of the desire to record sound. My book accounts for how visual priorities complemented musical interests. Beyond the choirbook, I situate these notational practices in a culture of enigmatic writing that saw newfound interest in cryptography, emblems, and hieroglyphs. These examples attest to a widespread fascination with a semiotics of writing that balanced intentional concealment and eventual revelation. In viewing notation as a complex technology that did more than record sound, my project changes the way we think about music's literate traditions in the early Renaissance.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2015 – 12/31/2015


FA-57949-14

Craig Flournoy
Southern Methodist University (Dallas, TX 75205)
The New York Times, the Black Press, and the Epic Battle to Report the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.

A study of how the mainstream media, particularly the New York Times, and the black press covered the civil rights revolution (1947-1968) by examining and comparing their reporting of ten landmark events. My work challenges accepted views of civil rights journalism; finds the black press provided superior coverage in the 1940s and 1950s by interviewing blacks and questioning the official white version of events, approaches later used by young white journalists; shows mainstream publications gave unprecedented attention to race stories as early as 1947 but the Times' coverage was handicapped by the racial prejudice of its publisher and managing editor; explores the cultural divide between white and black reporters and the profound changes wrought by the civil rights revolution from dismantling social barriers such as Jim Crow laws to fundamentally altering the journalism and newsrooms of formerly racist publications north and south.

Project fields:
Media Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2015 – 7/31/2016


FA-57954-14

Barbara Haggh-Huglo
University of Maryland, College Park (College Park, MD 20742-5141)
Of Abbeys and Aldermen: Music in Ghent to 1559

In a three-part book, the first comprehensive study of music in pre-modern Ghent, I demonstrate that profound changes in European history occurred with unusual intensity there, with music an essential ingredient. A first part on the two Benedictine abbeys traces their music from Carolingian reforms to the adoption of the Roman liturgy at St. Bavo's, transformed into a cathedral. A second part assesses hundreds of records of benefactions for music in the virtually complete run of Ghent city council registers, with analyses of benefactors, their musical preferences, locations of performance, performers, and cost, and statistics showing the rise and fall in use of different music. This nearly complete reconstruction of church music in late medieval Ghent will be made freely available as an online interactive database. Part three describes the "soundscape" of the city's churches and streets, using local music identified in manuscripts or through archives.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Medieval History; Music History and Criticism; Renaissance History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 5/31/2016


FA-57961-14

Karen B. Stern
CUNY Research Foundation, Brooklyn College (Brooklyn, NY 11210-2850)
Jewish Graffiti in the Ancient Mediterranean World

Hundreds of examples of ancient graffiti of Jewish cultural provenance have been discovered in significant archaeological sites throughout the Mediterranean. To this point, historians have ignored these graffiti, which have appeared too commonplace for serious consideration. My research project, 'Graffiti and the Forgotten Jews of Late Antiquity,' argues, by contrast, that a systematic review of graffiti can illuminate otherwise lost evidence for the diversity of Jewish cultures in the Greco-Roman world. Receipt of an NEH fellowship would allow me to complete two penultimate phases of this research: first, to travel to specific archaeological sites to complete my photography of graffiti for a project database, and second, to complete drafts of the final three chapters of my related monograph-in-progress, tentatively entitled, 'Writing on the Wall: Graffiti and the Forgotten Jews of Late Antiquity,' which is presently under contract review with a major university press.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Ancient History; History of Religion; Jewish Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
2/1/2014 – 1/31/2015


FA-57970-14

Margaret Abruzzo
University of Alabama (Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0001)
Good People and Bad Behavior: Changing Views of Sin, Evil, and Moral Responsibility in the 18th and 19th Centuries

My planned book explores how Americans rethought wrongdoing in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as many traditional frameworks for explaining sin--such as blaming passions, self-interest, or natural depravity--came under attack. Difficulties explaining wrongdoing helped drive an intellectual wedge between evil and "ordinary" sin; moralists contrasted good people’s "mistakes" with evildoers' intentional villainy. Historians have charted changing ideas about particular vices, but they have been less interested in shifting views of what constitutes a moral failing, why human beings commit them, or how people could understand themselves as flawed but not evil. By historicizing concepts of sin, my research intersects with questions in philosophy and theology about human nature, sin, and the problem of evil; with literary studies on seduction novels and other narratives of wrongdoing; and with interdisciplinary work on the gendered construction of morality.

Project fields:
Intellectual History; U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-57992-14

Benjamin Steege
Columbia University (New York, NY 10027-7922)
Musical Values and the Question of Psychology, 1890–1960

This book is a critical history of the relationship between musical aesthetics and psychology. The idea that music is most truthfully discussed in psychological terms has just recently come to seem self-evident. It has even been suggested that only through the insights of mind-oriented theories of music do we attain a truly “humanist” understanding of the art. This study, by contast, has two broad aims: 1) to make the dominant public status of music-psychological discourse appear somewhat less inevitable by retelling the story of how things came to be this way; 2) to emphasize how deeply entwined music psychology has always been with ethical concerns, including assumptions about the moral status of the “subjects” psychology has historically imagined. Highlighting historically rejected alternatives from early phenomenology to Marxist critical theory to postwar semiotics, this account throws fresh light on our assumptions about the role of psychology in aesthetic thought.

Project fields:
Aesthetics; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 6/30/2015


FA-58006-14

Sarah W. Tracy
University of Oklahoma, Norman (Norman, OK 73019-3003)
Health Revolutionary: Ancel Keys, Science, War, and the American Diet

This project is a biography of American scientist, health advocate, and writer Ancel Keys, who developed the K Ration during WWII, conducted starvation and rehabilitation research to help guide postwar re-feeding efforts, and introduced Americans to the health benefits of the low-fat and the Mediterranean diets through popular cookbooks. More than any other scientist Keys helped shape 20th-c. American eating habits. His life offers a compelling narrative anchor to discuss larger extra-personal developments within 20th-century American society--within areas as diverse as medicine, public health, the food industry, eating habits, religious pacifism, geopolitics, and popular culture. Keys' story offers a significant point of convergence for the fields of American history, the history of medicine and public health, and food studies--an individual life in dynamic equilibrium with some of the most significant changes taking place in American and European science, politics, and health.

Project fields:
American Studies; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine; History of Science

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-58013-14

Catherine Maria Sama
University of Rhode Island (Kingston, RI 02881-1967)
The Correspondence of 18th-Century Venetian Artist Rosalba Carriera (1673-1757): A Translation and Edition

Commissioned by the editors of "The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe" book series (Victoria College, University of Toronto), my book will be the first fully annotated edition in English translation of the correspondence of the Venetian artist, Rosalba Carriera, the most famous female artist in early 18th-century Europe. I am also building an open-access, searchable database of the letters. Carriera's vast correspondence with prominent European patrons, princes, fellow artists, and collectors provide scholars with insight into the politics of patronage, the quotidian aspects of artists' lives and work, and the intersections of literary and artistic worlds in the first half of the 18th century. It is a unique source of information on the ways a female artist crossed the gender boundaries of her society to make a name for herself in a male-dominated profession. This project will make an important contribution to Women's History, Art History, 18th-Century Studies, Digital Humanities.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Gender Studies; Women's History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-58032-14

Michelle Ursula Campos
University of Florida (Gainesville, FL 32611-0001)
Religion, Law, and Intercommunal Relations in Ottoman and British Palestine

My book analyzes changing patterns of residential integration and segregation along religious and ethnic lines in Jerusalem from the late 19th century until the eve of the Second World War. Drawing on extensive archival material and approaches at the intersection of urban history, geography, law, religious studies, and urban sociology, at the core of my study lie questions about how this mixed urban space was shared and contested, both on the level of ideas (about ethnic, religious, civic, and national communities) as well as in daily practice due to political and economic exigencies. By examining census and property records, city council minutes, court cases, religious rulings, newspaper accounts, and memoirs, I address the ways in which urban residents mediated countervailing pressures in a shared urban space. While the bulk of my project is devoted to Jerusalem, the most diverse city in Palestine, I also look to other mixed cities in the Middle East for comparative perspective.

Project fields:
Near and Middle Eastern History; Urban History; Urban Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-58050-14

Jessica Anne Krug
George Washington University (Washington, DC 20052-0001)
Politics Outside the State in Kisama, Angola, and the Americas, c. 1500-1698

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, West Central Africans drew from differing intellectual and political traditions to mediate the unprecedented violence unleashed by the Portuguese. My project, Fugitive Modernities: Politics Outside the State in Kisama, Angola, and the Americas, c. 1500-1698, focuses on the strategies of those in Kisama, Angola, who rejected state politics, resisting the incursions of both African states and the Portuguese as well as nomadic bands of Imbangala, whose practices were themselves radical responses to upheaval, and on those fugitives in the Americas who articulated Kisama identities as part of their political discourse. Based on archival, oral historical, linguistic, and ethnographic research in Angola, Brazil, Colombia, Portugal, and Spain, this project represents the first effort to incorporate pre-colonial African intellectual and political histories into a finely grained, historicized study of early modernity and the trans-Atlantic world.

Project fields:
African History; Intellectual History; Latin American History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-58054-14

Brigid Cohen
New York University (New York, NY 10012-1019)
Musical Migration and the Global City: New York, 1947-1965

This book is both a study of interdisciplinary avant-gardes and an exploration of migration and citizenship in the early Cold War, with a focus on New York as a center of transnational exchange. After World War II, New York's musical communities sustained a concentration of uprooted thinkers who confronted questions about citizenship, plurality, empire, commerce, and national violence. This study orients itself around key musical figures in these debates who helped to secure creative exchanges across the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Three experimentalists serve as exemplary cases: Egyptian-born electronic and concert-music composer Halim El-Dabh (b. 1921), jazz composer Charles Mingus (1922-1979), and performance artist Yoko Ono (b. 1933)--alongside many other musicians and artists with whom they were connected. This book is the first study to explore a full range of musical avant-gardes as constituted by, and critically responsive to, post-war processes of globalization.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Cultural History; History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2014 – 8/31/2015


FA-58055-14

Kenneth Veld Gouwens
University of Connecticut (Storrs, CT 06269-9000)
Defining the Human in the Renaissance

This project investigates how Renaissance thinkers assessed differences between humans and apes (a premodern category including monkeys). In the 1500s, apes were invoked frequently in discussions of humans, but by the mid-17th century such comparisons were viewed as less meaningful. Individual chapters treat learned discourse on anatomy, literary imitation, human and non-human dignity, evidence from art, descriptions of recently encountered simians and peoples, and categorizations of apes in encyclopedic natural histories. An epilogue explores how Renaissance discussions of apes and human beings both anticipate present-day debates about the boundaries of the human and help to elucidate what is at stake in those debates.

Project fields:
Renaissance History; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 6/30/2015


FA-58062-14

Matthew Dean Gerber
University of Colorado, Boulder (Boulder, CO 80302-7046)
Property, Kinship, and Race in the 18th-Century French Atlantic

This project investigates cases of transatlantic litigation in an effort to explain the development of distinctive jurisprudential traditions within early modern French colonies. At the same time, by tracing a story of transatlantic legal circulation, the project also seeks to illuminate how colonialism and imperialism eventually undermined traditional European conceptions of property, kinship, and identity. By probing the clash between colonial and metropolitan conceptions of property, kinship, and race, the project seeks to shed new light on the intersection of the social and the political within the broader context of early modern French colonialism and imperialism.

Project fields:
European History; History, Other; Latin American History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2014 – 7/31/2015


FA-58063-14

Sonali Thakkar
University of Chicago (Chicago, IL 60637-5418)
Race, Religion, and Holocaust Memory in the Literature of Postwar European Diasporic Communities

My book examines the significance of Holocaust memory to the literature and culture of postwar Europe's new racialized diasporic communities, comprising labor migrants and former colonial subjects. Through analysis of Anglophone, Francophone, and German-language works, I argue that writers addressing diasporic culture in this period see Europe's violence against the Jews as a paradigm for the limits of diasporic life and the possibility of cohabitation in contemporary Europe. I thus contribute to the emergent field of transnational and comparative studies of Holocaust memory but with several innovations: deploying theories of affect and affiliation drawn from queer and gender studies to interpret the identification with Jewishness that some of my authors express, analyzing race comparatively to show how religious difference disrupts the notion of race as skin color, and incorporating work about the colonized or Arab Jew rather than establishing "Jewish" and "colonized" as binary terms.

Project fields:
Comparative Literature; Jewish Studies; Literature, Other

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2014 – 6/30/2015


FA-56970-13

Susan Wright Rather
University of Texas, Austin (Austin, TX 78712-0100)
The Formation of American Artistic Identity in the Late Colonial and Early National Era

During an NEH fellowship year, I will complete the manuscript for "The American School: Artist and Identity in the Late Colonial and Early National Era" (est. 200,000 words). Four polished chapters are in hand but two (possibly three, as the work develops) require more research and writing, while the introductory text is still embryonic and epilogue yet to be started. While my study of artists' status has already resulted in a number of publications, the book does not simply collect that work. Instead, I have been reconfiguring and expanding previous essays, bringing the material together with substantial new scholarship into a cohesive whole of longer narrative arc. Recurring themes across the book include artisanry and professionalism; practice and theory; regional, colonial, and national identities; the democratization of art and portrait painting as a political metaphor; artistic nationalism and naturalism as a presumed American idiom; and the nascent history of American art.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Arts, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$47,920 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 8/31/2014


FA-57026-13

Jeffrey D. Needell
University of Florida (Gainesville, FL 32611-0001)
Afro-Brazilian Political Mobilization and the Abolition of Slavery in Rio de Janeiro, 1879-1888

While the Abolitionist movement in Brazil has formed the substance of memoirs, participant histories, revisionist analyses, and, lately, subaltern and cultural studies, its essentially political nature has been poorly understood. None of the three standard monographs, published in 1966, 1971, and 1972, satisfactorily integrates the movement with the formal, elite politics of the era. Indeed, focusing upon the oppressed, upon the movement itself, and often shaped by essentially materialist interpretation, abolitionist scholarship then and over the last forty years has failed to demonstrate precisely the articulation among the Afro-Brazilian masses, the movement, and the parliamentary government of Brazil’s monarchy (1822-89). I propose to remedy this with a book concerning nineteenth-century popular political mobilization, particularly the Abolitionist movement and the role of Afro-Brazilian political agency in that struggle (1879-1888).

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57041-13

Tara Zahra
University of Chicago (Chicago, IL 60637-5418)
Emigration from Eastern Europe and the Making of the Free World, 1889-1989

My project is a history of emigration from East Central Europe to the "West" from 1889-1989. I am particularly concerned with how debates about and experiences of emigration shaped regimes of border control, the development of social policies, and ideals of freedom within East Central Europe and beyond. After 1945, the "captivity" of East Europeans behind the Iron Curtain became one of the century's most potent symbols of totalitarianism. I argue that the Iron Curtain did not simply descend from above in 1948, however. It was the culmination of a century-long campaign by East European governments to curtail emigration, often in the name of humanitarian values and demographic power. The movement of millions of Europeans from East to West ultimately became a catalyst for a century of debate about the very meaning and location of the "free world."

Project fields:
European History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57060-13

Benjamin Heber Johnson
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (Milwaukee, WI 53211-3153)
A History of the American Conservation Movement

Escaping the Dark, Gray City offers a fundamentally new account of the American conservation movement. The first book-length synthetic history of conservation in fifty years, this book argues that conservation was a broad social movement that permanently altered the national landscape in ways that reflected both the perils and possibilities of the larger Progressivism of which it was a critical part. Conservationists understood themselves to be restoring a spiritually renewing and materially sustainable relationship with a nature made vulnerable by the unprecedented power of humanity. Conservation involved not only the remote forests and wildernesses that epitomized nature for many Americans, but also dense industrial cities, leafy suburbs, and private homes; it was as much about cultural revitalization as formal politics.

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2013 – 5/31/2014


FA-57071-13

Bryan J. Cuevas
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)
Translation and Analysis of "The Life of Ra Lotsawa," a 13th-Century Biography of a Tibetan Buddhist Saint

I am completing the first full translation and study of a 13th-century Tibetan-language biography of one of Tibet's most notorious Buddhist saints, the "lord of sorcerers" Ra Lotsawa (b. 1016). Ra Lotsawa is the paradigmatic sinister yogin, who deployed his supernatural abilities to best his competitors and to gain worldly power and spiritual influence. His classic biography is one of the longest surviving Buddhist life narratives in Tibetan literature and is widely popular. Buddhist sorcery has been a legitimate expression of religious and political action throughout Tibetan history. Yet scholarship has tended to separate the religious from the magical, the political from the religious, and to dismiss the role of magic in Buddhist history and institution building. My book will advance discourse in the humanities about significant links between religion and violence, magic and politics, and the role of religious biography in the construction of sociopolitical identities.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Asian Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-57087-13

Ashli White
University of Miami (Coral Gables, FL 33146-2503)
Visual and Material Culture in the Atlantic World during the Age of Revolutions, 1765-1810

My project examines the visual and material culture of the age of revolutions (1765-1810). Most historians of this period emphasize the importance of written texts in the transmission of revolutionary ideas that motivated people to action, but other ways of conveying views and information complemented print culture. Illustrations, staged performances, wax renditions of revolutionary figures, and even miniature guillotines circulated throughout the Atlantic, spreading news about events in North America, Europe, and the Caribbean. My investigation based on these materials will offer new insight into how people learned about, interpreted, promoted, and sought to profit from this revolutionary moment.

Project fields:
American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 8/31/2014


FA-57104-13

Michael G. Peletz
Emory University (Atlanta, GA 30322-1018)
Transformations in Islamic Law in Malaysia, Late 1980s-Present

The main objectives of this project are to analyze anthropological, archival, and other data bearing on transformations in Islamic law (sharia) in the Muslim-majority nation of Malaysia from the late 1980s to the present, and to prepare a book that describes and interprets continuities and transformations in Malaysia’s Islamic judiciary in relation to dynamics of Islamization, corporatization, and globalization. The more general goals are to examine the Malaysian case in comparative historical perspective, with regard to Indonesian and Egyptian material in particular, and to address important empirical and theoretical issues in the social scientific and humanistic literature concerning the ways that Malays and other Muslims engage ethical norms and deal with law, discipline, and disorder in a rapidly globalizing world.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Anthropology

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57106-13

Scott D. Jenkins
University of Kansas, Lawrence (Lawrence, KS 66045-7505)
Friedrich Nietzsche and the Problem of Pessimism

This project examines Friedrich Nietzsche's connection to the tradition of philosophical pessimism that stretches from Greek tragedy to modern figures such as Giacomo Leopardi and Arthur Schopenhauer, and on to the present day. Philosophical pessimism is the view that our lives are of much less value to us than we commonly assume. This study will argue that the account of pessimism and tragedy in ancient Athens that Nietzsche provides in his first book, "The Birth of Tragedy," is merely the first step in a lifelong engagement with pessimism. The book resulting from this study will explain how Nietzsche's doctrines of will to power and eternal recurrence reconfigure the problem of pessimism and examine the solutions Nietzsche provides to this problem. The result will be a radically new account of Nietzsche as a philosopher whose intellectual life was guided by the single problem of the value of life.

Project fields:
Philosophy, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57116-13

Loren Diller Lybarger
Ohio University, Athens (Athens, OH 45701-1361)
The Role of Religion in Shaping Identity among Diaspora Palestinians in Chicago

Discussion of religion among Palestinians in the United States emphasizes either links to Islamist groups like Hamas or the abuse of their civil rights as Arabs and Muslims. Both approaches ignore the processes of identity formation internal to the community itself. This book project offers the first detailed ethnography of how Muslim and Christian Palestinians in the US have reconfigured their identities in response to processes of religious return since the early 1990s. Initial findings indicate that religious and secular tendencies interacting across gender, class, sect, and generation have produced new hybrid orientations at the individual level. These findings challenge the notion that Palestinians merely reproduce the global Islamic revival. They also show that concepts of "secular" and "religious" remain heuristically valuable despite recent criticisms of these notions. I seek a NEH Fellowship to complete the fieldwork and begin write up of the initial chapters of my monograph.

Project fields:
Religion, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57141-13

Sandra M. Gustafson
University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN 46556-4635)
Conflict and Democracy in Classic American Fiction

"Conflict and Democracy in Classic American Fiction" analyzes major conflicts in American history and the quest for democratic means to resolve those conflicts as portrayed in classic works of American fiction. This project builds on my previous studies of civic discourse and deliberative democracy, is informed by recent work in peace studies, and responds to the Bridging Cultures initiative. "Conflict and Democracy" begins with an introduction titled "Regeneration through Nonviolence," which deconstructs today's culture of conflict and presents a counter narrative about American fiction and culture. There are chapters on Cooper, Stowe, and the early peace movement; Adams, Sinclair and Progressivism; the war novels of Hemingway and Mailer; Ellison and Bellow on Tocquevillean democracy; and postmodern democracy in Silko and Didion. I conclude with the Bengali-American writers Bharati Mukherjee and Jumpha Lahiri, who rewrite "The Scarlet Letter" and respond to "Midnight's Children."

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57142-13

Christopher Faraone
University of Chicago (Chicago, IL 60637-5418)
Poetic Traditions in Homeric Epic (the Iliad and the Odyssey)

I intend to write a book that will argue that the poets of the Iliad and the Odyssey knew, used and even parodied shorter hexametrical genres (for example: oracles and laments) and that knowledge of this feature of Homeric poetics allows us important insights into a variety of Homeric scenes, for example Helen's use of pharmaka to assuage the grief of her dinner guests or Circe's instructions to Odysseus.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Classics

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$42,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57151-13

Richmond Tyler Barbour
Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR 97331-8565)
The Voyage of Jacobean England's Greatest Merchant Ship, "Trades Increase": A Microstudy of 17th-Century Global Capitalism

The tragic voyage of Jacobean England's greatest merchant ship--a magnificent ruin burned to the waterline in Java as the crew succumbed to tropical diseases--and the ensuing controversy over Eastern trade epitomize the ambitions and limitations of the East India Company's founding generation. The full story of the voyage and its public and corporate texts has not been told. Published journals and most summaries were produced by scholars who endorsed British expansionism and saw the early failures as episodes in a grand imperial narrative, not as symptoms of inherent vulnerability. My archival work has uncovered manuscripts enabling the responsible delivery of this compelling story to post-colonial readers: a "micro-history" that illuminates the long view of global capitalism and corporate power. The voyage manifested destabilizing divisions of interest that resonate in the globalized economy of the 21st century.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Renaissance Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-57168-13

Hugh Bayard Urban
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
The Life, Teachings, and Global Religious Following of Indian Mystic Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (1931-1990)

I am requesting an NEH Fellowship in order to complete a book manuscript on the life, teachings and religious following of the controversial Indian guru known in his youth as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh and in his later years simply as "Osho" (1931-1990). During the fellowship period, I will be engaged in ethnographic research at the Osho International Foundation in Pune and archival research at library collections in Pune, Mumbai, and New Delhi in India and in Antelope, Oregon, in the U.S. Arguably the first truly global guru of the twentieth century, Bhagwan Shree Ranjneesh, began his movement in India in the 1960s, then created an enormously wealthy and controversial spiritual center in Oregon in the 1980s, and then finally returned to India to establish a new, explicitly global spiritual resort in Pune that still thrives today. As such, the Osho movement offers unique insights into the broader transformations of religious ideas in the context of globalization and late capitalism.

Project fields:
Comparative Religion

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$25,200 (approved)
$25,200 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 6/30/2013


FA-57183-13

Nancy K. MacLean
Duke University (Durham, NC 27705-4677)
A History of Market-Based Policies in the United States

Suppose that something long understood as an ending was also a beginning. What if national stories told in isolation from one another were in fact connected, and in ways that illuminate core issues of our time? The Privatization Project shows that Massive Resistance to the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision was the chrysalis from which the market first regained popularity over government as the best decision-maker and provider for common needs. Through an accidental discovery followed by extensive archival and other original research, I have unearthed ties between states’ rights activists and leading free-market economists that emerged in the late 1950s and traced their subsequent history of alliance building with sometimes surprising partners over the ensuing half century. Where existing works on neoliberalism begin in the 1970s with crises of profitability and public finance, my work excavates the pre-history of early and ongoing anti-democratic motives and goals.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57185-13

Scott Card McGill
Rice University (Houston, TX 77005-1827)
A Translation and Introduction to Evangeliorum libri IV (The Four Books of the Gospels) by the 4th-Century Poet Juvencus

My book provides the first English translation ever of Juvencus' Evangeliorum libri IV, or "The Four Books of the Gospels." A poem in roughly 3200 dactylic hexameter lines dating to ca. 330 CE, Juvencus' text recasts the gospel narrative in verse form. It is the first poem on a Christian topic to appear in the western tradition. Juvencus' great innovation was to adapt the meter and the modes of expression and thought found in classical epic poetry to Christian content. Juvencus' poem is a good example of how early Christians assimilated the Greco-Roman classical past to forge a hybrid, classico-Christian literary tradition. This is part of the broader practice in ancient Christianity of assimilating and adapting aspects of the philosophy, art, literature, and religions of Greece and Rome. My book, which includes an extensive introduction dealing with Juvencus' cultural and historical context, casts light upon this period of change and exchange.

Project fields:
Classics

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-57195-13

Scott Cameron Levi
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
Central Asia on the Frontier of Empire: The Khanate of Khoqand, 1709-1876

The aim of this project is to produce the first book to focus direct attention on the ways that early modern Central Asia actively engaged with the globalizing world. The book will also represent the first English-language history of the Khanate of Khoqand (1798-1876), an extraordinarily dynamic state that emerged during the eighteenth century in eastern Uzbekistan's Ferghana Valley. The study will analyze ways that global political, economic, technological and environmental developments influenced life in early modern Central Asia and contributed to the rise, and fall, of Khoqand. It will also illustrate the ways that Central Asians influenced the policies of their much larger imperial neighbors on the Eurasian periphery. The final product will be aimed at an audience that includes scholars and students with interests in Central Asian, Russian, Chinese and world history, as well as the study of comparative empire and the history of globalization.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57197-13

Christopher Dunn
Tulane University (New Orleans, LA 70118-5698)
The Contracultura: Alternative Arts and Emergent Social Movements under Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-1985

This project will contribute to an emerging body of scholarly literature that addresses diverse forms of cultural expression during period of military rule in Brazil (1964-85). I focus on what in Brazil is known as the contracultura, a complex set of ideas and practices about artistic creation, political action, and social transformation that emerged within the left-wing opposition. I will focus on connections between avantgarde art, experimental literature, popular culture, and new social movements of the 1970s. I analyze a wide variety of sources, including the work of visual artists, writers, filmmakers, and pop musicians, as well as mainstream and alternative journalism, police records, and government documents, in order to reveal overlooked dimensions of artistic, social, and political resistance to authoritarian rule.

[Grant products][Prizes]

Project fields:
Latin American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57203-13

Priya Satia
Stanford University (Stanford, CA 94305-2004)
The Military Economy of the 18th-Century British Imperial State

I use the British gun industry as a window onto the relationship between 18th-century war and the industrial revolution. My hypothesis is that state demand critically stimulated an industrial mode of production and that contemporaries were alive to the tie between state and economy. I focus on the Galton firm of Birmingham, the single largest gun firm, supplying both the state and private custom--including slave traders. As Quakers, the Galtons wrestled publicly with the morality of gun-making, illuminating contemporary debates about the relationship between the complex imperial state and the economy. The gun trade’s close ties to other metallurgical and financial enterprises and its particular role in property crime (rather than as a weapon of passion) in the 18th-century culture of violence also suggest deeper ties between war and economy than are recognized. I use cultural and quantitative techniques, from representations of the gun in travel accounts to data on government purchases.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
British History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 8/31/2014


FA-57231-13

Steven Michael Friedson
University of North Texas (Denton, TX 76203-5017)
Music as Ritual in African Culture

"Being Musical" is the third book of a trilogy on African music and ritual. The central question of the book, as with the entire trilogy, is: How are peak musical experiences in ritual settings possible? Anthropologists and other researchers dealing with ritual studies typically treat music as epiphenomenal, something accompanying other more important ritual activity, rendering silent an important dimension of ritual praxis. Yet, musical experience in rituals found throughout Africa is not ancillary to the proceedings; for much of the ritual time, it is the proceedings. In order to gain an ontological insight into this important dimension of ritual, one must delve further into the musical, or else risk mistaking partial descriptions for more complete ones. To access such a world requires more than ethnography, more than ethnomusicology; it calls for an ontomusicology that engages music as ritual and ritual as music.

Project fields:
Anthropology

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$29,400 (approved)
$29,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 1/31/2014


FA-57237-13

Dorothy L. Hodgson
Rutgers University, New Brunswick (New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8559)
Maasai Struggles for Gender Justice in Tanzania

My book compares the content, form, effectiveness and experience of customary law, "women’s human rights," collective protest, and other approaches to challenging injustices through a case study of Maasai pastoralists in Tanzania. It draws on historical and ethnographic evidence to analyze the gendered assumptions, experiences, and consequences of the implementation of shifting legal regimes for not just relations between and among Maasai men and women, but for broader Maasai ideas and practices of justice, respect and morality. Tracing the continuities and changes in ideas, practices and experiences of gender, justice, morality, and personhood over time complicates abstract debates about law, justice and culture; illuminates the parallels between colonial and contemporary legal interventions; demonstrates the importance of more expansive understandings of gender justice: and challenges the continued disparagement of the practices, perspectives and power of illiterate, rural women.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Anthropology

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57239-13

Deborah G. Tor
University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN 46556-4635)
The Great Seljuq Sultanate and the Formation of Islamic Civilization, 1040-1194

The period in which the Great Seljuq Dynasty (AD 1040-1194) presided over the Middle East, from Syria to Central Asia, was one of the most formative in Islamic history. During this era, which inaugurated a millennium of Turco-Mongol rule in the Middle East, many of the final contours of the religious, political, and social institutions of classical Islamic society took shape, with ramifications extending to the present. My proposed book will be the first to trace many of the key developments of the Seljuq era, including the appearance and concept of a universal Sultanate, which challenged the political authority of the caliphate and caused the reshaping of Islamic political theory; the flowering of Islamic chivalric ideals and their literary expression; the tying of the Sunni religious clerics and mystics to the government; the new and prominent political role of Seljuq women; the conflict between Turkmen nomadic norms and Perso-Islamic ones; and the proliferation of native militias.

Project fields:
Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57256-13

Steven Howard Hahn
University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205)
A Nation Without Borders: The United States and Its World, 1830-1910

A book-length study of U.S. history that reconfigures the customary framework and narrative by focusing on the complex relationship between empire- and nation-building, by making the trans-Mississippi West central to the story, by considering the history of the South and the West in close embrace, and by placing the American experience in a very broad international context. Beginning and ending in Mexico--first with the Texas Revolution of the 1830s and then with the Mexican Revolution of the 1910s--the book challenges the ideas that an American nation-state emerged in the early national period and that American politics and political economy developed chiefly along North/South sectional lines. It argues instead that a nation-state only emerged during the Civil War and Reconstruction, on the ashes of failed imperial ambitions and as the federal government attempted to extend its authority over the South and West, anticipating later projects in the Americas and the Pacific.

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57267-13

Zoe Sara Strother
Columbia University (New York, NY 10027-7922)
The Iconoclastic Impulse in African Art History

Monuments and works of art often come to a violent end in Africa, whether burned, buried, smashed, or drowned. This book-length project argues that such destruction (or iconoclasm) is fundamental to art history in Africa and the agents overwhelmingly African, despite preconceptions to the contrary. The text seeks to recover this history in Central and West Africa, based on nearly four years of fieldwork and extensive archival research in Great Britain, France, and Belgium. In particular, the manuscript will argue that the mutilation or destruction of art objects during the 20th century served to lay the foundation for a modern identity formation. The research for this project is complete. I am applying for support for sabbatical leave in 2013 to devote myself exclusively to the completion of a book manuscript with five chapters, of which one is already complete.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-57271-13

Kathryn H. Fuller-Seeley
Georgia State University (Atlanta, GA 30303-2538)
Jack Benny and Radio Comedy in American Culture, 1932-1955

Comedian Jack Benny mattered enormously to 20th-century American culture--he taught us how to live in the endlessly compromised world of consumer culture. Jack Benny’s character (the ultimate Fall Guy; the vain, cheap Everyman; your family’s hapless Uncle) suffered all the indignities of the powerless patriarch in modern society--fractious workplace family, battles with obnoxious sales clerks, guff from his servant, and withering disrespect from his boss/sponsor, all women in general, and the leaders of Hollywood society. From the hard times of the Depression, through the pinched war years, to 1950s’ prosperity, Benny’s schemes to avoid spending money collapsed like his dignity, week after week, as his inflated ego was punctured by fate, abetted by his unruly staff. Benny could only dissolve into raging tantrums and injured sighs. Thirty million Americans laughed at him, and with him, each week for more than three decades as he sardonically skewered American cultural foibles.

Project fields:
Film History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$33,600 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-57279-13

Philip Rupprecht
Duke University (Durham, NC 27705-4677)
Avant-Garde Nation: British Musical Modernism, 1956-1979

The book is a cultural and critical history of the first generation of British composers to be publicly identified as a musical avant garde in the 1950s and after. Interweaving close readings of some 50 works by 17 composers, the book traces shifts of expression and technique--from 1950s structural rigor through more dramatic 1960s works to the improvisatory tone of the 1970s. I situate this music within a post-1945 European scene, poised between ideals of international exchange and the re-building of local cultures. Audiences recognized progressive British composers as creators of a national art form in dialogue with European innovators. Tracing a public discourse around art, I stress the role of stereotype in defining a myth of collective identity. British culture, in the post-Empire moment, encompasses both subtle evocations of Tudor church music and the escapism of Fleming's "Bond" novels. Orchestral and literary codes may differ, but both display images of the modern nation.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57286-13

Marcia Carol Stephenson
Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040)
The Global Role of Andean Camelids (Llamas, Alpacas, Vicunas, and Guanacos) in Intercultural Exchange, 1568-1970

My proposed book project examines the unprecedented role played by Andean camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicunas, and guanacos) as a historical juncture or contact zone of conflicting scientific, commercial, and cultural interests for Europeans and Indian shepherds, in the Andes and in the camelid diaspora of Europe, Australia, and the United States. Integrating a medical-scientific and cultural approach to understanding camelid contact zones, my project is of significance to the humanities because it will demonstrate that camelid contact zones are novel mechanisms through which we can assess the convergence of European and indigenous knowledge and interests. It will show how the interdisciplinary model of analysis (advancing novel dialogues among the sciences and the humanities) elucidates the role played by indigenous pastoral peoples as key protagonists in the intercultural exchange of ideas in transatlantic and transpacific arenas.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Latin American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,285 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57289-13

A. Roger Ekirch
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Blacksburg, VA 24061-2000)
The Crisis in American-British Relations Over the 1797 Mutiny on the British Frigate "Hermione"

This book-length study sets out to examine the most violent mutiny in the history of Britain's Royal Navy whereby crew members in 1797 murdered the captain and nine officers aboard the "Hermione" in the Caribbean. Of primary concern are the uprising's repercussions for both the young American republic and the presidency of John Adams. The mutiny thrust upon the administration a set of incendiary issues involving human rights and national sovereignty, owing to the purported presence of impressed American sailors aboard the vessel and the threatened extradition of U.S. citizens as well as foreign nationals to Britain for their alleged hand in the violence. Apart from playing a role of unheralded magnitude in the presidential election of 1800, the crisis widened the nation's open door to political refugees, thereby fulfilling America's Revolutionary mission as an "asylum for mankind."

[Grant products]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57290-13

Laura Vera Harwood Wittman
Stanford University (Stanford, CA 94305-2004)
A Cultural History of Near-Death Experiences in the Fiction, Science, and Popular Culture of the 20th-Century West

This book is the first cultural history of near-death experiences in the twentieth-century West: it brings together testimony, film and television, literature, and scientific study (including interviews with scientists). Beginning in the late nineteenth century, scientists stop seeing near-death as a case of mistaken diagnosis and become interested in the subjective experience of those they term "latter-day Lazaruses." At the same time, in popular culture, literature, and sociological study, the modern Lazarus, who has something compelling to reveal about death, becomes increasingly important. As the twentieth century progresses, near death continues to instigate dialogue between scientists and humanists on a number of key issues related to death and dying: in what ways is a brush with death psychologically transformative? what constitutes a "good death"? how does understanding near-death impact end-of-life care? does near death help us measure the nature and end of consciousness?

Project fields:
Comparative Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2014 – 8/31/2015


FA-57305-13

William Garrett Acree, Jr
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO 63130-4899)
The Creole Circus and the Making of a Theatergoing Public in Uruguay and Argentina, 1860-1910

Theater in Uruguay and Argentina has been one of the most popular forms of entertainment since the nineteenth century. Ironically, the success of theater and the making of a theater-going public in the region have their roots in shows put on by circus troupes in the countryside that only later filled urban theaters. From 1860 to 1910 these troupes performed dramas dealing with rural traditions and exploring issues of migration, social stratification, and tensions of economic modernization. Circus dramas became wildly successful, attracting spectators in the countryside and city alike, in venues ranging from makeshift tents to opera houses. By studying circus plays and their reception, Staging Frontiers argues that popular theater in the region was both a catalyst in the formation of lasting social identities and a bridge between popular and elite forms of cultural production. Moreover, the project models ways to approach similar phenomena in other areas of the Americas and beyond.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Latin American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57319-13

David Andrew Biggs
University of California, Riverside (Riverside, CA 92521-0001)
An Environmental History of Militarization in Central Vietnam, 16th-20th Centuries

This research considers how militarization shapes historic relationships between people and their environments by examining in detail the environmental history of one war-impacted area in central Vietnam. It combines archival sources with site-based research and an historical geographic information system to examine how changing cultural perspectives underlined different military operations and how legacies of military occupation challenged communities after the conflict. It draws from Vietnamese, French, and American sources as well as memoirs and locally published texts for examination of differing military views; and it relies on a wide variety of historic imagery (maps, air photos, and satellite images). This NEH proposal is for 12 months to write a book manuscript, an environmental history of militarization, and two essays: one studying land cover changes and the other the role of air photography in shaping military visions of Vietnamese landscapes.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 8/31/2014


FA-57324-13

Stephen E. Hinds
University of Washington (Seattle, WA 98105-6613)
Latin Literature's Resonance in Other Languages and Traditions

A book on the cross-linguistic relations of poetic writing in Latin, which will seek to destabilize the usual narratives of Roman literary culture and classical tradition. Latin literature has always been constituted by its relationships with other languages and traditions: for ancient readers by its ever-changing relationship with Greek; for modern readers by no less constitutive relationships with the European vernaculars. I will emphasize cross-linguistic events in which the correspondence between texts in different languages is so close as to approach the condition of translation, without quite being the same thing as translation, and where the very issue of movement between languages is somehow central. This chronologically spacious project involves a significant mid-career redirection of my energy and expertise. A Fellowship can allow me to make a concentrated push on the book after I present its core as three invited Gray Lectures at Cambridge University in May next year.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Classical Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2014 – 8/31/2015


FA-57329-13

Susan L. Martin-Marquez
Rutgers University, New Brunswick (New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8559)
The New Cinema Movements and Their Transatlantic Networks of Exchange in the 1960s and 1970s

My book manuscript works to de-center the dominant yet impoverishing center-periphery logic adopted in many studies of the New Cinemas movements of the long 1960s, which tend to view international film movements of the era as subsidiary to developments in Europe, especially France. This study shifts the focus instead to the rich networks of transatlantic exchange that characterized this period. I analyze a number of important films and filmmakers that, together with essays, manifestos, and technology, travelled back and forth between Argentina, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, and Mozambique. I show how the aesthetic, affective, and ideological contours of filmmaking were shaped by the transformational encounters, and sometimes equally productive "dis-encounters," that resulted. My "entangled histories" approach also seeks to contribute to current scholarship in transnational cinema studies as well as in postcolonial theory.

Project fields:
Film History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 8/31/2014


FA-57352-13

Mark Schroeder
University of Southern California (Los Angeles, CA 90089-0012)
Challenges and Prospects for the Idea of "Reasons First" in Epistemology

One of the most important developments in moral philosophy of the last hundred years is the idea that reasons play a fundamental role in explaining other normative and evaluative concepts. This idea has now become relatively orthodox in moral philosophy, but has not been similarly influential in epistemology, despite the important parallels between the two subject areas. In this project, I will explore whether the idea of Reasons First faces special challenges within epistemology, and in particular whether taking seriously the idea that reasons are fundamental can help to solve some of the most central and pressing problems within epistemology. I will argue that it can. In particular, I will show that by taking seriously the idea that reasons come first, we can shed a great deal of light on the difficult problem of how much evidence is required to justify belief, explain how and why pragmatic considerations can affect what it is rational to believe, and help us to analyze knowledge.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Philosophy, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2014 – 5/31/2015


FA-57361-13

Robert Andrew Chodat
Boston University (Boston, MA 02215-1300)
Intention and Perfection in Contemporary American Fiction

This project examines how certain post-WWII American novelists respond to the reductivist impulses of contemporary theories of mind and action, and defend the possibility of moral knowledge and moral perfectionism. Ranging from Walker Percy and Marilynne Robinson to Susan Sontag and David Foster Wallace, these figures pose two questions heard in the Wittgensteinian philosophical tradition. First, why are intentional states not reducible to behavior, neurons, or genes? Second, if humans are irreducibly intentional, are some intentions--and in turn some ways of life--higher than others? The form of their answers also echoes Wittgenstein: much as he mixes argument with metaphor and parable, so their writing moves between narrative and essayistic modes, "showing" and "telling." Their work, then, forces us to reconsider many familiar ideas about 20th-century literature, as well as a central question in all humanistic study: how discursive claims relate to our descriptions of human experience.

Project fields:
Literary Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2014 – 12/31/2014


FA-57363-13

David Schorr
Tel Aviv University (Tel Aviv 93621 Israel)
The Transnational Development of Water Law in and around the British Empire, 1850-1950

This book project aims to illuminate the background of today's controversies over water, by examining the transplantation, modification, and rejection of water-law norms across legal cultures and regions, and particularly the central role of the British Empire in the process. Turning what has been a largely national story into a transnational and trans-regional one, it will examine how legal rules and principles were borrowed, modified, implemented, and at times rejected by those who shaped water law and policy. Water law will be studied as a multi-focal and multi-directional project, the product of competing interests, ideologies, and views flowing between the far-flung territories of the British Empire (as well as some outside it). The study aims to historicize current policy debates over water privatization and commodification, and complicate both conventional historical explanations of the development of water law and the property theory constructs that have developed around it.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Interdisciplinary Studies, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2013 – 5/31/2014


FA-57377-13

Thomas E. Burman
University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Knoxville, TN 37916-3801)
The Dominicans, Islam, and Christian Thought, 1220-1320

While modern scholars have written a great deal about what Latin Christian intellectuals thought about Islam in the high Middle Ages, very little has been written about two key issues: 1] how do the patterns of thought that we see in the Latin-Christian treatises against Islam fit in with the broader tendencies of the scholastic project? and 2] how does Arab-Islamic civilization's deep influences on Latin culture more generally shape how Latin-Christian intellectuals saw Islam? This book project will answer these questions through a series of seven case studies of thirteenth-century scholars of the Order of Preachers, the quintessential scholastic religious order. These Dominican intellectuals range from the great encyclopedist, Vincent of Beauvais, to the canon lawyer, Raymond of Penyafort, and the philosopher-theologian, Thomas Aquinas, to the leading anti-Islamic polemicists of the day, Ramon Marti and Riccoldo da Monte di Croce.

Project fields:
Medieval Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57408-13

Stephen D. Dumont
University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN 46556-4635)
The Two Affections of Will: From Anselm of Canterbury (d. 1109) to John Duns Scotus (d. 1308)

This project traces the history of the theory of the 'two affections of the will' from its first occurrence in Anselm of Canterbury to its most influential development in John Duns Scotus. The distinction places within the will two inclinations, one for happiness and the other for justice, establishing the will as a self-moving, autonomous power and the locus of morality. In its particular formulation by Scotus, who makes the affection for justice the primary sense of freedom, the doctrine of the two affections is seen to have broken from the eudaimonistic ethics of the Greeks. I reconstruct the largely ignored history of the two affections as it was inserted into the mainstream debates over free will in the thirteenth century, which then served as a main source for Scotus’s own theory. I give a historically more accurate interpretation of the two affections theory in Scotus and address its commonly assigned role in his ethics as rendering the moral law naturally accessible.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History of Philosophy

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-57414-13

Robert Forbes
University of Connecticut (Storrs, CT 06269-9000)
An Annotated Edition of Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia

I propose to prepare the first comprehensive, annotated edition of Thomas Jefferson's only published book, Notes on the State of Virginia, incorporating careful analysis of the manuscript in the collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Jefferson's Notes has often been described as the most important American book published before 1800. A paradox ever since its publication, Notes wavers between the lofty universalism of the great statesman and philosophe and the crass parochialism of the Virginia planter. Astonishingly for such a significant work, there is no edition of Notes prepared from the original manuscript, which contains extensive strikeouts and interlineations. In total, more than 2000 words have been obscured from the original text. The annotated edition will restore this deleted material. An extended introduction will explicate the context, composition, and significance of this landmark American document.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 8/31/2014


FA-57418-13

Maureen Elizabeth Mahon
New York University (New York, NY 10012-1019)
Voices of African American Women in Rock and Roll, 1953-1984

This book explores the familiar tale of rock and roll’s origins and development from an unfamiliar perspective: through the experiences of African American women. Focusing on the period from 1953, when blues singer Big Mama Thornton recorded her hit “Hound Dog,” to 1984, when the solo career of rock veteran Tina Turner took flight, "Beyond Brown Sugar" delves into issues of voice and representation in the music and lives of African American women musicians. I examine the musical and personal voices of these artists, approaching voice in three distinct ways: as an expressive instrument, as creative vision, and as critical and analytical viewpoint. I also explore the ways these artists experienced and navigated the complex intersection of gender, race, class, sexuality, and musical genre. My goal is to uncover a hidden history of African American women in rock and roll, expanding our understanding of their role and offering a more inclusive, holistic story of the genre.

Project fields:
African American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2013 – 8/31/2014


FA-57426-13

John Theodore Zilcosky
University of Toronto (Toronto M5S 1A5 Canada)
The Concept of the "Uncanny" in 20th-Century Austro-German Thought

The concept of “the uncanny” emerged astoundingly late, only after 1900. I propose to complete a book that, for the first time, explains this belatedness. The uncanny is so modern, I argue, because its peculiar mix of foreignness and familiarity was unthinkable before three late 19th-century developments: the mapping of the world’s last “blank” spaces; the Westernization of non-Europeans through colonialism; and the arrival of tourists onto previously untrodden territory. Because the uncanny ("das Unheimliche") was first conceptualized in Germany and Austria, I focus on this context, specifically on the accounts of travelers who documented their shock at finding ‘civilized’ natives and, even worse, European doppelgangers in faraway lands. Where these travelers had expected the spectacularly foreign, they discovered the uncannily “long familiar” (Freud). In so doing, they created a secret pre-history to the famous theorizations of the uncanny in psychoanalysis and literary modernism.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
German Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
12/1/2013 – 11/30/2014


FA-57443-13

Amie L. Thomasson
University of Miami (Coral Gables, FL 33146-2503)
The Descent of Metaphysics

I propose to complete work on a book, The Descent of Metaphysics. The book investigates the methods and knowledge claims of metaphysics, that central branch of philosophy. Metaphysicians purport to tell us what exists--but it seems the sciences give a better method of answering existence questions. They also aim to tell us about the modal features of things of various types, but it is notoriously difficult to say how modal knowledge is possible at all. In this book I develop the first book-length development and defense of a deflationary approach to metaphysical questions--including existence questions and modal questions. I argue that the view developed enables us to answer existence questions straightforwardly and to demystify modal knowledge. On the view defended, the metaphysician’s central contribution is a form of conceptual work, not a pseudo-science. As a result, the methods of metaphysics are clarified, and metaphysics is located squarely among the humanistic disciplines.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Metaphysics

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57502-13

Mary Quinlan-McGrath
Northern Illinois University (DeKalb, IL 60115-2828)
Leon Battista Alberti's "De pictura (On Painting)" (1435/1436) and Its Impact on Renaissance Art

Leon Battista Alberti's De pictura has influenced the visual arts from the Renaissance through the present. In spite of a rich tradition of scholarship, opinions on its purposes and contributions are divided. This book will align the scholarly traditions by setting the understanding of light, vision, and the purpose of a painting in a context from the most physical to the most metaphysical. Alberti postulated a creator like the great Creator. Because the Creator had made the universe out of light and its mathematical laws, the painter-creator was to do the same. The naturalistic style of Renaissance painting is a by-product of this theory and its formulae, but the laws of Nature equally supported non-naturalistic styles that also flourished in Renaissance art. Alberti's ultimate concern was not the painted image but its "imago," carried on light from the painted surface. This moved into the imagination where it was to shape the soul of the viewer.

Project fields:
Interdisciplinary Studies, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57503-13

Nicholas B. Breyfogle
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
An Environmental History of Siberia's Lake Baikal

This project is an environmental history of Siberia's Lake Baikal (17th-20th cc), the world's largest & oldest lake. Despite the USSR’s legacy of ecological degradation, we know little about how Russians viewed or utilized the “natural” world prior to the 20th c., or how Soviet-era destruction fits into long-term patterns. By taking a longue durée exploration of the relationship between humans and Baikal (both cultural & socio-economic) this study contextualizes these ecological traumas; analyzes the broad patterns found at the nexus of Russians, the indigenous Buriat peoples, & the environment; and discusses the development of Russian conservation efforts. Using the lens of Baikal and the methodologies of environmental studies this project sheds new light on questions of global water history, colonial contact, economic development & resource management, Russian identity, the evolution of Russian science, natural disasters, & the role of the sacred in Eurasian society and culture.

Project fields:
Russian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57508-13

Eleonora Gilburd
New York University (New York, NY 10012-1019)
The Soviet Union's Embrace of Cultural Exchange with the West during the Thaw of the 1950s and 1960s

My book focuses on the 1950s and 1960s - the Thaw - as a pivotal chapter in the centuries-long history of Russian westernization. An examination of the symbiosis between the foreign and the intimate, high diplomacy and quotidian life, my book analyzes the Soviet reception of Western texts, paintings, films, and melodies. Instead of the vocabulary of imitation and influence used to describe Russian-Western cultural relations, I propose the concept of ownership via translation. When they arrived en masse in the mid-1950s, Western objects, images, and sounds were outlandish. But in the process of cross-cultural transfer, the foreign became the quotidian, even intimate, an indiscernible part of late Soviet life. After the Soviet collapse, this cherished familiarity and claim to ownership brought a sense of dispossession for the Russians. The household melodies, names, and books that had become their precious belongings turned out to have been somebody else's property all along.

Project fields:
Russian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-57523-13

Vessela Valiavitcharska
University of Maryland, College Park (College Park, MD 20742-5141)
The Relationship between Figurative Language and Argumentation in Medieval Greek (Byzantine) Rhetoric

This project examines the relationship between figures of speech and argumentation in Byzantine rhetorical theory and practice, seeking to understand the ways in which style participates in argumentation and vice versa. Using medieval Byzantine rhetorical theory as a basis for research, it offers a comparative analysis between structures of rhetorical arguments and structures of formal syllogistic reasoning, seeking to identify which figural features of language hold argumentational and persuasive value. The book’s material for analysis includes visual representations of the rhetorical figures in Byzantine manuscripts (charts, diagrams), polemical marginal illustrations in polemical Byzantine psalters, and selections of extant practical polemics on the controversy about the use of religious images, known as Iconoclasm. The goal is to illumine the larger question of how the rhetorical figures double as language tools and structures of reasoning.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Composition and Rhetoric

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
2/1/2014 – 1/31/2015


FA-57560-12

Linda K. Kerber
University of Iowa (Iowa City, IA 52242-1320)
Why Diamonds Really Are A Girl's Best Friend: A Comparative History of the Legal Doctrine of Coverture

In this study, the applicant will place the laws governing American women in international perspective to document the deep structures of law that have defined, bounded, and often dictated the choices made by men and women, even as they have believed that they were choosing freely. The project includes laws in the U.S. and its territories, Philippines, the British Commonwealth, Germany, France, and Turkey.

Project fields:
African History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$30,000 (approved)
$30,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-56355-12

Yoav Di-Capua
University of Texas, Austin (Austin, TX 78712-0100)
Transnational Arab Thought and the Global Culture of the 1960s

In the late 1940s, as the colonial era in the Middle East drew to a close, a young generation of Arab thinkers sought to invent a new Arab subject: confident, critical, educated, independent, self-sufficient and above all free. This new persona was conceived as the cornerstone of a liberated post-colonial Arab society. But for the project to succeed, it needed to re-invent contemporary Arab thought. Rebelling against the dead-end cultural models of colonial universalism which characterized the established intellectual class of mandarins like Taha Husayn, they tapped into a new global sphere of transnational thought. By excavating multiple intellectual traditions and trajectories that stretch from Paris to Beirut, Baghdad and Peking, and ranging from Heideggerian and Sartreian existentialism to Maoism and guerilla ideology, this study reconstructs the forgotten international milieu of the post-colonial Arab intelligentsia.

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56359-12

Janet C. Berlo
University of Rochester (Rochester, NY 14627-0001)
Fakes, Replicas, and Other Vexed Identities in Native American Art History

I request support to write the first book devoted to the vexed issues of authenticity, falsification, and inter-cultural translation in Native American art history. This will include, but not be limited to, issues of forgery, replication (by Natives and non-Natives alike), and mis-attribution. Some actions seen in the early to mid-20th century as collaborations between Natives and non-Natives (carving, dancing, making of cultural replicas) are now often discussed solely in terms of who has the right to engage in acts of cultural translation, and who is a ‘real’ Indian making ‘real’ Indian art. Yet elsewhere in the academic community, such one-dimensional notions are increasingly replaced with analyses of hybrid identities, Creolité, and other cosmopolitan constructs. My case studies range from the archaeological to the historical to the contemporary. I offer close readings of objects and incidents that are sometimes seen as Native art, but may also be read as NOT Native art.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56388-12

Robert S. Levine
University of Maryland, College Park (College Park, MD 20742-5141)
The Lives of Frederick Douglass

Ranging from the 1840s to the present day, my book will provide a literary and cultural history of the lives and afterlives of Frederick Douglass. Unlike the typical biography, the book will be a "meta-biography" of sorts--a study of how U.S. culture has conceived, or invented, what I am terming the "lives" of Douglass. Douglass wrote three very different versions of his life (1845; 1855; 1881, rev. 1892). In this respect, Douglass himself offers us a warrant for thinking about his various "lives." From beginning to end, the book will thus also pay close attention to Douglass's canny acts of self-representation, whether in autobiographies, lectures and essays, or photographs. Douglass was a contradictory, complex, and performative figure who ultimately baffles efforts to reduce his life to a single story. In short, the book examines Douglass both in his own time and beyond, with the hope of offering new perspectives on Douglass and racial representativeness in the United States.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56408-12

Richard Chih-Tung Sha
American University (Washington, DC 20016-8200)
Imagining the Imagination: Science and British Romanticism, 1750-1832

The imagination was without question the fundamental term for Romantic writers. This book project builds upon my previous study of the interconnections between science and sexuality in Romanticism, and is the first to situate the imagination in the contexts of the relevant sciences of the period: physiology, neurology, chemistry and physics, midwifery, and psychology. These scientific contexts were not only well-known to British Romantic poets, but also undermine the historicist claim that the imagination evaded the real. I seek to understand why, given that the imagination was relentlessly linked to disease and madness, Romantic writers such as Blake, Coleridge, Hazlitt, the Shelleys, and Wordsworth turned to it for its capacity to enable social change. William Lawrence, Percy Shelley's doctor, for instance, advised him that his heated imagination was the source of his disease.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
British Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2012 – 4/30/2013


FA-56415-12

Stanley L. Paulson
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO 63130-4899)
A New English Translation of Hans Kelsen’s Reine Rechtslehre or Pure Theory of Law

Working together with my wife, Bonnie Litschewski Paulson, I am proposing a new English-language translation of Hans Kelsen’s Reine Rechtslehre or Pure Theory of Law in its second edition, published in Vienna in 1960, running 500 pages. I hold a contract for the project from the Oxford University Press. Kelsen rivals H.L.A. Hart as the most significant legal philosopher of the twentieth century, and this treatise, it is generally agreed, is his most representative work. The existing translation (1967) is seriously defective in a variety of ways; to avoid it, leading figures in the field, including Hart and Joseph Raz, have resorted to the French translation. The deficient English translation has also stood in the way of a robust reception of Kelsen’s work in the Anglo-American juridico-philosophical community.

Project fields:
Law and Jurisprudence

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-56423-12

Randolph Kent Clarke
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)
Omissions: Metaphysics, Agency, and Responsibility

Philosophical theories of agency and responsibility have focused primarily on actions--on things such as firing a gun or telling a lie. Omissions have received relatively little attention, despite the fact that they constitute an important aspect of our agency. Omitting to act, like acting, commonly has consequences; and we can be praiseworthy or blameworthy--and sometimes legally liable--for our omissions, just as we can be for our actions. There is currently no comprehensive account of omissions. The book I am writing will provide such a view. The main questions to be addressed are: what is an omission, what is it to intentionally omit to do something, and under what conditions is an agent morally or legally responsible for an omission. The aim is to add significantly to our understanding of human agency. The book will be of interest to theorists working on freedom, responsibility, and law.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Philosophy, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,389 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2012 – 7/31/2013


FA-56424-12

Sarah Schneewind
University of California, San Diego (La Jolla, CA 92093-0013)
Shrines to Living Officials and Political Participation in Ming China, 1368-1644

Ming people inherited and created a landscape dotted with temples and shrines honoring not only deities, but men and women. Scholars have studied shrines to dead people, but have hardly noticed a very common set of shrines to men who were still alive. Ideally built by local commoners sorry to part with a good official moving to another post, pre-mortem shrines were legal, accepted, and ubiquitous. They could be temporary or permanent, large or small; some men were enshrined together, while one county magistrate had an image in each home. This first book on pre-mortem shrines will focus on Ming, whose autocratic, bureaucratic monarchy is often seen as the height of despotism in China, and posed as the defining other to a democratizing Europe. I will show that Ming subjects, not just elite men but also commoners, used pre-mortem shrines to claim roles in politics, claims recognized as legitimate within the Mandate of Heaven ideology that justified imperial power.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56432-12

Christian Lee Novetzke
University of Washington (Seattle, WA 98105-6613)
The Brahmin Double: Religion, Caste, Language, and Performance in Maharashtra, India, 1200-2000 CE

This project examines religious and other performance materials from the thirteenth century to the present in Marathi and the modern Indian state of Maharashtra. I explore how Brahmin performers and composers appear to be agents in the creation of anti-caste and in particular anti-Brahmin sentiment in public contexts. I situate this Brahminical anti-caste and anti-Brahmin discourse within a largely performative public sphere where Brahmins balanced their role as knowledge specialists in heterogeneous social, religious, and cultural contexts where they were a significant minority. Here, Brahmin advocates of anti-Brahmin and anti-caste sentiment offered a ‘double’, a discursively constructed ‘Brahmin’, thus deflecting or diffusing criticism and enabling the Brahmin performer or composer to maintain a position of importance in the world of public performance and, later, public politics.

Project fields:
Nonwestern Religion

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-56438-12

Kathryn Kerby-Fulton
University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN 46556-4635)
Professional Reading Circles, the Clerical Proletariat, and the Rise of English Literature

Even Richard II, the king under whom literary giants like Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland, and the Pearl Poet produced their mature works, owned no books in English. When he was deposed in 1399, English literary texts were still a minority interest among the educated or the social elites, as yet preferring to read in Latin or French. This was to change dramatically within a generation, and the proposed study attempts to account for the sudden rise of English literature by uncovering the earliest reading circles of this emergent national literature. Beginning in the reign of Edward III, London saw the immigration of a young, under-employed clerical population, trained or semi-trained for the church, but unable to find employment in it (and thus with complex attitudes toward it), who took jobs in the burgeoning Westminster and Dublin civil and legal services. Here London writers found their initial, most sophisticated audiences and their coteries.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Medieval Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-56482-12

James A. Winn
Boston University (Boston, MA 02215-1300)
The Arts During the Life of Queen Anne, 1660s-1710s

In his influential edition of the works of Alexander Pope (1871-79), Whitwell Elwin describes Queen Anne as "ugly, corpulent, sluggish, a glutton and a tippler." If modern historians are more polite, they still underestimate Anne’s intelligence and ability. By approaching the life and reign of this popular and successful monarch through her knowledge and patronage of the arts, I intend to provide a more balanced picture. She was a highly competent performer on the guitar and the harpsichord, an excellent dancer and actress in her youth, a fluent speaker of highly idiomatic French, a shrewd connoisseur of painting and architecture, a promoter of opera, and a reader able to quote such poets as Cowley from memory. In crafting works of art designed to flatter and please her, artists including Dryden, Purcell, Lely, Kneller, Wren, Philips, Handel, and Pope reveal the complex and nuanced interplay between political and aesthetic motives that defines the culture of this fascinating period.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Arts, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56490-12

David Wheat
Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI 48824-3407)
Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640

This book documents African influences in the formations of Spanish Caribbean society, with emphasis on maritime networks, coerced and free migration, and the transmission of socioeconomic roles. Unlike better-studied Spanish American viceroyalties with vibrant native populations, the early colonial Caribbean contained substantial black majorities. This chapter in the history of the African diaspora remains virtually unknown. Rather than envisioning the region as a "backwater," my project places the Spanish Caribbean in the context of a broader African and Portuguese maritime world. The histories of the Cape Verde Islands, Elmina, Sao Tome, and Luanda provide important models for viewing African roles that have long been invisible in Caribbean history. This study will be the first to address the early Spanish Caribbean's unique relationship to Atlantic Africa, and one of very few focusing on the experiences of Africans and their descendants in the early colonial Caribbean.

[Grant products][Prizes]

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56499-12

Karen Strassler
CUNY Research Foundation, Queens College (Flushing, NY 11367-1597)
Media and Political Communication in Post-Suharto Indonesia

Since 1998, Indonesians have been engaged in a contentious struggle to grapple with their past and imagine their future. This project examines the public sphere that has emerged as a result of two interconnected processes: political liberalization and the diversification of the media ecology, particularly via new media forms that enable ordinary people to become the producers and disseminators of political messages. The outcome is a participatory public sphere, yet one pervaded by doubt, uncertainty, and intense longing for authority and authenticity. I examine this post-authoritarian condition through analysis of a series of public debates and perceived crises that hinge on the authority and authenticity of particular texts and images circulating via various media channels. After Authority will contribute to broad interdisciplinary conversations about democratic transitions, media and political communication, and the public sphere.

Project fields:
Anthropology

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56506-12

Mary Dewhurst Lewis
Harvard University (Cambridge, MA 02138-3800)
Divided Rule: Sovereignty and Empire in French Tunisia, 1880s-1930s

Divided Rule is about the struggle for control of Tunisia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. After the French took control of Tunisia in 1881, legal battles replaced military contests, as Italy, Britain and other European powers drew on the protectorate's legal pluralism to maintain footholds in the protectorate. Tunisians themselves exploited these imperial rivalries to claim rights related to the administration of justice, taxation, property acquisition and transmission, as well as burial rites. Although French leaders initially had viewed the "protectorate" as a means for avoiding the violent clashes triggered by outright annexation in neighboring Algeria, over time they responded to Tunisians' growing demands by treating the protectorate much as if it had been annexed. In response to France's increasingly heavy-handed intervention, a rights-based independence movement was born. Drawing on archives from four countries, Divided Rule explains this transformation.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$33,600 (approved)
$33,600 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2012 – 8/31/2012


FA-56509-12

Robert Charles Davis
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
Italian Outlaws: Banditry and Society at the End of the Renaissance, 1550-1650

This study of the Italian Papal States focuses on the banditry and violence that exploded there from 1550-1650. It uses archival sources and judicial records of the cities of Rome and Perugia to show what happened when home-grown cults of violence, vendetta, and hyper-masculinity, aggravated by ferocious police repression, pushed society to the brink of collapse. When banditry was at its height, with established governing channels subverted by privatized violence, the Papal States were virtually paralyzed. This political failure contributed to the end of the Roman Renaissance, replacing its values of civic humanism, classicism, and secularism with resurgent clan connections bolstered by intense religiosity. Such conditions also characterize present-day failed states, and this research will be carried out in light of recent sociological studies of gang violence and guerrilla behavior, to approach this long-neglected era of Italian history with new methodological tools and insights.

Project fields:
European History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56536-12

Irina Paperno
Regents of the University of California, Berkeley (Berkeley, CA 94704-5940)
"Who, What am I": Leo Tolstoy and the Narrative of Self

The project explores the non-fiction writings of the great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy: his diaries, letters, memoirs, and tracts. The goal is to analyze Tolstoy's unique experimentation with the exploration of self in writing--his attempts to answer the question "Who, what am I?" I argue that what was at stake was more than a literary task: it was a philosophical, moral, and religious quest. In its approach and method, the project follows the path of those scholars in the humanities (Paul Ricoeur, Peter Brooks, Paul John Eakin, and others) who investigate the problems of self (personal identity) as it relates to various narrative forms. To this day, the large body of Tolstoy's personal documents and non-fictional texts has not been a subject of monographic research. Taken Tolstoy's importance as a writer and his enormous influence as a moral and religious philosopher, I hope that my project will have intellectual significance to scholars as well as the general audience.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Slavic Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56552-12

Sean William Anthony
University of Oregon (Eugene, OR 97403-5219)
Annotated Translation of the "Maghazi" of Ma'mar ibn Rashid: An 8th-Century Biography of Muhammad

This project aims to provide the first annotated translation of one of the earliest extant biographies of the prophet Muhammad: the Kitab al-Maghazi (or, The Book of Expeditions) of the 8th-century Muslim scholar Ma'mar ibn Rashid (714-770 C.E.). Although the Arabic text of this early and important work has been available to scholars since 1972, no scholar has hitherto endeavored to translate this important, early work into a European language and, thus, to broaden its readership and accessibility. Other than the translation of this text, this project requires a revisitation of the unique manuscript of this Arabic text, imperfectly edited in its printed editions, preserved in Suleymaneya Library in Istanbul. It is the ultimate aim of this project to give this early work the wider readership it deserves.

Project fields:
Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2012 – 5/31/2013


FA-56562-12

Peter J. Schmelz
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO 63130-4899)
Russian Composers Alfred Schnittke and Valentin Silvestrov and the End of Soviet Music

This musically-centered cultural history investigates the works of leading composers Alfred Schnittke (1934-98) and Valentin Silvestrov (b. 1937) to shed new light on the sociocultural shifts of the USSR’s turbulent final two decades. Rather than stagnating, contemporary Soviet life became collage-like, its public bombarded by a baffling array of new influences, high and low, many of which inspired strong anxieties about the end, in both metaphorical and literal senses. Each composer reacted differently: Schnittke’s polystylism purported to embrace everything, while Silvestrov’s neo-Romanticism retreated into an idealized past. Both constantly negotiated between foreign and domestic, popular and elite, and past, present, or (imaginary) future. This project explores the new social and political realities that surrounded the production and reception of each composer’s output, thereby reframing both the late Soviet period and late twentieth-century music more broadly.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2012 – 12/31/2012


FA-56563-12

Brandon Charles Look
University of Kentucky (Lexington, KY 40506-0001)
Leibniz, Kant, and the Possibility of Metaphysics

My work focuses on a crucial aspect in the history of philosophy: Kant's interpretation and critique of the thought of his great rationalist predecessor, Leibniz. In my book, 'Leibniz, Kant and the Possibility of Metaphysics,' I examine and assess Kant's reaction to and rejection of Leibniz's philosophy. I argue that Kant's case against Leibniz is less successful than assumed by both Kant himself and his followers not only because Leibniz's philosophy is more sophisticated than Kant could have known and later Kant scholars realize but also because Kant's own positive project is not above reproach. At the same time, I show that by seeing Kant's philosophy through the lens of his confrontation with Leibniz and Leibnizian rationalism we can answer some notorious interpretive problems in Kant scholarship. My book will thus constitute a significant contribution to studies in the history of philosophy.

Project fields:
History of Philosophy

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56568-12

Sussan Babaie
Ludwig Maximilians-Universitat (Munich WC2R 0RN Germany)
Architectural Cosmopolitanism in the Middle East: Houses of 17th-Century Aleppo and Isfahan

Architectural history of the house in the Middle East tends to focus on typologies (courtyards, rooms, materials) that are sorted in dynastic-geographical categories: houses of Cairo as Mamluk and Ottoman. Yet, evidence from 17th-century Aleppo and Isfahan--cities on the commercial trail of silk economies, with the largest number of houses from this period in the region to be extant--suggests widespread popularity of certain architectural and decorative interventions that are alien to their native vernacular: Persian-style wooden awnings on stone screens and painted paneling of rooms and ceilings in Aleppo; Isfahani predilection for Indo-European styles in mural paintings and palatine features. These are neither indicative of provincial aberrations and of baroque frivolity, nor of indebtedness to a superior originating source. This project reads such artistic/architectural quotations as indices of prestige value and as communicative elements of transculturation and cosmopolitanism.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Architecture

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56581-12

Louise Stein
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382)
Opera and the Transformation of Naples under the Marquis del Carpio, 1683-1687

My book about opera in Naples explains how the intervention of Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, marquis del Carpio (Viceroy of Naples, 1683-7) and his production team accelerated the integration of opera into Neapolitan public life and the metamorphosis of Naples into a center for opera and bel canto singing. Opera was among several facets of public life that Carpio sought to reform. He introduced a new system of opera financing, raised the level of artistic quality, and produced a series of operas that were more musically and visually innovative than earlier productions. He transformed Naples from a provincial backwater that hosted mostly revivals by Venetian traveling troupes into an innovative, sophisticated locus of production. Carpio has been identified by scholars as an art patron and voracious collector, but musicologists have previously neglected his pivotal importance in the history of opera in Italy. His operas and his legacy are the focus of my recent work and of this proposal.

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-56612-12

Susan Jennifer Pearson
Northwestern University (Evanston, IL 60208-0001)
A History of Birth Registration in America

Though birth registration and the government-issued birth certificate are ubiquitous and quotidian in the United States, they are also relatively recent phenomena. In the United States, it was not until the 1930s that all states finally recorded upwards of 90% of live births. My book project, Registering Birth: Population and Personhood in American History, details the ways in which a once-locally and unevenly-practiced form of recordkeeping became one of the most essential mechanisms for recording and establishing individual identity. Registering Birth tells the story of this profound change, considering the ways in which the story of recording birth demonstrates patterns of American state development, the emergence of life and health as objects of governance, and the historical and political contingency of both individual identity and age-based distinctions.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56613-12

Christopher James Otter
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
Food, Nutrition, and the Making of Industrial Britain

This study examines a critical but understudied development in modern history: the transformation of the British diet in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A change to a diet rich in wheat, sugar and animal proteins, drawn to an unprecedented extent from a world market, had profound and lasting effects on every level, both within Britain and beyond. These effects ranged from the expanding waistlines of British consumers and the radically homogenized gene pools of wheat and cattle to transformed agrarian ecologies in Argentina, North America and Australasia and geopolitical and military strategy during the First and Second World Wars. The transformed British diet was thus causally connected to the emergence of world markets, industrialization and environmental transformation. Consequently, the new British food system has played a highly important, and clearly identifiable, role in modern world history.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
British History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56615-12

Christina Schwenkel
University of California, Riverside (Riverside, CA 92521-0001)
Revitalizing the City: Socialist Architecture, Postwar Memory, and Urban Renewal in Vietnam

This project explores urban architecture as a site for managing tensions between remembrance and forgetting, mobility and immobility, and dwelling and displacement in contemporary "market socialist" Vietnam. Through ethnographic and archival research, it traces radical urban transformation in Vinh, a once-model socialist city that is now emerging as a regional center of capitalist trade and commerce. Following its complete destruction by U.S. bombing raids, Vinh was rebuilt with East German aid, technology, and urban planning expertise. The project chronicles the postwar reconstruction of Vinh to become a center of global socialist modernity and economic recovery, and more recent urban initiatives toward privatization and sustainable redevelopment. It focuses in particular on new forms of civic engagement among impoverished city residents who have called for the recognition of East German architecture as "heritage" to be restored, rather than socialist "ruins" to be demolished.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Anthropology

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56632-12

Steven B. Miles
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO 63130-4899)
Diaspora and Empire: Cantonese in the West River Basin, 1570-1870

I propose to use an NEH fellowship to write a history of the Cantonese diaspora along the West River basin between the late Ming and late Qing dynasties. In this book, I will analyze a set of diasporic practices that Cantonese lowlanders from southern China’s Pearl River delta pursued upstream along the West River basin into the highlands of the southwestern Chinese frontier and the borderlands of Southeast Asia. Rather than seeing the highlands as a refuge for people fleeing the state, I show how states or empires can also attract people, and how members of at least one diasporic cohort used state expansion for social advancement. I argue that, in different ways, these practices served the interests of both diaspora and empire. My analytical perspective of viewing the frontier through the lens of the West River system sheds light on the ways in which a diasporic elite turned the imperial project of expansion to its own ends, enhancing the socioeconomic status of delta families.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-56633-12

Lisa A. Lindsay
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, NC 27599-1350)
Atlantic Bonds: A Family History through Slavery, Freedom, and Colonization

In the 1850s, an African American named James Vaughan left his home in South Carolina for a life in Africa, settling first in Liberia and later in present-day Nigeria. There, he survived slave raids and political upheaval, saw the imposition of British colonialism, led a revolt against white missionaries, built a business, and founded a family of activists. His descendants and those of his relatives in the US have kept in touch for the past century. This contextualized biography of James Vaughan and his family brings together the histories of the United States, Africa, and the African diaspora. It casts American slavery as part of a connected, Atlantic world of bonded labor, one where slavery and freedom were not stark opposites but rather framed a continuum of dependency relations; and it probes the complicated relationship between diasporic Africans and the politics of African colonialism, showing how consciousness of the diaspora informed opportunities and strategies in Africa.

[Grant products][Prizes]

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-56642-12

Neil Levine
Harvard University (Cambridge, MA 02138-3800)
Frank Lloyd Wright's Contributions to Urbanism and Urban Planning

My book on Frank Lloyd Wright’s urbanism will be the first inclusive study of the architect’s contribution to planning the modern city and suburb. The first half discusses the architect’s projects for redefining the system of land subdivision and the idea of community in the American streetcar suburb between the later 1890s and World War I. The second half focuses on his engagement with the automobile, first as a means to combat congestion through decentralization in his utopian scheme of 1929-35 for Broadacre City, and then as a tool for revitalizing the city center by means of large-scale civic, cultural, and multi-use interventions between 1938 and 1958. Aside from Broadacre City, relatively little has been written about this work. Bringing it to light and analyzing its conceptual development in relation to national and international trends will offer important new insights into modern urban history and the creative possibilities Wright brought to shaping the built environment.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Architecture

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2012 – 12/31/2012


FA-56646-12

Ronald John Zboray
University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA 15260-6133)
The Bullet in the Book: Uses of Print Media during the Civil War

"The Bullet in the Book" will compare (via a book for scholars, students, and general readers) how, during the Civil War, Americans across four intersecting axes of social difference used print media: 1) North/South; 2) Black/White; 3) man/woman; and 4) middleclass/workingclass. To what degree did reading newspapers, books, and magazines bridge the period's fractious cultures? For evidence I summon personal accounts in mostly manuscript letters and diaries penned by about 1,000 representative "informants" who give insight into their own media-use practices and those of family and neighbors around them. To analyze this testimony, I build upon and extend the ethnographic methods I used in my co-authored, NEH-funded 2006 book, Everyday Ideas, on antebellum practices. Hoping to contribute this unique perspective on the Civil War in time for its 150th anniversary, I aim to devote myself, away from teaching, to completing the book manuscript by the end of the proposed fellowship period.

Project fields:
Communications; Communications

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2012 – 12/31/2012


FA-56655-12

Sarah C. Chambers
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (Minneapolis, MN 55455-0433)
Emigres and Citizens: Migrations and Identities during South American Independence from Spain

The contraction of the Spanish empire and gradual emergence of new nations in South America (c. 1810 to 1845) provides a critical case of shifting borders, migrating people and changing identities. With a twelve-month fellowship from NEH, I will complete archival research begun in Spain, Chile and Puerto Rico with trips to Venezuela and Colombia. I will also draft a book that will analyze the reception of royalists who fled the independence wars in South America for Cuba, Puerto Rico and Spain, and the policies toward Spaniards who remained in the new republics. As the first book on the subject to go beyond case studies of one or two countries and to explore in depth how these transatlantic migrations contributed to the transformation of imperial identities (common subjects of the Spanish monarch) to national identities (e.g. Venezuelan or Cuban), it will contribute to scholarship in the humanities on global wartime migrations, the emergence of nationalisms and definitions of citizenship.

Project fields:
Latin American History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56664-12

Gerald Paul Berk
University of Oregon (Eugene, OR 97403-5219)
Rationality and Improvisation in the Cold War State: The Development of Systems Analysis in the U.S.

This study traces the development of the science of “systems analysis” from its origins in the RAND Corporation in the 1950s into a public management system adopted by the US federal government in the 1960s. A “high modernist” project, rooted in RAND’s efforts to develop a science of war, systems analysis was very controversial. Its promise to rationalize policy through planning, budgeting and control conflicted with the often messy and improvisational nature of weapons system development, public budgeting, and social welfare administration. Therefore, I suspect applied systems analysis had more to do with government failure in the 1960s and afterward than commonly thought. By re-narrating the causes of success in the Cold War and failure in the Great Society, this project promises to open public discussion over the role of the government in US society to a wider range of options and to advance scholarly thinking about the state in American political development.

Project fields:
Political Science, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$37,800 (approved)
$37,800 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 5/31/2013


FA-56726-12

Daniel Hobbins
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
The Origins of Print in Medieval Culture

The story of print usually goes something like this: in an age of faith, a great invention appears, sweeping aside ignorance and conjuring science from its slumber. So the printing press changes the course of human history. Unhappy with this triumphalist account, medieval historians have sometimes stressed the continuities of print with manuscript culture. But we still have no account that puts the early world of print in its fifteenth-century context. In “Origins of Print,” I argue that the technology of print represents not only a cause for future change but a consequence of changing attitudes to writing that stretch back centuries before Gutenberg. I trace the roots of print in the technologies and institutions of the late middle ages, and then describe the transition to print as it occurred. The story that emerges is no less refreshing than surprising: the cultural and intellectual transformation of late medieval Europe as a necessary prerequisite for the birth of the modern world.

Project fields:
Medieval Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 6/30/2014


FA-56760-12

Adriana Craciun
University of California, Riverside (Riverside, CA 92521-0001)
An Interdisciplinary Study of British Writing and Arctic Exploration over Four Centuries

I am applying for an NEH fellowship to complete my book, Northwest Passages: Authorship, Exploration, Disaster, which will present the first interdisciplinary examination of how distinct kinds of writings, representations, and objects helped shape the course of nearly four centuries of Arctic exploration. In addition to offering an original framework for understanding the significance of Arctic exploration within Britain's better known imperial theaters, Northwest Passages contributes to histories of authorship and print culture a neglected examination of the roles of corporate and governmental authorship, publication, and circulation models, departing significantly from the literary and legal contexts of copyright on which most histories of authorship and print modernity are based.

Project fields:
Literature, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56763-12

Stephen F. Finlay
University of Southern California (Los Angeles, CA 90089-0012)
Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Discourse

My book in progress, Confusion of Tongues, offers an original philosophical theory of the meaning, use, and significance of moral and normative language. Against widespread views in contemporary moral philosophy, I argue that this language can be analyzed in other, "natural" terms. A linguistic approach is employed, looking at the full range of ways in which we use words like "good," "ought," and "reason." This yields a maximally simple and unifying semantics that accommodates all these uses, moral and nonmoral. I argue that many of the central metaethical puzzles that have led to rejection of the possibility of such analyses are a result of the complexity of the pragmatics of normative language, or how it is used in context in pursuit of speaker's ends. These puzzles can be solved by application of a single fundamental pragmatic principle. I propose to use a fellowship to complete the second half of this project.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Philosophy, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2012 – 7/31/2013


FA-56765-12

Elizabeth A. Spiller
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)
The Sense of Matter: Science, Matter Theory, and Literary Creation in the Renaissance

What is matter? What are its smallest parts and furthest bounds? How is it created or destroyed? These questions have been of central concern to philosophers, physicists, and theologians. In the Renaissance, these questions also provoked intense debate among artists, writers, and readers. Drawing on the history of science, historical phenomenology, and literary history, The Sense of Matter will demonstrate that when Aristotle's theory of matter is challenged in the Renaissance, central components of a system of poetic matter and making are also challenged. This book-length study traces those challenges through the works of Shakespeare, Spenser, Donne, Marvell, Hutchinson, and Milton, showing that how the question "what is matter?" determines how you answer such questions as "what is a poem made of?" and "what does it do to you?" This book will offer new answers about why art "matters" in thinking about the physical boundaries of the world and our relationship to it.

Project fields:
Renaissance Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$25,200 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-56767-12

Melissa Ann Macauley
Northwestern University (Evanston, IL 60208-0001)
Chaozhou Sojourners: Violence, Migration, and Power in the South China Seas, 1844-1927

I study a southeast coastal region of China in its transnational context. I focus on an important sojourning group of laborers, merchants, and smugglers in their native place (Chaozhou) as well as in Shanghai and Southeast Asia. This group relied on superior institutions of migration, the masterful use of legal and illegal strategies in their interactions with Europeans, and the disciplined advancement of group interests in order to best the Western imperialists at their own international game and emerge with other Chinese sojourning groups as the economic masters of the South China Seas. I hope to reassess the history of capitalism and imperialism in East Asia by applying the social framework of the native place group (as opposed to “the Chinese” or the “Overseas Chinese”) and the geographical framework--however vague--of the uncharted borders of the maritime world in which Chaozhou people lived their lives.

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56786-12

Franziska Seraphim
Boston College (Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3858)
War Criminals and Social Integration in Postwar Japan and Germany, 1945-1960

This book-length project is an international history of the Allied war crimes trial program in Asia and Europe as it moved into its post-trial phase of sentence review, clemency, and parole before ending in 1958. It shifts away from the usual focus on the legal-political characteristics of the international tribunals to a socio-political consideration of the vast majority of "ordinary" Japanese and German war criminals to explore the links between Allied practices of transitional justice and Japanese and German efforts at social reconstruction and the management of public memory. The question is how an issue of criminal responsibility came to be reframed as a social and humanitarian problem of continued imprisonment that bore critically upon the reconstitution of citizenship and the reestablishment of national sovereignty as the occupation gave way to Cold War alliance.

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-56870-12

Roquinaldo Amaral Ferreira
University of Virginia (Charlottesville, VA 22903-4833)
Building Colonialism: Slavery, Racial Ideology, and Ethnography in Angola, 1830s-1880s

The purpose of this proposal is to obtain funding to write a book on the foundations of Portuguese colonialism in Angola from the 1830s to the 1880s. My book is provisionally entitled Building Colonialism: Slavery, Racial Ideology, and Ethnography in Angola, ca. 1830s-ca 1880s. Based on uniquely detailed and eclectic records collected in seventeen archives and libraries across the Atlantic (Angola, Brazil, England, France, Portugal, and the United States), my book tackles fundamental issues related to African history and Atlantic history, such as the spread of ideas about race in the south Atlantic, the relationship between racial ideologies and colonialism, the scope of unfree labor in Angola after the transatlantic slave trade, and the production of ethnographic knowledge by metropolitan actors seeking to bolster colonial presence in Angola.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
African History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$46,200 (approved)
$46,200 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 7/31/2013


FA-56875-12

Suzanne Desan
University of Wisconsin, Madison (Madison, WI 53715-1218)
The French Revolution as an International Creation

My project offers a new interpretation of the French Revolution as an international creation. Four crucial elements--the transnational circulation of Enlightenment ideas and practices, universalism as a foundational claim, geopolitical conflict over territory, and colonial upheaval--joined with domestic forces to influence and shape the French Revolution within an international dynamic. By weaving these strands into a narrative of the Revolution from its global origins to Napoleon's coup, I ask how the revolutionaries built new politics by incorporating foreign influences and simultaneously contributed to restructuring territory and empire. I reinterpret key issues for the humanities, such as the French Revolution's contribution to the invention of modern politics, the cosmopolitan creation of republican ideology, and the complex relationship between democracy and empire.

Project fields:
European History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013


FA-56876-12

Christian Wildberg
Princeton University (Princeton, NJ 08540-5228)
A New Text and Translation of the Hermetic Corpus, a Collection of Greek Theological and Philosophical Texts

This project consists of a newly constituted text of the Corpus Hermeticum as well as a translation (with notes) into literary English. Intensive study of the Corpus over the last three years led to the discovery that the manuscript transmission is in fact entirely sound (contrary to current scholarly belief), but that the text must have been heavily corrupted by a copyist at an early stage (2nd-4th cent.) when he artlessly inserted a set of marginal notes into the original text. Once the original text is purged of the marginalia, we end up with perfectly intelligible doctrine, annotated with equally intelligible observations, amendments, and critical notes. The merit of this approach is that it is paleographically conservative and requires no conjectures and emendations. Unlike other translations of the Corpus, this publication offers not only an entirely new understanding of the genesis of our texts, but also promises to alter our understanding of the nature of ancient Hermeticism.

Project fields:
Classics

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56882-12

Gayle F. Wald
George Washington University (Washington, DC 20052-0001)
A History of "Soul!", the First Nationally Televised Program to Showcase the Black Power Movement

I am applying for an NEH Fellowship to complete a book, “It’s Been Beautiful”: Soul! and Black Power Television, currently under contract with Duke University Press. “It’s Been Beautiful” combines archival and secondary research with oral history to tell the story of Soul! (1968-73), a seminal yet understudied landmark in the history of American television. One of the earliest black-produced shows on TV, Soul! was the first nationally televised program to showcase cultural expressions of the Black Power movement. "It’s Been Beautiful" seeks to insert Soul! into the annals of television, where it is glaringly absent despite its popularity and significance. More profoundly, it uses Soul! to complicate and enrich our ideas about radicalism in culture and politics in the late 20th-century United States. The rise and demise of Soul is also a story of shifts in policy priorities in the wake of Civil Rights, shedding light on challenges that continue to confront public broadcasting today.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Media Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2012 – 8/31/2013


FA-56932-12

Bettine Birge
University of Southern California (Los Angeles, CA 90089-0012)
Marriage, Law, and Social Order in the Age of Khubilai Khan, 1260-1368

My project addresses the shifting boundaries of ethnic, gender, and status privileges in China under Mongol rule (1260-1368) as seen through legal conflicts and philosophical debates that swirled around issues of marriage during the Mongol-Yuan dynasty in China. The study documents how at this time of foreign rule and cultural mixing new policies and discourses emerged, especially those influenced by the rising Neo-Confucian movement, and [how] rapid, sometimes conflicting, evolution of the law set the stage for legal developments in the following centuries that lasted to the end of the imperial era. The work sheds new light on social and intellectual transformations in China and the challenges of governance in the poly-ethnic Mongol empire. The project moreover provides a global, historical perspective on conflicts over marriage, identity, social values, and the role of government in regulating public and private life within a multi-ethnic society.

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2013 – 7/31/2014


FA-56946-12

Shelley Stamp
University of California, Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, CA 95064-1077)
Lois Weber in Early Hollywood, 1910s-1920s: A Biography of the American Film Director

By tracking the career of early Hollywood’s most prominent female filmmaker, "Lois Weber in Early Hollywood" broadens our understanding of the extraordinary role that women played in shaping early film culture, a story that is just now beginning to be told. The book expands our understanding of women’s contributions to early American film culture, examining how Weber’s films navigated progressive politics and changing gender roles, showing how censorship controversies and celebrity culture complicated discourses around women’s labor in the early industry, and ultimately demonstrating how female filmmakers who once served early Hollywood’s bid for respectability were written out of that industry’s history beginning in the late 1920s.

Project fields:
Film History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-56955-12

Thomas Francis Broden
Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040)
An Intellectual Biography of Language Theorist A. J. Greimas (1917-1992)

This intellectual biography will be the first to examine critically the entire span of French-language scholar A. J. Greimas’s (1917-92) methods for studying language, culture, narrative, and visual images. It identifies three stages in the unfolding of his ideas and devotes special attention to the third, "Paris semiotics." The theories form integral components of linguistic and textual analysis taught and practiced throughout the Romance-language world. The study provides a window onto critical transformations in textual studies and indeed the human sciences over the last century. Greimas collaborated closely with some of the best-known intellectuals of his day, including Lévi-Strauss, Barthes, de Certeau, Ricoeur, and Eco. By attracting attention to this central but neglected figure, and by drawing comparisons with English-language research, the monograph revises our postwar history of ideas in France and reframes the relations between English- and Romance-language traditions.

Project fields:
French Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2013 – 5/31/2014


FA-56957-12

Mary Pollard Murray
Columbia University (New York, NY 10027-7922)
The Prison as a Site of Literary Community and Writing in Early Modern England

I am seeking support to complete a book manuscript that explores the prison as a site for literary production, and as an engine of literary invention, in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England. The prison, I argue, was an increasingly central institution in the cultural landscape of the period, and as such provided a crucible of communities (as prisons could house a mix of religious dissenters, political dissidents, debtors, traitors, noblemen and criminals). I argue further that this carceral scene, in all its porousness and variety, stood alongside the court, country house, church, and university as a place where early modern culture was made--and often made in order to define and redefine the idea of community itself. In five chapters, arranged roughly chronologically from the dawn of Tudor autocracy to the eve of the 1679 Habeas Corpus Act, I present various communities imagined in the literature produced within--and sometimes across--prison walls.

Project fields:
British Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-55615-11

Mustafa Aksakal
American University (Washington, DC 20016-8200)
Ottoman Society at War, 1914-1918

Famine, disease, horrific bloodletting and genocide swept across the Middle East like a tidal wave during the years of the First World War. Suffering among the civilian population exceeded that of any other belligerent, while mortality rates of "Little Mehmet," the common soldier, were almost double those of his German allies and surpassed only by those of the Serbian army. Little Mehmet's experience has never been told, and such histories of the war as we have slice the Ottoman story topically, chronologically, or geographically, and frequently all three ways. No book has taken a holistic approach to the Ottoman wartime experience. My project recognizes the interconnection of these narratives. It will explore the totality of war in the eastern Mediterranean.

Project fields:
Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2012 – 7/31/2013


FA-55617-11

Thomas Max Safley
University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205)
A Study of Bankruptcy in Early Modern Europe

Economic scholarship has long viewed failure as intrinsic to capitalism, the price of prosperity. History, including recent events, seems to agree. My project examines this connection by studying bankruptcy cases in early modern Europe, another time when economic failure became a social problem. Hundreds of legal proceedings provide documents that reveal who the capitalists were, how they conducted their businesses, what motivated their actions and why those actions sometimes failed. By including a variety of prescriptive sources, this project sets the praxis of capitalism in institutional context. The result revisits capitalism as contingent to its cultural, social and political matrices.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
European History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55628-11

Terence E. Marshall
Universite de Paris X (Paris 75020 France)
Freedom and Nature in Rousseau's Political Philosophy: Rousseau's "Critique de l'Esprit des Lois" and "Emile"

Preparation for publication, first in French and eventually in English, of Rousseau's unpublished manuscript "Critique de l'Esprit des Lois de Montesquieu" and a book length commentary in English on Rousseau's "Emile," the first such commentary in English and only the second in any language. Having began this project upon finding the Rousseau manuscript in 1990, the aim is to complete at least half of the project by the Rousseau tricentennial in 2012.

Project fields:
Political Science, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2011 – 12/31/2011


FA-55633-11

Joanne Rappaport
Georgetown University (Washington, DC 20057-0001)
The Meaning of Mestizaje in the Early Colonial New Kingdom of Granada

I propose to inquire into the nature of the early colonial ethnoracial hierarchy in the New Kingdom of Granada (today Colombia). A highly fluid system in which individuals could move from one status to another, I will inquire into what, precisely, classificatory fluidity involved in the first two centuries of colonial rule in the Bogota-Tunja area, looking at the constraints on mobility: gender, location, social status. Studies of this hierarchy have been dominated by research on the caste system in Mexico; by looking at a region whose ethnoracial hierarchy was not defined by caste I hope to elucidate the variation that existed across colonial Latin America.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Anthropology

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2011 – 12/31/2011


FA-55637-11

Danielle Fosler-Lussier
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
American Music, Global Messages: Building Bridges in the Cold War World

During the cold war, the U.S. State Department sent musicians all over the world to create positive impressions of the U.S. and its foreign policy. Scholars have studied the plans and purposes of these cultural programs, but a thorough assessment of their outcomes has not yet been achieved. I have gathered extensive archival documentation and conducted oral history interviews with musicians and diplomats to reveal the intended and unintended consequences of state-sponsored musical performances abroad. Musicians' tours were not simply one-way propaganda: they built subtle social and political relationships on a global scale, changing the attitudes of Americans as well as their target audiences. The book resulting from this research will contribute to musicology, diplomatic history, and globalization studies. Much of the research for this book has already been accomplished: I would use the NEH Fellowship to fund a year's leave from teaching to write the book, August 2011-August 2012.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2011 – 7/31/2012


FA-55644-11

Corinna Treitel
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO 63130-4899)
A Cultural and Political History of Dietary Reform in Germany since 1848

I am applying for an NEH fellowship to complete my second book, Natural: A German History. This book presents a cultural and political history of the German quest to eat naturally from the mid-nineteenth to the late twentieth century. During these years, ever more Germans turned to vegetarianism, low-meat diets, macrobiotics, early forms of organic farming, and other such practices in an effort to put the nation, as one early advocate phrased it, on "the way to paradise" (Zimmermann 1843). Whereas previous scholars have cast such developments as apolitical and even marginal aspects of German history, my book examines them instead as integral to the biopolitics of German modernity. It does so by showing how advocates for a more natural diet shaped wide-ranging efforts to create a more stable, self sufficient, and powerful nation able to thrive in the modern world.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
European History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55647-11

John F. Heil
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO 63130-4899)
The Ontological Turn

NEH support is sought to complete a book-length manuscript addressing central themes in fundamental metaphysics. An illuminating metaphysical conception of the world is required if we are to make sense of what we take from experience and from the various sciences. Although metaphysics is informed by the sciences, its aim is to advance a completely general picture of how the world must be given the truth of our best theories. The plan is to address a range of topics--including substance and property, powers and qualities, the mental and physical, relations and relata, cause and effect--intimately connected at the fundamental level. Attempts to provide targeted accounts of such topics individually without a clear appreciation of the others are ultimately ill-considered and unsatisfying. The Big Picture is not a compilation of many little pictures; the little pictures--concerning the nature of properties and property-bearers, causation, and the like--are aspects of the Big Picture.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Metaphysics

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2011 – 5/31/2012


FA-55650-11

Michael D. Gordin
Princeton University (Princeton, NJ 08540-5228)
Scientific Babel: Communication and Identity in Western Chemistry since the Fall of Latin

This project explores the transitions between "scientific languages"--the languages in which science is actually conducted--from the breakdown of Latin as an international mode of communication in the seventeenth century to the end of the Cold War and the rise of English as essentially the sole language of the natural sciences. Emphasizing chemistry, it examines in detail the cases of Russian, Esperanto/Ido, and German.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2011 – 5/31/2012


FA-55670-11

Theodore L. Steinberg
Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, OH 44106-4901)
Environmental History of Greater New York, 1609-2009

This book project examines the environmental history of the Greater New York City area in the four centuries since Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage. The goal is to chart changes to land and water while exploring the historical forces that produced those changes. The resulting book will reconceptualize New York's past by highlighting the major ecological turning points in the city's history, especially with respect to water quality and marine life. It will also provide a new understanding of the city's geography. The physical contours of the land changed dramatically over the period under study and so did the meaning of New York itself, evolving from an earlier understanding of the city as made up of the harbor and adjoining lands to a later land-based vision of the area as a simple political entity or a demographically defined metropolitan region. The first half of the book is written. NEH funding will allow me to finish researching and begin writing the rest of the manuscript.

[Grant products][Prizes]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2012 – 12/31/2012


FA-55671-11

David Cressy
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)
The Liberties of the Subject and the Power of the State in Early Modern England

This study examines collisions between popular perceptions of the privileges of the subject and assertions of power by divine-right monarchs in sixteenth and seventeenth century England. It combines archival research in local administrative documents with critical re-reading of landmark constitutional texts to retrieve and contextualize the demotic political voice. Exploring fundamental issues of citizenship and power through experiences of ordinary people, it shows how the “honor” and “necessities” of the crown and the “liberties” and “commodities” of the subject combined to articulate the “the birthright of an Englishmen.” The resulting book, The Crown and the People of Early Modern England, offers a new social history of a divided political culture which gave rise to the Anglo-American civic tradition.

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2011 – 8/31/2012


FA-55677-11

Colleen Ann Reardon
University of California, Irvine (Irvine, CA 92617-3066)
A "Sociable Moment": Sienese Opera Patronage and Performance, 1669-1704

Sociability--a term that seeks to define the various ways in which human beings interact with one another--has attracted scholars in a number of fields as a way of understanding the development of civil society and the public sphere in early modern Europe. Sociability studies have informed research into trends among opera-going audiences in the 19th century, but no one has yet attempted to look at the entire operatic enterprise as a search for the appropriate "sociable moment." My project uses Georg Simmel's thesis concerning the egalitarian nature of the "sociable moment" to examine operatic patronage, production, and performance in Siena from 1669-1704. Such a thesis challenges the standard thrust of patronage studies, which look to find self-interest at every possible turn. Sociability studies provide a new way to frame the pan-Italian expansion of opera during the late seventeenth century and to understand how opera functions in contemporary culture.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55681-11

Cornelia Bernadette Horn
St. Louis University (St. Louis, MO 63103-2097)
The Reception of Apocryphal Traditions: Bridging Islam and Christianity in the First Millennium

This scholarly monograph-in-progress examines the reception history of apocryphal texts in the first millennium C.E. It focuses on the interaction between Christian apocrypha and early Islamic texts. The transmission history of apocrypha includes their reception into Islam and their 'Islamicization,' i.e., the transformation of extra-Biblical stories into an Islamic framework. Thus, one side of this exchange consists of the study of how apocryphal texts were received into the Qur'an and other early Islamic literature. A complementary side investigates how ideas, notions, and images taken from early Islamic writings in turn shaped the development of Christian apocryphal literature, both of newly emerging texts and of texts that were rewritten under the influence of and in response to Islam. This work therefore also involves tracing the influence of the Islamic understanding of apocryphal texts on their Christian reception from the Islamic period onward.

Project fields:
History of Religion

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-55691-11

Kristin Mann
Emory University (Atlanta, GA 30322-1018)
Trans-Atlantic Lives: Slavery and Freedom in West Africa and Brazil

My project will use court records from the British colony of Lagos to identify persons of slave origin mentioned in them and to recover information about their lives in West Africa and Brazil. The stories these individuals told in court will be analyzed for the memories they contain of the slave trade, slavery, and freedom on both sides of the Atlantic, as well as for the insights they yield into the social relationships and cultural practices of these slaves and freed people. Further research using archival sources in Brazil and from Nigeria and Britain will flesh out the biographies of the slaves and freed people identified in the court records, illuminating how they sustained relationships with one another across time and space. By casting new light on the networks of exchange, sociability, and belief that bridged the Atlantic between the Bight of Benin and Brazil in the nineteenth century, my research will contribute to knowledge about the vibrant diaspora linking these regions.

Project fields:
African History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2011 – 7/31/2012


FA-55701-11

Kenneth L. Pomeranz
University of California, Irvine (Irvine, CA 92617-3066)
Historical Perspectives on the Unity of China

I am writing a book called Why is China So Big?, based on lectures I have just given. Much has been written about how Chinese unification was achieved or maintained at specific moments, but there has been no study of why this unity has held for most of the last 2,000 years since Mark Elvin’s 1971 book--which stopped ca. 1700. I approach the topic three ways. Part One looks at state-formation, geo-politics, and military affairs. Part Two looks at political economy and the growth of regional inter-dependence through trade, migration patterns, and systems of resource management. Part Three turns to culture, especially religion, looking how state, elite, and popular worship, though rooted in different cosmologies, nonetheless made local and larger-scale identities mutually reinforcing. An introduction and conclusion discuss further implications for Chinese studies, comparative history, and contemporary affairs.

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55708-11

Golfo Alexopoulos
University of South Florida (Tampa, FL 33620-9951)
A Gulag History: The Violence of Everyday Life

My book project expands the current field of political, economic, and institutional histories of the Gulag, and offers a cultural history of the Stalinist camps. The book is focused on a few select topics that reveal some of the more distinctive, yet largely overlooked, camp practices and features of everyday life. I shift attention from the Gulag's economic rationale and political prisoners, to the Gulag's broad societal impact and systemic violence. Throughout the various chapters, I highlight the ways in which the violence of everyday life proved to be extensive, routine, and inherent in the labor camp system's design. In this way, I situate the Gulag in the broader academic discussions concerning state terror and crimes against humanity.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Russian History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2011 – 5/31/2012


FA-55739-11

Matthew Avery Sutton
Washington State University (Pullman, WA 99164-0001)
American Evangelicals and the Politics of Apocalypse

This project examines the relationships among American religion, race, politics, and culture in the twentieth century by focusing on the rise and evolution of American evangelicalism. It is significant for the following reasons. First, it takes seriously the global contexts (including Zionism, communism, economic depression, Fascism, world wars and Cold War) that shaped the movement. Second, it juxtaposes the narratives of black and white evangelicals demonstrating how many African American conservative Christians, who embraced the same apocalyptic theology as their white counterparts, developed a fundamentally different understanding of the relationships among religion, international events, and politics. Finally, it forces us to rethink the political nature of American evangelicalism. Well before the start of the Civil Rights movement, white and black evangelicals had developed deep and conflicting views of New Deal liberalism and the proper role of the federal government.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2011 – 5/31/2012


FA-55746-11

Eugene C. Ulrich
University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame, IN 46556-4635)
The Developmental Composition of the Bible in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls

With all the Dead Sea scrolls now published, and with all the biblical scrolls collected into a single volume, the opportunity is ripe for a synthesis of what it all means for scholars and the general public. I propose a monograph describing the much-changed picture of the character of the Scriptures at the beginning of rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. These 2000-year-old texts display a rich and unimagined pluriformity, showing the last stages in the long developmental composition of the Bible, prior to the unified picture formerly presented. As Chief Editor of the Biblical Scrolls I reworked them all into The Biblical Qumran Scrolls (2010). Thus, I have all the data compiled. And having written some forty articles on the scrolls, I am proposing to rework these articles into a monograph which will synthesize the learnings and offer scholars and the educated public an illustrated, inductively explained, comprehensive picture of what the biblical scrolls have taught us.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Religion, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$33,600 (approved)
$33,600 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2012 – 8/31/2012


FA-55748-11

Ezra Greenspan
Southern Methodist University (Dallas, TX 75205)
William Wells Brown: An African American Life

This project consists of a comprehensive literary and cultural biography of the pioneering African American writer, William Wells Brown. It combines a deeply researched presentation of Brown's life and career with a critical analysis of his connection to and participation in the nineteenth-century culture of letters.

[Grant products][Media coverage][Prizes]

Project fields:
American Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2011 – 5/31/2012


FA-55750-11

Sarah Abrevaya Stein
University of California, Los Angeles (Los Angeles, CA 90095-9000)
The Changing Legal Classification of Middle Eastern Jews in the 20th Century

This historical study explores Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Jewish encounters with evolving legal systems whose shaping accompanied the dismantling, persistence, and transformation of empires across the globe over the course of the twentieth century. Misfits works at the intersection of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean History, European History, Legal History, Colonial and Post-Colonial Studies, and Jewish Studies, all of which stand to be enriched by an exploration of Jewish cases. This is so because Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Jews served as litmus tests in instances when colonial, national, and international laws collided, rendering them crucial case studies of a larger, global story. Once Jewish subjects, experiences, and encounters are taken into account, I argue, we may tell a more diverse story of the dissolution and reconstitution of empire and the formation of post-colonial identities and modern legal systems in the twentieth century.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-55761-11

Julia L. Mickenberg
University of Texas, Austin (Austin, TX 78712-0100)
The New Woman Tries on Red: Russia in the American Feminist Imagination, 1905-1945

The New Woman Tries on Red: Russia in the American Feminist Imagination argues that our understanding of the history of modern feminism—conceived of as a movement dedicated to fostering equal political rights as well as professional opportunities, sexual and psychological liberation, autonomy, creative expression, and social justice for women—changes if we recognize the significant impact of revolutionary Russia upon prominent female suffragists, reformers, journalists, performers, authors, activists, and other public figures in the first half of the twentieth century. Russia served as a kind of alter-ego to the U.S.; this fact, along with its tradition of women's revolutionary activism, an avowed commitment by Russian revolutionaries to equality and opportunity for women, and, in the Soviet era, the fact that the USSR stood for the very idea of internationalism, helped Russia exert a singular but heretofore unacknowledged influence on American feminism.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
American Studies

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2012 – 12/31/2012


FA-55766-11

Peter White
University of Chicago (Chicago, IL 60637-5418)
A Commentary on Augustine's "Confessions Books 5-9"

In books 5 through 9 of the Confessions, St. Augustine describes the experience that caused him to abandon an official career in the Roman imperial capital and to take up a Christian life that would have far-reaching consequences for him and his church. My commentary on these books will explain the historical, religious, and intellectual milieu that Augustine invokes as the framework of his story. It will clarify the Latin expression of a text that blends Biblical and classical rhetoric in original but challenging ways. And it will examine the narrative methods that have made the Confessions an absorbing story for every generation of readers that comes to it.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Classics

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55769-11

Malcolm Charles Baker
University of California, Riverside (Riverside, CA 92521-0001)
The Marble Index: Roubiliac and Sculptural Portraiture in 18th-Century Britain

The Marble Index will be the first study of sculptural portraiture in eighteenth-century Britain, exploring the significance of the bust and the statue as modes of representation. The sculptural portrait emerged in Britain as an independent form only in the early eighteenth century but by 1750 it was being used to represent an increasingly wide range of sitters and had been given a centrality that allowed it to rival the painted portrait. The sculptor, Louis Francois Roubiliac played a key role in this reconfiguration. By looking at the bust and the statue as genres, this study will address the central question of how these images, seemingly so traditional in their conventions, developed into ambitious and complex forms of representation within a culture in which many of the components of modernity were being fashioned. As an interdisciplinary study, it sets out to add a major missing dimension to existing accounts of eighteenth-century British culture.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55771-11

Jennifer Lynn Ritterhouse
Utah State University (Logan, UT 84322-1400)
Discovering the South: Race, Region, and the Transformation of American Liberalism

In the late 1930s and early 1940s, American liberals began to focus on race issues to a greater extent than ever before. Historians such as Glenda Gilmore and Doug Rossinow attribute this transformation in political philosophy to the influence of leftists and left-liberals. My book, Discovering the South, will examine the same process from a "middle" perspective, centering on white southern liberal Jonathan Daniels, who in the early 1940s served President Franklin Roosevelt as an important adviser on domestic race relations. Discovering the South will begin by retracing the most illuminating and formative parts of a 1937 tour of the South that Daniels undertook for his 1938 book, A Southerner Discovers the South. A third section will then examine Daniels's work in Washington and the broader discussions of race issues within the Democratic Party. The result will be an engaging narrative that sheds light on an important political realignment and black and white southerners' role in it.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2012 – 5/31/2013


FA-55788-11

Sally M.A. Bick
University of Windsor (Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 Canada)
The Musical Legacy of the New School of Social Research

I propose to complete a book of intellectual and aesthetic history that will offer a critical portrait of the New School for Social Research and its significance to American culture, framed within the country’s changing political environment, a history yet to be told. Initially focusing on the social sciences, the New School nurtured a roster of controversial yet distinguished musicians who offered courses, symposia, panels, and concerts on contemporary musical issues, fulfilling the School's agenda to address music in relation to the social and political forces that shaped modern American society. As a sanctuary for musical modernist and experimental innovation among a diverse group of musicians, the New School emerged from an isolated oasis, where one could hear, discuss, and meet an array of the most important American composers to, as Life Magazine characterized, an energetic and fashionable place of activity and an integral part of New York's social and cultural landscape.

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55803-11

Robert J. Foster
University of Rochester (Rochester, NY 14627-0001)
A Cultural Biography of the P. G. Black Collection of Pacific Islands Artifacts

The Buffalo Museum of Science holds the oldest collection in North America of Pacific Islands artifacts put together by a single person. I propose to write a scholarly book that puts the P.G. Black collection in the economic, political and cultural contexts of its creation, purchase, and display. For example, the collection provides important clues about initial encounters between Pacific Islanders and European traders, missionaries, and colonial officials; and display of objects from the collection at museum exhibits in the 1940s promoted acceptance of the idea of primitive art in the U.S. I also propose to write a brief nonacademic text that will support traveling and online virtual exhibits of the Black collection and that will interpret particular artifacts for the general public--including the general public in the Pacific Islands where the collection originated. The overall goal of the project is to make the Black collection an accessible resource for a large and broad audience.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Anthropology

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55804-11

Mark Edward Ruff
St. Louis University (St. Louis, MO 63103-2097)
The Battle for the Catholic Past in Germany, 1945 - 1975

The Battle for the Catholic Past in Germany, 1945-1975 seeks to explain the origins and development of the historical controversies surrounding the Roman Catholic Church's relationship to National Socialism. Focusing on the era from the end of the Second World War until the mid-1970s, it historicizes these debates by asking questions including: Why did these cultural wars emerge when they did? Why did they consume such energy, dominating headlines, triggering lawsuits and even requiring the intervention of Foreign Ministries during the Cold War? This monograph argues that the controversies over the church's relationship to National Socialism were frequently surrogates for another set of conflicts over how the church was to position itself in modern society--in politics, international relations, the media and the larger public sphere.

Project fields:
European History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2012 – 6/30/2013


FA-55838-11

Irene Zanini-Cordi
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)
Fashioning Italian Women, Fashioning a Nation. Sociability and Women's Identity (1780s-1860s)

Fashioning Italian Women, Fashioning a Nation. Sociability and Women's Identity (1780s-1860s) explores the writings of those who held literary salons from just before the French Revolution (1780s) until the unification of Italy (1860s) and focuses on the shifting roles and identities of Italian women. My book presents the English reader with the first systematic analysis of the writings on gender and nationality of the salonnières, writings that, in many cases, have never been treated by scholarship. The literary salon engenders a female identity enmeshed with national identity. Its semipublic quality, I claim, is reflected in a formal and thematic change in women's literary production: from poems of imitation, private improvisations and public speeches, they turn to letters, translations, newspaper articles and novels, thus shaping their own literary identity. This work appeals both to a general public and to scholars and students of literature, history and cultural studies.

Project fields:
Italian Literature

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2011 – 7/31/2012


FA-55847-11

Dana L. Frank
University of California, Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, CA 95064-1077)
Labor's Own Empire: The AFL-CIO's Cold War in Honduras, 1950-1980

This project examines the AFL-CIO's Cold War intervention into the Latin American labor movement, through a case study of Honduras, the federation's most successful project. Between 1950 and 19995 the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) expended around ten million dollars in U.S. State Department and other funds, to manipulate the labor movement of Honduras in the name of anticommunism. Honduras was just one piece of the federation's work throughout Latin America, Africa, and Asia. This project is the first book-length study of the AFL-CIO's projects in a single country, using newly available labor and State Department documents and over three dozen interviews with Hondurans. It speaks to larger questions of the Cold War in Latin America, U.S. and Honduran labor history, and the contested nature of U.S.-Latin American relations, with particular attention to Hondurans' responses to the AFL-CIO's overtures.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55851-11

Bernadette Joan Brooten
Brandeis University (Waltham, MA 02453-2700)
Enslaved Women and Female Slaveholders in Early Christianity, First to Sixth Centuries

Christian thinking about marriage, gender, and sexuality still shapes norms and values. Early Christianity developed in a slave-holding society, but slavery's effects on Christian thought remain under-researched. Unlike earlier Mediterranean societies, the Roman Empire saw the rise of slavery on a massive scale. Slaveholders owned the sexual functions of their enslaved laborers and their offspring. Slavery thrived in the early church, shaping both its moral imagination and daily life. Early church writers document that chastity and slavery rarely co-existed. I will examine how the institution of slavery affected enslaved girls and women, those at risk of enslavement, and slaveholding women. I will document how the early Christian majority decision to tolerate slavery, including the enslavement of fellow Christians, and to anathematize those who encouraged enslaved persons to flee from their owners, shaped teachings on marriage, fidelity, chastity, and celibacy.

Project fields:
History of Religion

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2011 – 6/30/2012


FA-55869-11

Drew M. Massey
Harvard University (Cambridge, MA 02138-3800)
Between Collaboration and Retrospection: John Kirkpatrick, American Music, and the Printed Page, 1929-1989

For this fellowship, I propose to undertake the first book-length study of any individual American music editor. I plan to focus on the career of the American musician John Kirkpatrick (1905-1991), and suggest how exploring editors can enrich our understanding of music. I argue that Kirkpatrick was an individual endowed with a robust agency whose editorial output may be read as a detailed and sustained commentary on the past and present state of American composition. At its broadest level, if this perspective is compelling, it requires that musicologists and performers reconsider their relationship with scores as sources. Editions can no longer be seen as vehicles for the inert delivery of authorial intent, but must be consistently situated within their particular historical context, and understood as the product of a particular vision of how music ought to be. If Kirkpatrick's editorial output teaches us anything, it is that behind every edition lies an argument.

[Grant products][Prizes]

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2011 – 8/31/2012


FA-55873-11

Sinclair S. Thomson
New York University (New York, NY 10012-1019)
Serpentine Memory: Indian Revolution and Historical Imagination in the Andes (18th to 21st Centuries)

This project tracks the sinuous memory of Tupac Amaru and Tupaj Katari, leaders of the Andean insurrection of 1780-1781, the largest anticolonial movement in Latin America prior to independence in the early 19th century. It shows how this Indian insurgency, whose leaders shared the name Resplendent Serpent yet were denounced by Spanish authorities as monsters of humanity, has been invoked in contrasting light and dark tones in subsequent revolutionary and counter-insurgent conflicts in the Andes, Latin America, and the Atlantic world. The historical imagination of the Great Rebellion gives us new insight into elite-subaltern relations and national projects in the independence and republican eras. The rebellion's repercussions around the Atlantic world expand our understanding of the Age of Revolution. In recent decades, the complex and potent politics of memory help explain the rise of contemporary indigenous social movements and their campaigns to decolonize state and society.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Latin American History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2011 – 12/31/2011


FA-55891-11

H. Shelton Stromquist
University of Iowa (Iowa City, IA 52242-1320)
Social Democracy in the City: Class Politics and Municipal Reform in Comparative Perspective, 1890-1920

The project is a book-length transnational, comparative study of the municipal origins of independent labor politics from 1890 through 1920, the formative period of social democratic parties of a wide variety across the industrializing world. The book argues that the crucible of the city and the urban crises spawned by industrialization are essential to understanding the character and limitations of this new politics, but the municipal arena has been neglected in studies that largely focus on national and parliamentary political development. The book draws on extensive archival research in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Austria, Sweden and the United Kingdom. With the research essentially completed, I have drafted three of the planned ten chapters. An NEH Fellowship will permit me to complete the writing of the remaining chapters and prepare the manuscript for publication. I expect to publish the book with Oxford University Press.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History, General

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2011 – 7/31/2012


FA-55892-11

Benjamin Nicholas Lawrance
University of California, Davis (Davis, CA 95618-6153)
Africa's Stolen Childhood: The Illegal Enslavement of African Children in the 19th and 20th Centuries

My book examines African child slaves in the 19th and 20th centuries as slavery became illegal in the Atlantic and Africa. As slavery becomes unacceptable, the proportion of children, particularly girls, increases. 19th-c slave traders and 20th-c labor recruiters turn to children as legal coercion is stymied. The life histories of five children associated with the trial of La Amistad are segues to five thematic chapters exploring topics in illegal enslavement. They journey from West Africa to Cuba, the US, and back and crafted child-specific strategies to survive. Childhood identity markers and child slave subjectivities were shaped by children’s encounters with law. Their stories contextualize the circumstances in which children were pawned, kidnapped, enslaved, re-enslaved, rescued, and freed. Based on archival and oral data from the US, Africa, and Europe, I demonstrate that children’s encounters with enslavement and emancipation were qualitatively different from adults’.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
African History

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
12/1/2011 – 11/30/2012


FA-55912-11

Georgia J. Cowart
Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, OH 44106-4901)
Watteau's Utopias of Music and Theater: Visions of a New France

This book project links a number of Watteau's late paintings to the Parisian musical theater at the Paris Opera, the French and Italian Comedies, and the fairground theaters. A series of theatrical works, connected by an intricate network of political satire and intertextual allusion, represents a self-reflexive celebration of modern theatrical entertainment in direct opposition to traditional modes of monarchical propaganda. A wide range of sources including libretti, stage directions, and stage designs confirm Watteau's transfer of detailed imagery as well as the libertine, satirical tone of these works to the visual arts. The focus of my project is an interpretation of Watteau's paintings as they reflect theatrical games of masks with multiple layers of meaning. As part of this process I also seek to understand their more delicate resonances and to relate these to the dreams and aspirations of a changing society.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Fellowships for University Teachers

Division:
Research Programs

Totals:
$50,400 (approved)
$50,400 (awarded)

Grant period:
1/1/2011 – 12/31/2011


FA-55923-11