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Program: Landmarks of American History*
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University of Central Missouri (Warrensburg, MO 64093)
Jeffrey Yelton (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50055-05
Clashing Identities: Arrow Rock, Missouri, Where West Met South, 1820-1860

Two one-week workshops for 100 teachers to explore political, economic, and social issues of Antebellum America through the history of Arrow Rock, Missouri.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $155,255 (approved); $155,255 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute (Hyde Park, NY 12538)
David Woolner (Project Director, 03/17/2006 - present)
BH-50197-07
FDR and the World Crisis, 1933-1945: Roosevelt and Hyde Park

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers to examine the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt at his residence in Hyde Park.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $151,116 (approved); $151,116 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 12/31/2007

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute (Hyde Park, NY 12538)
David Woolner (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50230-07
FDR and the World Crisis, 1933-1945: Roosevelt and Hyde Park

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers to examine the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt at his residence in Hyde Park.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $162,000 (approved); $162,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Pennsylvania State University, Main Campus (University Park, PA 16802)
Nan Woodruff (Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present)
BH-50027-04
Slavery and Freedom in Charleston, S.C. and the Sea Islands

Two one-week workshops on the rise and fall of slavery in Charleston and its environs, based on the study of primary documents and historical sites.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,917 (approved); $150,917 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Villanova University (Villanova, PA 19085-1478)
Catherine Wilson (Project Director, 11/07/2005 - present)
BH-50153-06
Benjamin Franklin and the Invention of America

Two one-week workshops for 100 teachers on the life of Benjamin Franklin, to be held at Villanova University, with visits to relevant 18th-century Philadelphia locations. This Landmarks of American History and Culture workshop is co-funded by NEH and The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Project fields: Political Science, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $159,871 (approved); $159,871 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Educational Service District 112 (Vancouver, WA)
Mary Wheeler (Project Director, 08/20/2003 - present)
BH-50009-04
Crossroads and Conquest: People, Place and Power on the Vancouver National Historic Reserve

Two one-week workshops on the history and cultures of the Vancouver National Historic Reserve, a landmark site of the Pacific Northwest.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,938 (approved); $150,119 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

University of New Hampshire, Durham (Durham, NH 03824)
David Watters (Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present)
BH-50032-04
Landmark Events in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and the Transformation of American Identity, 1765-1800 and 1890-1920

Two one-week workshops to study the connections between national events and local culture in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in two historic periods (1765-1800 and 1890-1920).

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $140,204 (approved); $140,204 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

U.S.S. Constitution Museum (Boston, MA 02129-0215)
Sarah Watkins (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50529-12
The USS Constitution and the War of 1812

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the naval War of 1812 and its most important and complex artifact, the United States frigate Constitution, anchored in Boston.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the naval War of 1812 and its most important and complex artifact, the United States frigate Constitution, anchored in Boston. In connection with the War of 1812 bicentennial, the USS Constitution Museum organizes a new workshop around an "underrepresented" war, using the frigate Constitution to tell the story, not just of "technology and tactics," but also the broader significance of the war in its time and in the national collective memory. Although the Constitution served in other conflicts, the ship achieved iconic status for her role in three inspiring victories against the Royal Navy in the War of 1812. Participants read Donald Hickey's The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict; Stephen Budiansky's Perilous Fight: America's Intrepid War with Great Britain on the High Seas; A Sailor's Life (forthcoming) by Sarah Watkins and Matthew Brenckle; J. C. A. Stagg's Mr. Madison's War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the Early American Republic; Madison's declaration of war; and the 1814 Treaty of Ghent. Other readings are provided in a workshop notebook; the teachers also use the Museum's web-based curriculum guide, All Hands on Deck. Joining lead scholar Donald Hickey is Robert Allison, who has written on Stephen Decatur; Margherita Desy of the Naval History and Heritage Command Detachment in Boston; Bill Fowler, author of Silas Talbot: Captain of Old Ironsides; Sidney Hart, curator at the National Portrait Gallery; and Gene Smith, who is currently writing about African-American combatants in the War of 1812. The daily progression of topics begins with the debates that led to the start of the war, then turns to the major naval battles. Wednesday and Thursday's program features stories of "Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times," and the week concludes with "memory and meaning" themes to deepen participants' understanding of the impact of the War of 1812. With the Constitution's rich trove of artifacts-some 10,000 in all-the ship serves as the major landmark of the workshop, and teachers have opportunities to explore spaces usually "off limits" to the public, including the captain's cabin, surgeon's cockpit, and the magazine. The teachers also visit Boston sites, including the Museum of Fine Arts, the Black Heritage Trail, and the Federal-style Harrison Gray Otis House.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,548 (approved); $179,548 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

Converse College (Spartanburg, SC 29302-0006)
Melissa Walker (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50157-07
Partisans and Redcoats: The American Revolution in the Southern Backcountry

Two one-week summer workshops for 100 school teachers on the American Revolutionary War in the Southern backcountry, with visits to the sites of key battles.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $128,134 (approved); $128,134 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 9/30/2007

Converse College (Spartanburg, SC 29302-0006)
Melissa Walker (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50263-08
Partisans and Redcoats: The American Revolution in the Southern Backcountry

No project description available

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,590 (approved); $149,590 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth (North Dartmouth, MA 02747-2300)
Timothy Walker (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50386-10
Sailing to Freedom: New Bedford and the Underground Railroad

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to explore New Bedford, Massachusetts as a historical landmark for abolitionism and the Underground Railroad.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $177,849 (approved); $177,781 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth (North Dartmouth, MA 02747-2300)
Timothy Walker (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50524-12
Sailing to Freedom: New Bedford and the Underground Railroad

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on abolitionism in its maritime context in New Bedford, Massachusetts.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on abolitionism in its maritime context in New Bedford, Massachusetts. The program examines New Bedford as a locus for abolitionism and the Underground Railroad, treating the city as a lens through which to view great challenges facing nineteenth-century America. During this period, New Bedford became one of America's most cosmopolitan cities, as well as a preeminent whaling port. While its maritime trade drew diverse populations of immigrants, it also transported to freedom fugitive African Americans in ship cargo holds. With its significant Quaker population, New Bedford emerged as a hub of both reform society and abolitionist activity. As Kathryn Grover captures in her book, The Fugitive's Gibraltar: Escaping Slaves and Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts, New Bedford was "not so much a stop along the Underground Railroad, but rather a terminus--a community where ex-slaves knew they could settle and prosper." Project director Timothy Walker (University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth), a maritime and slave trade historian, has assembled a diverse faculty, including historians Grover, John Stauffer (Harvard University), and Jeffrey Bolster (University of New Hampshire), and local poet laureate Everett Hoagland. Each day, experts connect lectures and discussions with close studies of original documents, objects, and architecture. For example, after lectures on New Bedford's early history and the maritime trade, teachers examine rare maritime guides, captains' logs, and mariners' scrimshaw sculpture. On another day, Len Travers (University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth) trains participants to work with primary documents and material objects as historical evidence. Primary readings include census data, fugitive slave narratives, and the speeches and letters of Frederick Douglass; secondary readings include works by several of the visiting scholars, such as Jeffrey Bolster's Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail.

Project fields: Arts, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,986 (approved); $175,087 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth (North Dartmouth, MA 02747-2300)
Timothy Walker (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50680-14
Sailing to Freedom: New Bedford and the Underground Railroad

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers to explore abolitionism and the Underground Railroad in the port city of New Bedford, Massachusetts.

This program examines New Bedford, Massachusetts, as a lens through which to view the great challenges facing nineteenth-century America. Though New Bedford is best known as American's preeminent whaling port, during this period it also became one of the nation's most cosmopolitan cities. While its maritime trade drew diverse populations of immigrants, it also transported to freedom fugitive African Americans in ship cargo holds. With its significant Quaker population, New Bedford emerged as a hub of both reform society and abolitionist activity. As Kathryn Grover captures in her book The Fugitive's Gibraltar: Escaping Slaves and Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts, New Bedford was "not so much a stop along the Underground Railroad, but rather a terminus--a community where ex-slaves knew they could settle and prosper." Project director Timothy Walker (University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth [UMD]), a maritime and slave trade historian, has assembled a group of faculty, including UMD historians Len Travers and Lee Blake, Jeffrey Bolster (University of New Hampshire), John Stauffer and Mary Malloy (Harvard University), independent scholars Kathryn Grover and David Cecelski, Laurie Robertson-Lorant (Bridgewater State University), Kate Clifford Larson (Simmons College), Delores Walters (University of Rhode Island), and local poet laureate Everett Hoagland. Presentation topics include "An Overview of New Bedford Waterfront Trades"; "Black Seamen in the Atlantic"; "New Bedford's African-American Community"; "Frederick Douglass, New Bedford and the Underground Railroad"; "History of the Underground Railroad in Poetry and Oral Tradition"; and "Gendered Resistance: Black Women and Resistance to Enslavement," among others. Each day, experts connect lectures and discussions with close studies of original documents, objects, and architecture. Teachers examine rare maritime guides, captains' logs, and mariners' scrimshaw sculpture. Primary readings include census data, fugitive slave narratives, and the speeches and letters of Frederick Douglass; secondary readings include works by several of the visiting scholars, such as Jeffrey Bolster's Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $170,304 (approved); $169,065 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 3/31/2016

Canal Corridor Association - Gaylord Building Historic Site (Lockport, IL 60441-2878)
Ronald Vasile (Project Director, 08/20/2003 - present)
BH-50006-04
The Last Great American Canal: How the Illinois and Michigan Canal United 19th Century America

Three one-week workshops to explore the story of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and its relationship to broader themes in American history.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $225,819 (approved); $217,419 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Canal Corridor Association - Gaylord Building Historic Site (Lockport, IL 60441-2878)
Ronald Vasile (Project Director, 08/14/2004 - present)
BH-50054-05
The Last Great American Canal: How the Illinois and Michigan Canal United 19th Century America

Three one-week workshops for 135 teachers to explore the story of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and its relationship to broader themes in American history.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $198,030 (approved); $195,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Northern Illinois University (DeKalb, IL 60115)
Drew VandeCreek (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50079-05
The Lincoln Home, Society, and Politics in Antebellum America, 1840-1861

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers held at Abraham Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois, on politics and society in the antebellum United States.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,000 (approved); $150,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Plimoth Plantation, Inc. (Plymouth, MA 02362-1620)
Francis Bremer (Co Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present); Kimberly Van Wormer (Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present)
BH-50039-04
Cultural Encounters and Human Agency in America 1550-1700

Three one-week workshops, held at the site of the original Pilgrim colony, on the interaction between Europeans and Native Americans in early colonial America.

Project fields: Education
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $226,000 (approved); $226,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Claremont Graduate University (Claremont, CA 91711-5909)
Michael Uhlmann (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50056-05
A Vast and Many Voiced Creation: Congress and the Capitol

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers exploring how the art and architecture of the United States Capitol reveal the ideals and realities of the nation from its founding to the Civil War.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $135,678 (approved); $110,683 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Claremont Graduate University (Claremont, CA 91711-5909)
Michael Uhlmann (Project Director, 08/17/2005 - present)
BH-50134-06
A Vast and Many Voiced Creation: Congress and the Capitol

Two one-week workshops for 70 school teachers exploring how the art and architecture of the United State Capitol reveal the ideals and realities of the nation from its founding to the Civil War.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $110,661 (approved); $107,355 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Claremont Graduate University (Claremont, CA 91711-5909)
Michael Uhlmann (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50194-07
The U.S. Constitution and the Art and Architecture of the Capitol

Two one-week, on-site workshops for seventy school teachers, on the history, art, and architecture of the United States Capitol.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $111,081 (approved); $111,081 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 9/30/2007

Historical Society of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA 19107-5699)
Beth Twiss-Houting (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50641-14
Cultures of Independence: Perspectives on Independence Hall and the Meaning of Freedom

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two teachers on Independence Hall in Philadelphia as a civic gathering place and repository of collective memory.

Originally built as the Pennsylvania State House in 1732, Independence Hall in Philadelphia served for more than four decades as the seat of Pennsylvania's provincial government before gaining its place on the national and world stage as the setting for the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The surrounding Independence Square (named as such in 1824) later assumed a role as a place for the advancement of social causes. Frederick Douglass spoke against slavery in Independence Square in 1844; Susan B. Anthony spoke there in defense of women's rights in 1876. During the last century, it emerged as a location for ethnic parades, holiday celebrations, and political demonstrations--a role it continues to fill as part of Independence National Historic Park. The new workshop gathers this long and storied history together around a guiding question, "What is the role of an iconic landmark in a culture?" Historian Gary Nash (University of California, Los Angeles) launches the workshop with discussion of his Landmarks of the American Revolution, part of the Oxford University Press series, Guide to Historic Places, and a review of Pauline Maier's classic work, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence, a pre-workshop assigned reading. On day two at Independence Hall, project co-director and historian Charlene Mires (Rutgers University, Camden) develops the theme, "The Foundation of an Icon." On day three, participants tour the Liberty Bell site and the site of the President's House, with lectures by historians Randall Miller (Saint Joseph's University) and Emma Lapsansky-Werner (Haverford College) on "African Americans in the City of Independence" and "Abolition and the Liberty Bell," respectively. On the fourth day, participants visit the National Archives and Records Administration, with lectures by Holly Holst (National Park Service) and Dr. Mires on "Remember the Women" and "Expressing and Expanding National Identity." On day five, participants visit the Philadelphia History Museum and hear a lecture by historian Tom Sugrue (University of Pennsylvania) on "Protest in Place." On the workshop's final day, participants tour the National Constitution Center (NCC), guided by Dr. Mires and NCC educator Kathleen Maher, who discuss the town hall as a stage for national discourse. Participants study primary documents, art, and artifacts: Lafayette memorabilia; nineteenth-century souvenir canes; the Hucksters' Petition to the Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia, 1805; Susan B. Anthony's Declaration of Rights of the Women, 1876; and others. In addition to the Maier text, scholarly works include Eric Foner's The Story of American Freedom; Gary Nash's Forging Freedom: the Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community; and Charlene Mires's Independence Hall in American Memory.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $148,246 (approved); $147,806 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Ohio Historical Society (Columbus, OH 43211-2474)
Rebecca Trivison (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present); Brian Schoen (Co Project Director, 07/21/2011 - present)
BH-50444-11
The War of 1812 in the Great Lakes and Western Territories

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to study the national implications of the War of 1812's northwestern frontier.

"The War of 1812 in the Great Lakes and Western Territories" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers on the causes, conduct, and consequences of the War of 1812 in the Midwestern United States. Hosted by the Ohio Historical Society [OHS], the workshop investigates the War of 1812 by considering several major topics: the war's causes; the complicated interactions of Euro-Americans, British, Canadians, and Native Americans during the conflict; and the war's short- and long-term effects. The project utilizes important military sites, including River Raisin Battlefield, Fort Meigs, and Perry's Victory and International Peace Monument. The project staff includes co-directors Brian Schoen (history, Ohio University) and Rebecca Trivison (OHS) and visiting faculty members Alan Taylor (history, University of California, Davis), Andrew Cayton (history, Miami University, Ohio), Gregory Dowd (history, University of Michigan), Susan Sleeper-Smith (history, Michigan State University), Gerard Altoff (National Park Service), Ralph Naveaux (Monroe County Historical Museum), and David Skaggs (history, Bowling Green State University). The program includes lectures, discussions, site visits, primary-source sessions, and work on teaching projects. The participants read secondary works by members of the visiting faculty and other scholars. Primary sources include an Indian captivity narrative, missionary letters, correspondence by William Henry Harrison, President James Madison's war message, and the full text of "The Star-Spangled Banner"; participants also receive a primary-source database from the OHS archives for use in creating lesson plans.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $184,111 (approved); $170,258 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

SUNY Research Foundation, Brockport (Brockport, NY 14420-2932)
José Torre (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50554-13
The Rochester Reform Trail: Women's Rights, Religion, and Abolition on the Genesee River and the Erie Canal

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to examine Rochester's central role in nineteenth-century American reform history.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to examine Rochester's central role in nineteenth-century American reform history. This workshop examines Rochester's central role in American reform history and its legacy in American life and thought. As the home base for several of the nation's most important nineteenth-century reform leaders--abolitionist Frederick Douglass, women's rights activist Susan B. Anthony, and religious revivalist Charles Grandison Finne--Rochester offers an unusually rich collection of reform sites. Teachers study the work of these celebrated figures while visiting their private homes, offices, and churches, as well as such scholarly collections as the Frederick Douglass Papers at the University of Rochester library. The workshop concentrates on significant themes in reform history: the economic and technological reshaping of Rochester's nineteenth-century physical geography, most notably by the Erie Canal; Frederick Douglass's activism in Rochester, where he published abolitionist newspapers and a second autobiography and operated a station on the Underground Railroad; the women's rights activism of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, including the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848; and the rise of religious revivalism, as led by Finney, whose meetings solidified his reputation as one of the nation's most significant evangelical reformers. Participants read primary texts by Douglass, Anthony, and Finney, as well as relevant secondary materials, including William McFeely's biography of Douglass; Paul Johnson's A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837; Jean Baker's Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists; and Carol Sheriff's The Artificial River: The Erie Canal and the Paradox of Progress, 1817-1862. The workshop is led by Jose Torre (State University of New York at Brockport. Visiting faculty--Richard Newman (Rochester Institute of Technology), Erik Seeman (State University of New York at Buffalo), Alison Parker (State University of New York at Brockport), and Carol Faulkner (Syracuse University)--are scholars of American reform. Meeting at the Strong National Museum of Play in downtown Rochester, participants have easy access to housing, libraries, and the historic venues.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $157,090 (approved); $155,824 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

SUNY Research Foundation, Brockport (Brockport, NY 14420-2932)
José Torre (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50626-14
The Rochester Reform Trail: Women's Rights, Religion, and Abolition on the Genesee River and the Erie Canal

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers on the iconic nineteenth-century reform landscape of Rochester, New York.

This program examines Rochester's central role in American reform history and its legacy in American life and thought. The project is organized around two fundamental perspectives: 1) Rochester's vivid landmark geography illuminates the way that American reform was rooted in a new ideology of progress, and 2) Rochester's status as a home base for several of the nation's most important reform leaders underscores the relationship between grand movements for social change and the physical forces that inspired them. Participants visit a rich selection of reform sites including the Erie Canal and Broad Street Aqueduct; the Susan B. Anthony House; Seneca Falls, home to Elizabeth Cady Stanton and site of the first women's rights convention; the Frederick Douglass Collection at the University of Rochester; Third Presbyterian Church, where radical preacher Charles Grandison Finney initiated the Second Great Awakening in the 1830s; and the gravesites of Susan B. Anthony and Frederick Douglass at Mt. Hope Cemetery. Scholarly lectures connected to these guided field trips explore in depth technological and economic changes and their relationship to the reform movement; the rise of religious reform in western New York, particularly the activism of Presbyterian minister Charles Finney; black activism in Rochester and Frederick Douglass's editorial career; women's rights activism and the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848; and Susan B. Anthony, her efforts for women's suffrage, and the Fifteenth Amendment. Jose Torre (State University of New York [SUNY] at Brockport) leads the workshop; visiting scholars include notable historians of early American history and reform movements Erik Seeman (SUNY-Buffalo), Alison Parker (SUNY-Brockport), Carol Faulkner (Syracuse University), and Richard Newman (Rochester Institute of Technology). In partnership with the College at Brockport, the Strong National Museum of Play, with state-of-the-art facilities and proximity to Rochester, hosts the workshop.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $157,496 (approved); $157,496 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Kentucky Historical Society (Frankfort, KY 40601)
Tim Talbott (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50488-12
Torn Within, Threatened Without: Kentucky and the Border States in the Civil War

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on conflicts in Kentucky and other border states during the Civil War.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on conflicts in Kentucky and other border states during the Civil War. In this Landmarks workshop, the Kentucky Historical Society takes teachers beyond the battlefield in an exploration of the Civil War in Kentucky. According to the project director, "the conventional studies focus on places like Perryville and personalities like John Hunt Morgan . . . but recent scholarship reveals a complex network of guerillas, political and economic intrigue, expansive questions of loyalty, and sometimes surprising race and gender roles within a divided society." As a border state between North and South, Kentucky was a microcosm of Civil War divisiveness and played a key role in its outcome. As Lincoln said, "I hope to have God on my side, but I must have Kentucky." Among the workshop faculty are historians William C. Harris (North Carolina State University), Alicestyne Turley and J. Blaine Hudson (University of Louisville), Brian McKnight (University of Virginia-Wise), Lindsey Apple and James Klotter (Georgetown College), Aaron Astor (Maryville College), Anne E. Marshall (Mississippi State University), Dwight Pitcaithley (New Mexico State University), and Christopher Phillips (University of Cincinnati), the last of whom discusses Missouri and Maryland as other examples of Civil War border states. Readings include three books by visiting faculty: Harris's Lincoln and the Border States: Preserving the Union; Lindsey Apple's The Family Legacy of Henry Clay: In the Shadow of a Kentucky Patriarch; and Anne E. Marshall's Creating a Confederate Kentucky: The Lost Cause and Memory in a Border State. In addition to reading secondary works, participants consult primary sources from the Register of the Kentucky Historical Society and conduct research in the Society archives. Teachers visit sites in Lexington, Frankfort, and Louisville, such as the Abraham Lincoln birthplace, the Old State Capitol, the Kentucky Military History Museum, the Perryville Battlefield, the Farmington Historic Plantation, and Camp Nelson, a recruiting and training center for African-American soldiers. Participants discuss classroom applications, keep notebooks, and write responses to site visits. Within a month of the workshop, they submit an essay about a primary source for posting on the workshop blog.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $178,741 (approved); $167,851 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

California State University, Dominguez Hills Foundation (Carson, CA 90747)
Alison Bruesehoff (Co Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present); Laura Talamante (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50390-10
American History through the Eyes of a California Family, 1780s - 1920s

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers using the history of the Dominguez family and related sites to illuminate California's history from colonial days to the 1920s.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $171,788 (approved); $171,788 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Old Dominion University Research Foundation (Norfolk, VA 23508-0369)
Yonghee Suh (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50661-14
The Long Road from Brown: School Desegregation in Virginia

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers on Virginia's "Massive Resistance" to the 1954 Supreme Court ruling Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

This workshop focuses on the leading role Virginia played in resisting the 1954 decision of the United States Supreme Court that state laws designating separate public schools for black and white students are unconstitutional. In the wake of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling, Virginia launched a "Massive Resistance" using numerous approaches to circumvent Brown, ranging from the creation of state-funded private "segregation academies" to shutting down public schools entirely, as in Prince Edward County. The workshop builds on the Desegregation of Virginia Education (DOVE) project, a state-wide collaboration of scholars and archivists endeavoring to discover and preserve documentation of Virginia communities' efforts to resist or implement school desegregation. The workshop is codirected by education specialist Yonghee Suh of Old Dominion University (ODU), where the DOVE project is housed, and historian Brian Daugherity of Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), which serves as the host campus. Daugherity's book, With All Deliberate Speed, serves as a basic text for the workshop, along with selections from Elusive Equality: Desegregation and Resegregation in Norfolk's Public Schools, coauthored by visiting scholar Charles Ford, and from Black Teachers on Teaching (Michele Foster). Peter Wallenstein, professor of history at Virginia Polytechnic University, opens the workshop with an overview of the history of Virginia school segregation up through the Civil Rights Movement. Based in Richmond, the participants work with historians and archivists in the exploration of primary sources (recordings, papers, memoirs, court briefs) and secondary scholarship at sites including Virginia State University, where key documents on African-American teacher training are held; VCU's Voice of Freedom collection of oral and documentary resources on African-American education leaders; Moton School and Moton Museum, with exhibits of the strike, lawsuit, and lockout to prevent integration in Prince Edward County; two Kent County schools at the center of Green v. New Kent County (a Supreme Court case that set the stage for busing public school students across boundaries to achieve racial balance), and the Capitol Building and Virginia Civil Rights memorial in Richmond, among others.

Project fields: African American History; History, Other; U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $176,322 (approved); $176,322 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Fort Ticonderoga Association (Ticonderoga, NY 12883-0390)
Richard Strum (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50379-10
The American Revolution on the Northern Frontier: Fort Ticonderoga and the Road to Saratoga

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers focused on the role of Fort Ticonderoga and the northern frontier as a critical outpost in the early years of the Revolution.

Project fields: Museum Studies or Historical Preservation
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $159,518 (approved); $159,518 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Fort Ticonderoga Association (Ticonderoga, NY 12883-0390)
Richard Strum (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50588-13
The American Revolution on the Northern Frontier: Fort Ticonderoga and the Road to Saratoga

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers focused on Fort Ticonderoga as a critical outpost in the northern frontier during the early years of the Revolution.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers focused on Fort Ticonderoga as a critical outpost in the northern frontier during the early years of the Revolution. Fort Ticonderoga, often called the "Key to a Continent" and the "Gibraltar of the North," was central to the first three years of the American Revolution. Considering the Fort within the geographical context of Lake Champlain and the northern frontier, the workshop focuses on the people involved on both sides of the Revolution and the often overlooked role of Benedict Arnold. It explores the French and Indian War and the Saratoga Campaign as it addresses the larger impact of the northern campaign on the Revolution. Noted scholars from across the country, including William Fowler (Northeastern University), Thomas Chambers (Niagara University), Jon Parmenter (Cornell University), Douglas Egerton (Le Moyne College), James Kirby Martin (University of Houston), Carol Berkin (Baruch College, City University of New York), Judith Van Buskirk (State University of New York at Cortland), and Holly Mayer (Duquesne University), lead participants in a week of lecture-based discussions, each of which is coordinated with a theme, document, and artifact of the day. For example, Benedict Arnold's Declaration of Principles, written and signed in June 1775, presages many of the phrases in the Declaration of Independence, and is used to illustrate the theme "Benedict Arnold: An Unlikely Hero." Similarly, Asher B. Durand's painting "The Murder of Jane McRae" supports a discussion about how both sides employed propaganda during the Saratoga Campaign. The daily theme, document, and artifact generate opportunities for participants' primary research. Fort Ticonderoga comprises a historic landscape with numerous structures and object-rich exhibits, as well as thousands of original manuscripts, diaries, orderly books, and maps; participants also visit the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, the site of Fort St. Frederick, and Saratoga Battlefield. With the option to design lessons individually or as part of a small group, participants learn how to read and interpret historic sites, documents, and artifacts while preparing teaching modules. Participants use a primary source reader to aid in their research. A reading list of secondary sources includes James Nelson's Benedict Arnold's Navy and Richard Ketchum's Saratoga.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $173,180 (approved); $160,437 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

Fort Ticonderoga Association (Ticonderoga, NY 12883-0390)
Richard Strum (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50630-14
The American Revolution on the Northern Frontier: Fort Ticonderoga and the Road to Saratoga

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers on the role of Fort Ticonderoga and the northern frontier in the early years of the American Revolution.

This program considers the strategic location of Fort Ticonderoga within the geographic context of Lake Champlain and the northern frontier. With the outbreak of the Revolution at Lexington and Concord, Fort Ticonderoga quickly became a target for two separate forces supported by Massachusetts and Connecticut. The capture of Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775, led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, marked the first offensive victory of the Revolution for the colonists. During 1776, Ticonderoga became a vital defensive position protecting New York from a British invasion from Quebec. Continental troops built extensive entrenchments on the Ticonderoga peninsula and across the lake on Mount Independence. In addition to studying the important role Fort Ticonderoga, Lake Champlain, and the northern frontier played during the war, participants explore the influence of the French and Indian War, the people involved on both sides of the Revolution, the sometimes-overlooked role of Benedict Arnold in those early years, the immediate and long-term impact of the Saratoga Campaign, and the lasting legacies of the northern campaign on the Revolution. Noted scholars from across the country, including William Fowler (Northeastern University), Thomas Chambers (Niagara University), Jon Parmenter (Cornell University), Douglas Egerton (Le Moyne College), James Kirby Martin (University of Houston), Carol Berkin (Baruch College, City University of New York), Holly Mayer (Duquesne University), and Todd Braisted (Loyalist Institute), lead participants in a week of lecture-based discussions and site visits, each of which is coordinated with a theme, document, and artifact of the day. The weekly program is organized around chronology and the unfolding of events: Monday, "Pre-cursor to Revolution: The French and Indian War"; Tuesday, "A Revolutionary People"; Wednesday, "Benedict Arnold: An Unlikely Hero?"; Thursday, "The Saratoga Campaign: Turning Point of the Revolution"; and Friday, "Lasting Legacies." Fort Ticonderoga comprises a historic landscape with numerous structures and object-rich exhibits, as well as thousands of original manuscripts, diaries, orderly books, and maps; participants also visit the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, the site of Fort St. Frederick, and Saratoga Battlefield. With the option to design lessons individually or as part of a small group, participants learn how to read and interpret historic sites, documents, and artifacts while preparing teaching modules. To aid in their research, participants are given a primary source reader. A reading list of secondary sources includes James Nelson's Benedict Arnold's Navy and Richard Ketchum's Saratoga.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $169,232 (approved); $168,694 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

University of Illinois at Chicago (Chicago, IL 60607)
Margaret Strobel (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50072-05
Hull-House in the Progressive Era: People, Places, and Ideas

Two six-day workshops for 80 teachers to study the various dimensions of the Progressive movement in American history as they intersect in the activities of Jane Addams, her co-workers, and her neighbors at the Hull-House settlement in Chicago.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,968 (approved); $149,968 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 6/30/2006

University of Connecticut (Storrs, CT 06269-9000)
Robert Stephens (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present); Mary Junda (Co Project Director, 07/30/2012 - present)
BH-50522-12
Gullah Voices: Traditions and Transformations

Two one-week workshops for eighty schoolteachers to explore the history and cultural memory of the Gullah people through the arts.

Two one-week workshops for eighty schoolteachers to explore the history and cultural memory of the Gullah people through the arts. In collaboration with The Penn Center in St. Helena, South Carolina, two music department faculty from the University of Connecticut, Robert Stephens and Mary Ellen Junda, engage teachers in a study of the history and rich artistic heritage of the Gullah people. They observe that the Gullah, also known as Geechee in Georgia, have shaped a distinctive culture within a history of oppression followed by isolation and more recent struggles to preserve their way of life in the face of twentieth-century development. The Gullah people, descended from rice plantation slaves, preserved many common elements of their home culture in Sierra Leone, chief among them music, dance, and oral traditions. Before coming to the workshop, teachers are asked to view the video Family Across the Sea; review materials on Yale University's Gullah website; and listen to examples of Gullah music collected in the 1930s (materials are available on the project website). They are also asked to read God, Dr. Buzzard, and the Bolito Man by Cornelia Bailey and Black Culture and Black Consciousness by Lawrence Levine. Following a reception on Sunday night featuring a live performance by the Gullah Geechee Ring Shouters, the week begins with historian Cynthia Schmidt discussing West African and American Gullah connections reflected in songs and stories in common, as depicted in the documentary, The Language You Cry In. Historian Erskine Clark (Columbia Theological Seminary) expands upon these comparisons in the domain of religion and religious practices. Mid-week, co-directors Stephens and Junda discuss the historical and cultural contexts of Gullah music and explain Gullah musical styles. Wednesday afternoon at the Georgia Historical Society, teachers examine artifacts, documents, photographs, and other records with a view toward selecting a primary source to feature in the development of their group projects. In addition to the scholarly and archival experts, teachers have opportunities to work with Gullah community members: artist Leroy Campbell; Gullah historians Emory Campbell and Cornelia Bailey; and Mary Moran and her son Wilson, descendants of Amelia Dawley whose recorded song made it possible for scholars to identify precisely the Gullah's African origins. For the day trip to remote Sapelo Island, teachers are accompanied by author and community "griot" Cornelia Bailey, one of the last generation born and educated there. The tour of African-American historical sites in Savannah on Wednesday evening is led by Karen Wortham, who produced the documentary, Journey by Faith: A Story of First African Baptist Church. On the last day, teachers discuss group projects (arranged by grade levels and academic backgrounds) and explore ways to integrate the content of the Landmarks project into their teaching.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $191,873 (approved); $189,604 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2014

Funding details
Original grant (2013) $179,915
Supplement (2013) $11,958

University of Connecticut, Stamford (Stamford, CT 06903)
Robert Stephens (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present); Mary Junda (Co Project Director, 08/25/2014 - present)
BH-50648-14
Gullah Voices: Traditions and Transformations

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers on the history and cultural memory of the Gullah people of Georgia and South Carolina, explored through the arts.

This workshop introduces teachers to the history and rich artistic heritage of the Gullah people, who are direct descendants of slaves who lived on plantations and in farming and fishing communities along the South Carolina and Georgia Sea Islands and coastal lowlands. Their strong community life and geographical isolation enabled the Gullah people to preserve more of the African heritage than other African-American groups in the United States. As a result, the history, stories, beliefs, and creative expressions of the Gullah are critical antecedents to African-American culture and the broader American mosaic, as we know it today. The workshop is based in Savannah, Georgia, to give access to sites of Gullah culture; it incorporates a variety of source types: live performances, sound recordings, written documents, material sites, artifacts, moving and still images, and life-story materials. Each day is organized around cultural themes: Sounds and Traditions: The Sacred World of Black Slaves (Monday); Sounds in Place and Time: The Plantation and the Praise House (Tuesday); Images and Iconography (Wednesday); Stories and Artifacts (Thursday); and Cultural Memories in History: Recollections (Friday). The landmark sites to be visited include Historic Savannah and the Pin Point Heritage Museum; The Georgia Historical Society, a significant archive for primary sources on the Gullah; The Penn Center, a National Historic Landmark on St. Helena Island; and Sapelo Island, a state-protected island located in McIntosh County, Georgia. Directed by Robert Stephens and Mary Ellen Junda (musicologists, University of Connecticut), the workshop features guest presenters Peter Wood (historian, Duke University), Erskine Clarke (historian, Columbia Theological Seminary), Emory Shaw Campbell and Victoria Smalls (historians, Penn Center), Ron Daise (cultural historian, Gullah Geechee Cultural Heritage Commission), Cornelia Bailey (cultural historian and Gullah native), Leroy Campbell (visual artist), and Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters (musicians). Guest lectures explore a wide variety of topics including the story of the African-American religious experiences, the connection between Africa and America, and secular music styles. Participants also attend live performances, workshop demonstrations, and watch the video documentary, The Language You Cry In. Three books have been selected for pre-workshop reading: Lawrence W. Levine's Black Culture and Black Consciousness; Cornelia Bailey's God, Dr. Buzzard, and the Bolito Man; and Wilbur Cross's Gullah Culture in America. Participants are organized into five-member teams to facilitate interaction and collaboration.

Project fields: African American History; American Studies; Cultural History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,985 (approved); $179,985 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Crow Canyon Archaeological Center (Cortez, CO 81321-9408)
Kathleen Stemmler (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50548-13
Mesa Verde National Park: Pueblo Culture in the American Southwest

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to study Pueblo history and culture through the archaeology of Mesa Verde.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to study Pueblo history and culture through the archaeology of Mesa Verde. These workshops immerse teachers in the study of America's Pueblo people. Teachers explore the beliefs and practices of the Pueblo and learn, through archaeology, how the Pueblo shaped the physical and cultural landscape of the Mesa Verde region. The workshops take place in two locations, Mesa Verde National Historic Park and its neighboring Indian Camp Ranch Archaeological District. These sites, dating from 500 to 1300 CE, are home to "the greatest number of archaeological sites found anywhere in the U.S." Senior archaeologists Shirley Powell and Mark Varien, and Native Pueblo scholars Donna Pino and Ernest M. Vallo, lead the scholarly team. Books by Powell, Varien, and a new work by Scott Ortman, the award-winning Winds from the North: Tewa Origins and Historical Anthropology, anchor the readings. A set of primary documents compiled by Crow Canyon supplement these texts. On Monday and Tuesday, lectures cover the main themes of ancient Pueblo history; sessions on the laboratory and field methods used by archaeologists introduce teachers to relevant techniques and interpretive methods. Teachers then spend two days in Mesa Verde studying cliff dwellings, rock images, and related artifacts that illuminate Pueblo life. Crow Canyon archaeologists Scott Ortman, Kari Schleher, and Shanna Diederichs give participants the opportunity to study the sites in small groups and to participate in an active excavation. On Friday at Crow Canyon, participants discuss the week's activities with a view toward integrating the academic and field experiences. Participants also have the opportunity to share plans for translating workshop material into the classroom.

Project fields: Social Sciences, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,724 (approved); $179,724 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

East-West Center (Honolulu, HI 96848-1601)
Namji Steinemann (Project Director, 08/20/2003 - present)
BH-50008-04
Pearl Harbor as Landmark in American History

Two one-week workshops to study the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, interpreting local sites in their geographical, historical, and cultural contexts.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $155,922 (approved); $155,922 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

East-West Center (Honolulu, HI 96848-1601)
Namji Steinemann (Project Director, 08/11/2005 - present)
BH-50098-06
Pearl Harbor: History, Memory, Memorial

Two week-long workshops for 80 school teachers to study the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that took place on December 7, 1941, interpreting local sites in their geographical, historical, and cultural contexts.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,000 (approved); $150,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

East-West Center (Honolulu, HI 96848-1601)
Namji Steinemann (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50195-07
Pearl Harbor: History, Memory, Memorial

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers to study the history and commemoration of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,000 (approved); $150,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 1/31/2008

East-West Center (Honolulu, HI 96848-1601)
Namji Steinemann (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50237-07
Pearl Harbor: History, Memory, Memorial

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers to study the history and commemoration of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,000 (approved); $150,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 12/31/2008

East-West Center (Honolulu, HI 96848-1601)
Namji Steinemann (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50292-08
Pearl Harbor: History, Memory, Memorial

No project description available

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,000 (approved); $150,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 2/28/2010

East-West Center (Honolulu, HI 96848-1601)
Namji Steinemann (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50411-10
Pearl Harbor: History and Memory Across Asia and the Pacific

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, its global context, and its place in cultural memory.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $180,000 (approved); $180,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Appalachian State University (Boone, NC 28608-0001)
Neva Specht (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50213-07
Not Just a Scenic Road: The Blue Ridge Parkway and its History

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers to explore the first 75 years of the Blue Ridge Parkway as a case study of important themes in early 20th -century U.S. history.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $142,761 (approved); $142,761 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Appalachian State University (Boone, NC 28608-0001)
Neva Specht (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50313-09
Not Just a Scenic Road: The Blue Ridge Parkway and Its History

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the history and culture of the Blue Ridge Parkway.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $189,917 (approved); $189,917 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

Council for Basic Education (Washington, DC 20005-2109)
Thomas Somma (Project Director, 08/20/2003 - present); Joseph Phelan (Co Project Director, 08/20/2003 - present)
BH-50015-04
A Vast and Many Voiced Creation: Congress and the Capitol

Two-week residential workshop for middle and high school history teachers to study the U.S. Capitol, its art and architecture, and how it embodies the ideals and realities of our nation's founding up to the Civil War.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $205,542 (approved); $140,422 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Funding details
Original grant (2004) $197,987
Supplement (2004) $7,555

North Carolina Museum of History (Raleigh, NC 27601-1023)
Laurel Sneed (Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present)
BH-50024-04
Crafting Freedom: Thomas Day and Elizabeth Keckly, Black Artisans and Entrepreneurs

Four one-week workshops to examine the history, achievements, and material evidence of black antebellum craftsmen.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $301,000 (approved); $301,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources (Raleigh, NC 27699-4604)
Laurel Sneed (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50078-05
Crafting Freedom: Thomas Day and Elizabeth Keckley, Black Artisans and Entrepreneurs

Three one-week workshops for 150 school teachers on the history, achievements, and material evidence of black antebellum craftsmen and entrepreneurs.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $225,317 (approved); $225,317 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources (Raleigh, NC 27699-4604)
Laurel Sneed (Project Director, 08/17/2005 - present)
BH-50143-06
Crafting Freedom: Thomas Day and Elizabeth Keckley, Black Artisans and Entrepreneurs

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers on the history, achievements, and material evidence of black antebellum craftsmen and entrepreneurs.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $155,000 (approved); $155,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Apprend Foundation (Durham, NC 27713-2219)
Laurel Sneed (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50409-10
Crafting Freedom: Black Artisans, Entrepreneurs, and Abolitionists in the Antebellum Upper South

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on African-American artisans during the antebellum period, using sites in North Carolina.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $172,823 (approved); $172,823 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Apprend Foundation (Durham, NC 27713-2219)
Laurel Sneed (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present)
BH-50419-11
Crafting Freedom: Black Artisans, Entrepreneurs and Abolitionists of the Antebellum Upper South

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on African-American artisans during the antebellum period, using sites in North Carolina.

"Crafting Freedom: Black Artisans, Entrepreneurs and Abolitionists of the Antebellum Upper South" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers on African-American artisans during the antebellum period, at sites in North Carolina. The workshop uses the careers of free African-American artisans Thomas Day, a cabinetmaker, and Elizabeth Keckly, a dressmaker, to illuminate the relationship between race-based slavery and African-American enterprise in the antebellum American South. The project utilizes a number of North Carolina sites, including Day's home and shop, his church, Burwell School (where Keckly was enslaved), and the Stagville tobacco plantation. The faculty includes project director Laurel Sneed (Apprend Foundation), John Michael Vlach (American studies, George Washington University), Juanita Holland (independent historian), Peter Wood (history, Duke University), and Michele Ware (English, North Carolina Central University); the program also includes presentations by African-American artisans.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $175,036 (approved); $172,022 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

Apprend Foundation (Durham, NC 27713-2219)
Laurel Sneed (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50467-12
Crafting Freedom: Black Artisans, Entrepreneurs, and Abolitionists of the Antebellum Upper South

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on African-American entrepreneurship in the antebellum South, as represented by Thomas Day and Elizabeth Keckly.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on African-American entrepreneurship in the antebellum South, as represented by Thomas Day and Elizabeth Keckly. This workshop uses the lives of two independent artisans to illuminate the African-American experience in antebellum America. Thomas Day, a free black artisan in Milton, North Carolina, was "one of the most prominent furniture makers in the antebellum South." Elizabeth Keckly from Caswell, North Carolina, who purchased her freedom from slavery, became proprietor of a shop in Washington, DC, where she was a dressmaker for and confidante of Mary Todd Lincoln. The lives of Day and Keckly illuminate a "central paradox of American history: how the institution of race-based slavery coexisted with the expansion of political rights and economic opportunities for most Americans in the 19th century" and how the entrepreneurial activities of free artisans, although not typical of the time, advanced independent economic, social, and political life in the Southern black community. The participants visit Union Tavern, the home and shop of Thomas Day; the town of Milton; Burwell School, where Elizabeth Keckly grew up in slavery; and Stagwell Plantation. Among the key topics are the advancement of African-American freedom through business enterprise, management activities on slave plantations, artisanship, and artistic expression. The workshop faculty includes Laurel Sneed (Apprend Foundation), Peter Wood (history, Duke University), William Andrews (English, University of North Carolina), Juanita Holland (independent historian), Michele Ware (English, North Carolina Central University), site staff, and contemporary African-American artisans. Master teachers assist the participants in the development of lesson plans. The participants read Keckly's memoirs and recent writings by scholars, including William Andrews and Peter Wood.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $186,770 (approved); $186,770 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2014

Funding details
Original grant (2013) $174,770
Supplement (2013) $12,000

Apprend Foundation (Durham, NC 27713-2219)
Laurel Sneed (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50670-14
Crafting Freedom: African-American Entrepreneurs in the Antebellum South

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers on African-American entrepreneurship in the antebellum South, exemplified by Thomas Day and Elizabeth Keckly.

"Crafting Freedom" refers to the ways that African Americans, despite their enslavement or second-class status even as free blacks, were active agents in their own and others' liberation during the era of slavery. The workshop concentrates on Thomas Day (1801-ca. 1861), a furniture maker, and Elizabeth Keckly (1818-1907), a dress designer for the wives of Washington’s elite. In concert with a dozen other "freedom crafters" presented in the workshop, their stories individually and collectively convey the themes of 1) crafting freedom by making money as artisans and entrepreneurs to purchase freedom or to gain greater opportunities for themselves and others; 2) crafting freedom by using cunning and political savvy to resist slavery and to create a more equal and truly democratic society; and 3) crafting freedom through creative expression in the form of hand-made art and craft objects, as well as through poems, essays, and political writing. In addition to the primary examples of Day and Keckly, the teachers explore the stories of twelve other Southern black artisans, entrepreneurs, and abolitionists presented in the Crafting Freedom website: Henry "Box" Brown, Reverend John Day, David Drake or "Dave the Potter," Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, George Moses Horton, Harriet Jacobs, Lunsford Lane, Edmonia Lewis, Harriet Powers, William H. Singleton, Sally Thomas, and David Walker. A broad range of approaches is used to convey the "lived experiences" of these individuals, such as visits to landmarks where they lived and worked, lectures, re-enactments, short videos, hands-on artisan demonstrations, and study of primary source material. Participants visit Union Tavern, the home and shop of Thomas Day; the town of Milton; Burwell School, where Elizabeth Keckly grew up in slavery; and Stagwell Plantation. Led by Laurel Sneed (Apprend Foundation), workshop faculty include William Andrews (English, University of North Carolina), Juanita Holland (independent historian), Michele Ware (English, North Carolina Central University), and Peter Wood (history, Duke University). Master teachers assist the participants in the development of lesson plans.

Project fields: African American History; U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $172,203 (approved); $172,203 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Wyoming Humanities Council (Laramie, WY 82072-3459)
Marcia Britton (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - 08/20/2013)
BH-50226-07
Women's Suffrage on the Western Frontier

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers investigating women's suffrage in the West at a number of Wyoming landmarks.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $151,391 (approved); $151,391 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Wyoming Humanities Council (Laramie, WY 82072-3459)
Marcia Britton (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - 08/20/2013)
BH-50268-08
NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops for School Teachers: Women's Suffrage on the Western Frontier

No project description available

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $160,791 (approved); $160,791 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

California State University, Northridge (Northridge, CA 91330-0001)
Josh Sides (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50366-10
The Spanish and Mexican Influences on California, 1769-1884

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the Spanish and Mexican influence in California, using sites in the Los Angeles area.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $157,005 (approved); $157,005 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

SUNY Research Foundation, College at Cortland (Cortland, NY 13045)
Kevin Sheets (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present); Randi Storch (Co Project Director, 08/08/2012 - present)
BH-50495-12
Forever Wild: The Adirondacks in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers using the Adirondacks to understand the interconnections of urban and wilderness environments in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers using the Adirondacks to understand the interconnections of urban and wilderness environments in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America. Directed by historians Kevin Sheets and Randi Storch (State University of New York College of Cortland [SUNY Cortland]), this workshop explores "the social, cultural, political, and economic relevance of the Adirondack wilderness" to the history of the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era, which has often been taught with an urban focus. Participants learn on-site at three Adirondack Great Camps (Camp Huntington, which now belongs to SUNY Cortland, and those of the Vanderbilts and J.P. Morgan) and two museums (Adirondack Museum, 1890 House Museum), as well as on contrasting walking tours in urban Cortland and on Adirondack camp trails. Monday's focus on "Innovation, Industrialization and Domestic Life of the Gilded Age" takes Cortland as a case study for understanding life in a nineteenth-century manufacturing town. Participants work with collections at the 1890s House Museum, modeling historians' process of inquiry and interpretation. Discussing Theodore Dreiser's An American Tragedy, which fictionalizes the 1906 murder of Cortland factory worker Grace Brown, they explore the interpretation of historical events through literature. The focus on Tuesday is the cultural and aesthetic ideal of the wilderness, and how Americans of the era defined "wilderness" and "nature" in contrast with the urban experience. Primary source texts and period photographs in the archive and library at Camp Huntington help illuminate the role of "wilderness" in Gilded Age ideas of masculinity, class, and nation building. Wednesday's theme, "From Enchanted Forest to Lumber Mill," focuses on the economic interdependence of city and wilderness. Adirondack Museum curators guide participants through exhibits on the region's industries and help them engage with the museum's collections and historic structures, ranging from a nineteenth-century one-room log cabin hotel to a luxurious early-twentieth-century Pullman railcar. Thursday's topic turns to "Domesticating the Wild," with study of the Great Camps that industrialists built as "civilized" retreats in the wilderness for their lesiure pursuits. On Friday, "wilderness" is considered as a focus of political conflict, most notably in the 1894 debate over protecting the Adirondack forest preserve as "forever wild" in the revised state constitution. Historian Rebecca Edwards (Vassar College) situates these contentions among industrialists, reformers, and naturalists in their progressive-era political context. Workshop readings include writings by Theodore Roosevelt on "the strenuous life" and selections from Philip Terrie's Forever Wild: A Cultural History of Wilderness in the Adirondacks, William Cronon's Nature's Metropolis, Edwards's New Spirits: Americans in the Gilded Age, Robert Cherny's American Politics in the Gilded Age, and Philip DeLoria's Playing Indian.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,279 (approved); $159,963 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

SUNY Research Foundation, College at Cortland (Cortland, NY 13045)
Kevin Sheets (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50618-14
Forever Wild: The Adirondacks in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers using the Adirondacks to understand the meaning and influence of wilderness environments in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America.

This workshop, directed by historians Kevin Sheets and Randi Storch (State University of New York College of Cortland [SUNY Cortland]), explores the social, cultural, political, and economic relevance of the Adirondack wilderness to the history of the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era, which is taught with an urban focus. Participants learn on-site at three Adirondack Great Camps (Camp Huntington, which now belongs to SUNY Cortland, and those of the Vanderbilts and J.P. Morgan) and two museums (Adirondack Museum and 1890 House Museum), as well as on contrasting walking tours in urban Cortland and on Adirondack camp trails. Monday's focus on "Innovation, Industrialization and Domestic Life of the Gilded Age" takes Cortland as a case study for understanding life in a nineteenth-century manufacturing town. Participants work with collections at the 1890 House Museum, modeling historians' process of inquiry and interpretation. Discussing novels (by Theodore Dreiser and, more recently, by Jennifer Donnelly) that fictionalize the 1906 murder of Cortland factory worker Grace Brown, they explore the interpretation of historical events through literature. The focus on Tuesday is the cultural and aesthetic ideal of the wilderness and how Americans of the era defined "wilderness" and "nature" in contrast with the urban experience. Primary source texts and period photographs in the archive and library at Camp Huntington help illuminate the role of "wilderness" in Gilded Age ideas of masculinity, class, and nation building. Wednesday's theme, "From Enchanted Forest to Lumber Mill," focuses on the economic interdependence of city and wilderness. Adirondack Museum curators guide participants through exhibits on the region's industries and help them engage with the museum's collections and historic structures, ranging from a nineteenth-century one-room log cabin hotel to a luxurious early-twentieth-century Pullman railcar. Thursday's topic turns to "Domesticating the Wild," with study of the Great Camps that industrialists built as "civilized" retreats in the wilderness for their leisure pursuits. On Friday, "wilderness" is considered as a focus of political conflict, most notably in the 1894 debate over protecting the Adirondack forest preserve as "forever wild" in the revised state constitution. Historian Rebecca Edwards (Vassar College) situates these contentions among industrialists, reformers, and naturalists in their Progressive-Era political context. Workshop readings include excerpts from primary sources of the era, as well as such secondary works as William Cronon's essay "The Trouble with Wilderness," and selections from book-length studies by Philip Terrie, Forever Wild: A Cultural History of Wilderness in the Adirondacks, and Gail Bederman, Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $178,809 (approved); $178,809 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Wright on the Park, Inc. (Mason City, IA 50402-0792)
Patricia Schultz (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50497-12
Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School in the Midwest

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School in Mason City, Iowa.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School in Mason City, Iowa. This workshop focuses on Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School of architecture, led by co-directors Paula Mohr (architectural historian, Iowa State Historic Preservation Office) and Pat Schultz (chair,Wright on the Park's Education Committee). The Historic Park Inn Hotel, the world's last remaining hotel designed by Wright, serves as workshop headquarters, for seminars as well as participants' lodging, and is itself the focus of a detailed tour on Monday. Architectural historian Richard Guy Wilson (University of Virginia) offers several sessions in the first few days, discussing the role of architecture in the study of history and culture, the origins of the Prairie School and Wright's early work, and the relationship between the Arts and Crafts movement and the Prairie School. Midweek in the Rock Crest and Rock Glen neighborhoods, participants tour the Stockman House, designed by Wright, alongside three houses by Prairie School architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony. Historian Paul Kruty (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) gives presentations on Griffin and Mahony and on the design for the neighborhood. Dennis Domer (American studies, University of Kansas) discusses Prairie School landscape design, and art historian Barbara Mooney (University of Iowa) places the Prairie School's work in the context of other Midwestern architecture of the time. The program's final day includes a Mason City walking tour aimed to "illustrate how the study of any community's architecture can serve as an effective tool for teaching art, history, and culture." A roundtable of participant presentations and concluding sessions on Wright's legacy and pedagogical strategies bring the workshop to a close.

Project fields: Architecture
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,993 (approved); $179,993 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Ann Schoenacher (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50231-07
Jump at the Sun: Zora Neale Hurston and Her Eatonville Roots

Three one-week workshops for 120 school teachers to explore Zora Neale Hurston's life and work in the context of her hometown, Eatonville, Florida

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $189,435 (approved); $189,435 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Ann Schoenacher (Project Director, 03/25/2008 - present)
BH-50297-08
Jump at the Sun: Zora Neale Hurston and her Eastonville Roots

No project description available

Project fields: American Literature
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $167,465 (approved); $159,465 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Ann Schoenacher (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50302-09
Jump at the Sun: Zora Neale Hurston & Her Eatonville Roots

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on African-American folklorist and author Zora Neale Hurston and her formative years in Eatonville, Florida.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $159,430 (approved); $159,430 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Ann Schoenacher (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50367-10
Jump at the Sun: Zora Neale Hurston & Her Eatonville Roots

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on African-American folklorist and author Zora Neale Hurston and her formative years in Eatonville, Florida.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,745 (approved); $179,745 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2012

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Ann Schoenacher (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50470-12
Jump at the Sun: Zora Neale Hurston and Her Eatonville Roots

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the life and work of Zora Neale Hurston.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the life and work of Zora Neale Hurston. Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960), renowned for both her fiction writing and her scholarly research as a collector of African-American folklore, spent much of her childhood in the small town of Eatonville, Florida, which was founded by freed slaves in 1886. During this workshop, participants explore Hurston's Eatonville roots, her folkloric and literary endeavors, her participation in the Harlem Renaissance, and her final years in Fort Pierce, Florida. Historian Julian Chambliss (Rollins College); literary scholars Houston A. Baker (Vanderbilt University), Jill Jones (Rollins College), and Maurice O'Sullivan (Rollins College); preservationist N.Y. Nathiri (Association to Preserve the Eatonville Community); Chautauqua interpreter Phyllis McEwen; and Hurston biographer Valerie Boyd (University of Georgia) join lead scholar Heather Russell (Florida International University) in this consideration of Hurston and her milieu. Participants take walking tours of Eatonville and Fort Pierce, examine Hurston documents at the Rollins College archive, view an exhibit on Hurston and Eatonville at the Maitland Art Center, explore her folklore writings collected on the Library of Congress's American Memory site, work on curriculum projects, and watch a theatrical presentation of songs and stories that the author collected in central Florida. Readings include, among other works and resources, Hurston's masterwork, Their Eyes Were Watching God, and other writings; Valerie Boyd, Wrapped in Rainbows: The Life of Zora Neale Hurston; and Robert Hemenway, Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,500 (approved); $169,850 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2014

National Constitution Center (Philadelphia, PA 19106)
Steve Frank (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - 03/14/2012); Kerry Sautner (Co Project Director, 08/20/2010 - present)
BH-50375-10
A Revolution in Government: Philadelphia and the Creation of the American Republic

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the historic formation and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U. S. Constitution.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $167,360 (approved); $167,360 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Architecture Resource Center (New Haven, CT 06511-4701)
Anna Sanko (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50174-07
Encompassing Amistad: The African American Struggle for Citizenship, 1770-1850

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers to study the history of New England slavery at sites throughout Connecticut.

Project fields: American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $135,000 (approved); $135,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 9/30/2007

University of New Mexico (Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001)
Rebecca Sanchez (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50311-09
Contested Homelands: Unpacking the Knowledge, History and Culture of Historic Santa Fe, New Mexico

Two one-week workshops for eighty schoolteachers on the history of interactions between Native Americans and European settlers in Santa Fe.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $160,754 (approved); $160,754 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

University of New Mexico (Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001)
Rebecca Sanchez (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present)
BH-50434-11
Contested Homelands: Knowledge, History and Culture of Historic Santa Fe

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the history of interactions between Native Americans and Spanish and Anglo settlers in Santa Fe.

"Contested Homelands: Knowledge, History and Culture of Historic Santa Fe" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty schoolteachers on the history of interactions between Native Americans and European settlers in Santa Fe. The program considers the ways in which Native Americans, Spanish and Mexican colonists, and settlers have interacted in Santa Fe and the surrounding communities over the past 400 years. The workshops begin with a discussion of the framing concept of "homelands," examining the processes of colonization and resistance that characterized the Santa Fe region. They then turn to the ways that religion, artistic production, history, and memory shape the relationship of peoples to their homelands and consider how historic sites reflect contested claims to, and conflicting perceptions of, homelands. Sites under examination include Pecos National Park, where participants learn about the pre-colonial Pueblo system; vestiges of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the road linking Santa Fe to Mexico City; the Palace of the Governors, built in the early seventeenth century as Santa Fe's administrative center and the site of many workshop sessions; the Governor Bent house, home of the territorial governor who was killed by a group of Indians and Mexicans in protest against American rule; and Taos Pueblo, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Participants also visit the New Mexico Museum of Art and the Wheelwright Museum of the Native American and work with primary sources from the New Mexico State Archives and Library. In addition to project director Rebecca Sánchez, an expert in social studies education, workshop faculty members include historians Estevan Rael-Gálvez (New Mexico State Historian), Joseph Sánchez (Spanish Colonial Research Center, University of New Mexico), and Thomas Chávez (independent scholar and director emeritus, Palace of the Governors); anthropologist Frances Levine (Palace of the Governors); and education professors Quincy Spurlin (University of New Mexico) and Glenabah Martinez (University of New Mexico), as well as artists, archivists, and curatorial staff.

[Grant products]
Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $164,163 (approved); $153,097 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Monica Rowland (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50166-07
Between Columbus and Jamestown: Spanish St. Augustine

Two one-week summer workshops for 100 school teachers examining Spanish St. Augustine in the context of American colonial history.

Project fields: Education
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $135,309 (approved); $135,309 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 11/30/2007

Bill of Rights Institute (Arlington, VA 22203)
Claire Griffin (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - 08/28/2008); Jason Ross (Project Director, 08/28/2008 - present)
BH-50272-08
Shaping the Constitution: A View from Mt. Vernon 1783-1789

No project description available

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,000 (approved); $150,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Chad Montrie (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - 09/24/2007); Beryl Rosenthal (Project Director, 09/25/2007 - present)
BH-50211-07
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

Three one-week workshops for 135 school teachers to study America's industrial revolution in Lowell, Massachusetts.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $224,576 (approved); $224,576 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 6/30/2009

London Town Foundation, Inc. (Edgewater, MD 21037-2120)
Lisa Robbins (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50596-13
Secret Culture, Public Lives: Slavery in the Colonial Chesapeake

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the development of slavery in the Chesapeake Bay region during the eighteenth century.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the development of slavery in the Chesapeake Bay region during the eighteenth century. Historic London Town and Gardens, the site of an eighteenth-century tobacco port, offers two one-week workshops that address the experiences and cultures of newly arrived slaves in the Chesapeake Bay region by focusing on the direct slave trade with Africa and its relationship to manifestations of distinctive, yet often hidden, cultural expression practiced by slaves. This approach is warranted by new research revealing that slaves arrived in the region, not from all across western Africa, but in fair concentration from specific areas, which allowed for greater cultural continuity than has previously been assumed. Led by Lisa Robbins, an anthropologist who is Historic London Town's director of public programs, the workshop begins with discussion of the Chesapeake's tobacco economy and the development of slavery in the region before turning to foodways, material culture, religion, and the evolution of African-American culture. Finally, participants consider ways that slavery and African-American culture have been interpreted in museums and ways that these subjects can be taught. In addition to sessions held at Historic London Town and Gardens, participants also visit Sotterly Plantation, Historic Annapolis, the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory, and an archaeological dig at the site of King's Reach, a colonial tobacco plantation. Along with Robbins, scholars include Philip Morgan (Johns Hopkins University), Michael Twitty (independent scholar), Kym Rice (George Washington University), Lorena Walsh (Colonial Williamsburg), and Psyche Williams-Forson (University of Maryland), as well as staff from the cultural institutions participants visit. Readings are drawn from works by such scholars as Ira Berlin, David Eltis, Peter Hatch, Patricia Samford, Allan Kulikoff, Lonnie Bunch, Rex Ellis, and Faith Davis Ruffins, as well as works by the visiting scholars. Participants spend considerable time working with primary sources from the Maryland State Archives, with the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, and with archaeological artifacts in order to incorporate such resources in the development of teaching materials.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $177,814 (approved); $174,443 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

Ramapo College of New Jersey (Mahwah, NJ 07430-1623)
Meredith Davis (Co Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present); Stephen Rice (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50395-10
The Hudson River in the 19th Century and the Modernization of America

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty teachers that will use the Hudson River as a focus for the study of nineteenth-century intersections of art, culture, commerce, and nature.

Project fields: American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $175,114 (approved); $175,114 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Funding details
Original grant (2011) $167,282
Supplement (2011) $7,832

Florida International University Board of Trustees (Miami, FL 33199-2516)
Kate Rawlinson (Project Director, 08/12/2005 - present)
BH-50103-06
The Miami Beach Art Deco District: Using Buildings to Tell Stories

Two one-week workshops for 100 art and history teachers to explore the Miami Beach Art Deco District and its significance to the history of 20th-century art and design.

Project fields: Architecture
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $148,000 (approved); $148,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

University of California, Davis (Davis, CA 95618-6153)
Eric Rauchway (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present); Pamela Tindall (Co Project Director, 09/15/2014 - present)
BH-50666-14
The Transcontinental Railroad: Transforming California and the Nation

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers on the transcontinental railroad and its impact on nineteenth-century America.

This workshop explores the impact of the transcontinental railroad on the politics, society, economy, and environment of California and the nation. Daily topics include technology and labor, geography and the environment, the social and economic impact of the railroad, and the West in the American imagination. Based in Sacramento, the western terminus of the railroad, the project includes visits to the California State Railroad Museum, Old Sacramento State Historic Park, the Sacramento History Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, and the mansion of railroad baron Leland Stanford. Farther afield, participants take day trips to the Bay Area, where they learn from prominent scholars at Stanford University and tour San Francisco's Old Mint, and to Donner Pass, to see for themselves the difficult terrain faced by railroad workers. In addition to co-directors Ari Kelman and Eric Rauchway of University of California, Davis, the faculty includes historians Richard White and Gordon Chang (both of Stanford University), Richard J. Orsi (California State University, East Bay), and museum curators and staff. Chang discusses his current research on Chinese railroad workers and how they shaped the social as well as physical landscape of the West; White discusses selected chapters from his prize-winning book Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America. Other readings are drawn from Amy Richter's Home on the Rails: Women, the Railroad, and the Rise of Public Domesticity; Alexander Saxton's The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California; Wolfgang Schivelbusch's The Railway Journey: The Industrialization and Perception of Time and Space in the 19th Century; Andrew C. Isenberg's The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920; and The West As America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier, 1820-1920, edited by William Truettner. During the workshop, participants develop a lesson or unit plan using materials from the workshop, which receive peer feedback and undergo revision prior to posting on the project's website.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $173,400 (approved); $173,400 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (Edwardsville, IL 62026-0001)
Caroline Pryor (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50209-07
Abraham Lincoln and the Forging of Modern America

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers on Abraham Lincoln and his role in American history, using sites in and near Springfield, Illinois.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $140,583 (approved); $140,583 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Funding details
Original grant (2008) $134,107
Supplement (2008) $6,476

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (Edwardsville, IL 62026-0001)
Caroline Pryor (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50259-08
Abraham Lincoln and the Forging of Modern America

No project description available

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $151,137 (approved); $151,137 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (Edwardsville, IL 62026-0001)
Caroline Pryor (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50308-09
Abraham Lincoln and the Forging of Modern America

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on Abraham Lincoln and his role in American history, using sites in and near Springfield, Illinois.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $152,328 (approved); $152,328 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (Edwardsville, IL 62026-0001)
Caroline Pryor (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50362-10
Abraham Lincoln and the Forging of Modern America

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Abraham Lincoln and his role in American history, using sites in and near Springfield, Illinois.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $157,564 (approved); $157,564 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (Edwardsville, IL 62026-0001)
Caroline Pryor (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present)
BH-50415-11
Abraham Lincoln and the Forging of Modern America

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Abraham Lincoln and his role in American history, using sites in and near Springfield, Illinois.

"Abraham Lincoln and the Forging of Modern America" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers on Abraham Lincoln and his role in American history, using sites in and near Springfield, Illinois. The program investigates four central themes of Abraham Lincoln's public life: nationalism, power, freedom, and race. The project considers such subjects as nationalism and politics in the Civil War era; Lincoln, slavery, and race; Lincoln and the Constitution; Lincoln, the radicals, and Emancipation; Walt Whitman and Lincoln; visual art on Lincoln and the war, using images from the NEH's Picturing America portfolio; African-American women's experiences as an example of racial issues; and Lincoln's legacy. Participants visit the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, the Lincoln Home, Lincoln's Law Office in Springfield, Illinois, and the historical reconstruction of New Salem Village, where Lincoln began his career. Teachers also explore the exhibit "Lincoln and the Constitution," on display at the Lovejoy Library. Participants read writings by Lincoln, including the Lincoln-Douglas debates, the Emancipation Proclamation, the Gettysburg Address, the Second Inaugural Address, and selected letters; writings by African-American women; and secondary works by Eric Foner, David Donald, John Stauffer, James McPherson, Philip Shaw Paludan, David Potter, Barry Schwartz, Garry Wills, and Lerone Bennett, Jr. The staff includes project director Caroline Pryor (education, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville [SIUE]); historians Stephen Hansen (SIUE), Iver Bernstein (Washington University), Leslie Brown (Williams College), Jason Stacey (SIUE), and Laura Milsk-Fowler (SIUE); art historian Ivy Cooper (SIUE); and site and museum personnel.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $160,518 (approved); $155,149 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (Edwardsville, IL 62026-0001)
Caroline Pryor (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50544-13
Abraham Lincoln and the Forging of Modern America

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Abraham Lincoln and his role in American history, using sites in and near Springfield, Illinois.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Abraham Lincoln and his role in American history, using sites in and near Springfield, Illinois. These workshops at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville (SIUE) focus on three central themes of Abraham Lincoln's public life: nationalism, leadership, and emancipation and race. Teachers study the Civil War era; Lincoln, slavery, and race; Lincoln and the Constitution; Lincoln, the radicals, and Emancipation; Walt Whitman and Lincoln; visual art on Lincoln and the war, using images from the NEH's Picturing America portfolio; African-American women's experiences as an example of racial issues; and Lincoln's legacy. Participants visit several sites in Springfield: the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, the Lincoln Home, Lincoln's Law Office, the Lincoln Tomb, and the Old State Capitol, as well as the nearby historical reconstruction of New Salem Village, where Lincoln began his study of law and became involved in politics. At the Old State Capitol, for example, participants discuss the "House Divided" speech, which Lincoln delivered there in 1858. They consider how Lincoln's earlier experiences as a Whig in the state legislature shaped his sense of America's national destiny and opposition to slavery that characterized his political career. They read writings by Lincoln, including the Lincoln-Douglas debates, the Emancipation Proclamation, the Gettysburg Address, the Second Inaugural Address, and selected letters; writings by African-American women; and secondary works by Eric Foner, David Donald, John Stauffer, James McPherson, Philip Shaw Paludan, Barry Schwartz, Garry Wills, and Lerone Bennett, Jr. In addition to project director Caroline Pryor (education) and her fellow SIUE faculty members Stephen Hansen (history), Jason Stacey (history), and Ivy Cooper (art history), project scholars include Iver Bernstein (Washington University), Sowande' Mustakeem (Washington University), Louis Gerteis (University of Missouri, St. Louis), and Graham Peck (Saint Xavier University), as well as site and museum personnel. The participants attend lecture/discussion sessions and work on lesson plans that are to be posted on a project website.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $174,205 (approved); $165,663 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

Henry Ford, The (Dearborn, MI 48121-1970)
William Pretzer (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50068-05
America's Industrial Revolution at The Henry Ford

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers on America's Industrial Revolution, held at Henry Ford's Greenfield Village, the Henry Ford Museum, the Benson Ford Research Center, and the Ford Rouge Factory.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $142,000 (approved); $142,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Henry Ford, The (Dearborn, MI 48121-1970)
William Pretzer (Project Director, 08/16/2005 - present)
BH-50113-06
America's Industrial Revolution

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers on America's Industrial Revolution, held at Henry Ford's Greenfield Village, the Henry Ford Museum, the Benson Ford Research Center, and the Ford Rouge Factory.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,679 (approved); $149,679 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Gettysburg College (Gettysburg, PA 17325-1483)
Dave Powell (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50587-13
On Hallowed Ground: Gettysburg in History and Memory

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the Battle of Gettysburg and its legacy.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the Battle of Gettysburg and its legacy. These workshops immerse participants in an examination of a decisive battle of the Civil War. The week begins with discussion of the politics of slavery and the experiences of slaves that led to the Civil War. Participants then spend two days in close study of the battle and key battlefield sites before engaging in a close reading of the Gettysburg Address and discussion of the ways that the battle and the battlefield site have been commemorated over the past 150 years. In addition, participants visit nearby Underground Railroad sites, the David Wills House, and Soldiers' National Cemetery. Workshop scholars include Gettysburg College faculty members Dave Powell (education), Scott Hancock (history and Africana studies), and Allen Guelzo (history), as well as Glenn LaFantasie (Western Kentucky University), Carol Reardon (Pennsylvania State University), and Scott Hartwig (Gettysburg National Military Park). Readings are drawn from personal accounts of the battle and from secondary works by Gabor Boritt, James McPherson, Jim Weeks, Garry Wills, and project scholars Guelzo, Hancock, and LaFantasie. Participants also have the opportunity to explore Gettysburg College's extensive collection of primary sources related to the Civil War with Carolyn Sauter, director of special collections, in order to make use of them in the creation of classroom resources. These resources are to be made available on the workshop website. A viewing of portions of Ken Burns's The Civil War and a special screening of Steven Spielberg's Lincoln round out the week's activities.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $169,341 (approved); $169,341 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

Eldridge Street Project, Inc./Museum at Eldridge Street (New York, NY 10002)
Annie Polland (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50208-07
Immigration, Religion, and Culture on New York's Lower East Side

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers on the development and interaction of Jewish, African American, Italian, Irish, and Chinese communities in the Lower East Side of New York City.

Project fields: Ethnic Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $160,152 (approved); $160,152 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Dickinson College (Carlisle, PA 17013)
Matthew Pinsker (Project Director, 08/11/2005 - present)
BH-50101-06
Landmarks of the Underground Railroad: From Christiana to Harpers Ferry

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers on the Underground Railroad and the antebellum era.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $147,659 (approved); $147,659 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Dickinson College (Carlisle, PA 17013)
Matthew Pinsker (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50186-07
Landmarks of the Underground Railroad: From Christiana to Harpers Ferry

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers to examine the Underground Railroad in antebellum America.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,843 (approved); $149,843 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 12/31/2007

Dickinson College (Carlisle, PA 17013)
Matthew Pinsker (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50238-07
Landmarks of the Underground Railroad: From Christiana to Harpers Ferry

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers to examine the Underground Railroad in antebellum America.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,998 (approved); $149,998 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Montana Historical Society (Helena, MT 59601-4514)
Richard Sims (Co Project Director, 03/23/2010 - 10/15/2010); Paula Petrik (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present); Kirby Lambert (Co Project Director, 10/15/2010 - present)
BH-50363-10
The Richest Hills: Mining in the Far West, 1865-1920

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on gold, silver, and copper mining in the American West, with visits to Virginia City, Helena, and Butte, Montana.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,998 (approved); $179,998 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Chicago Metro History Education Center (Chicago, IL 60610-3305)
Lisa Oppenheim (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present); Erik Gellman (Co Project Director, 07/21/2011 - present)
BH-50464-11
Renaissance in the Black Metropolis: Chicago, 1930s-1950s

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the Chicago Black Renaissance of the 1930s to 1950s.

"Renaissance in the Black Metropolis: Chicago, 1930s-1950s" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers on the Chicago Black Renaissance of the 1930s to 1950s. The workshops explore the cultural, social, economic, and political experience of Chicago's "Black Metropolis" and are led by Chicago Metro History Education Center's Lisa Oppenheim. NEH Summer Scholars learn about Great Depression Chicago and significant figures such as Margaret Burroughs, Charles White, Langston Hughes, John Johnson, Claude Barnett, Vivian Harsh, and St. Clair Drake. Historian Darlene Clark Hine (Northwestern University) leads off the scholarly program by setting out the context for and significance of the Chicago Black Renaissance. In a session at the Chicago Bee's former offices, Adam Green (University of Chicago) discusses the role of black journalism in the community. The South Side Community Art Center provides both site and subject for a lecture by Andrea Barnwell Brownlee (Spelman College Museum of Fine Art), followed by a visit to the DuSable Museum. Co-director Erik Gellman (Roosevelt University) and Lionel Kimble (Chicago State University) address labor and politics, with sites including the former United Packinghouse Workers union office and the Pullman Porters Museum, where participants learn about the predominantly African-American Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. The end of the week features Jacqueline Goldsby (New York University) on literature, including writers Richard Wright, Lorraine Hansberry, and Gwendolyn Brooks; Davarian Baldwin (Trinity College) on the meaning of Chicago's music; and an extended afternoon of archival work at the Harsh Collection for AfroAmerican History and Culture.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $176,592 (approved); $176,592 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Peter O'Connell (Project Director, 08/16/2005 - present)
BH-50114-06
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

Three one-week workshops for 135 elementary and middle school teachers to study America's industrial revolution in Lowell, Massachusetts.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $224,078 (approved); $224,078 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 6/30/2007

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Peter O'Connell (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50187-07
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

Three one-week workshops for 135 school teachers to study America's industrial revolution in Lowell, Massachusetts.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $224,794 (approved); $224,794 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 6/30/2008

Mark Twain House (Hartford, CT 06105-6400)
Jeffrey Nichols (Project Director, 08/26/2003 - present)
BH-50044-04
The Mark Twain House Teacher Workshops

The Mark Twain House Teacher Workshops will provide teachers with the necessary information, context and instructional tools to effectively teach their students about Mark Twain, his literary and cultural legacy, and his era in American history.

Project fields: Literature, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $128,051 (approved); $124,439 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Mark Twain House (Hartford, CT 06105-6400)
Jeffrey Nichols (Project Director, 08/17/2005 - present)
BH-50138-06
Mark Twain in the Gilded Age: The Hartford Years

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers at the Mark Twain House and Museum in Hartford, Connecticut, on Twain's life and work in that city.

Project fields: American Literature
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $146,736 (approved); $146,736 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Mark Twain House (Hartford, CT 06105-6400)
Jeffrey Nichols (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50165-07
-Mark Twain and the "Impolite Nation": Using Twain's Work to Teach About Race in America

Two one-week workshops to be held at Mark Twain's home in Hartford for 100 school teachers to study the treatment of race in Twain's novels and short stories.

Project fields: American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,836 (approved); $149,836 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 9/30/2007

National-Louis University (Chicago, IL 60657)
Costas Spirou (Co Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present); Mark Newman (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50394-10
The Chicago Lakefront as Public Space

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the Chicago lakefront and public space.

Project fields: Architecture
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,175 (approved); $149,175 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Rochester Institute of Technology (Rochester, NY 14623-5698)
José Torre (Co Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present); Richard Newman (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50399-10
Abolitionism, Women’s Rights, and Religious Revivalism on the Rochester Reform Trail

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to examine Rochester's central role in American reform history through its iconic landmark geography.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $156,981 (approved); $156,981 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 6/30/2013

Fairfield University (Fairfield, CT 06824-5195)
Laura Nash (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50372-10
Duke Ellington and the Development of American Popular Culture

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Duke Ellington.

Project fields: Music History and Criticism
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $177,096 (approved); $177,096 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Fairfield University (Fairfield, CT 06824-5195)
Laura Nash (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50600-13
Duke Ellington and American Popular Culture

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Duke Ellington and his world.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Duke Ellington and his world. This workshop illuminates the life and music of Duke Ellington (1899-1974) in cultural and historical context, using eight compositions (including "Mood Indigo" and "Take the 'A' Train") as "anchor works" for the week's study. Under the direction of music professor Laura Nash, participants engage with Ellington's work and his world through lectures, discussions, hands-on musical participation, and two all-day visits to historic and cultural sites in New York City. Taking the A train to Harlem, participants visit the Sugar Hill Historic District, where Ellington lived, and are guided on a private tour of the National Jazz Museum by Executive Director Loren Schoenberg. The second day trip to New York features the resources of Jazz at Lincoln Center with curator Phil Schaap. Participants explore the role of Ellington's radio and television broadcasts at the Paley Media Center with Jim Shanahan (Boston University) and learn about Ellington's long form music at Carnegie Hall, where "Black, Brown, and Beige" premiered in 1943. A jazz show at Birdland Jazz Club and a performance of swing dance music conclude the day visits to New York. In Fairfield, historian and director of Black Studies Yohuru Williams provides relevant grounding in twentieth-century African-American history and addresses intersections of race and popular culture. During the days on campus, music professor and bassist Brian Torff leads a specially assembled live big band in presentations and performances to give participants direct experience with the anchor works and with improvisation, as well as opportunities for discussion with band members. Workshop guest faculty include jazz critic and journalist Gary Giddins; educator and composer David Berger (Juilliard), who transcribed and edited the majority of Ellington's works; and Monsignor John Sanders, trombonist and librarian for the Ellington Orchestra, who shares his first-hand knowledge of playing, working, and traveling with Ellington, and of developing the Ellington archives. Prior to and during the workshop, participants read Ellington's Music is My Mistress; Harvey Cohen's Duke Ellington's America; John Edward Hasse's Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington; and Mark Tucker's The Duke Ellington Reader. They also have access to a password-protected website with Ellington recordings, sheet music, and video clips.

[Grant products]
Project fields: Film History and Criticism
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $177,340 (approved); $169,165 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

University of Missouri, Kansas City (Kansas City, MO 64110-2446)
Diane Mutti-Burke (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present); Edeen Martin (Co Project Director, 07/21/2011 - present)
BH-50432-11
Crossroads of Conflict:Contested Visions of Freedom and the Missouri-Kansas Border Wars

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the history and impact of the Missouri-Kansas border wars during the era of the American Civil War.

"Crossroads of Conflict: Contested Visions of Freedom and the Missouri-Kansas Border Wars" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers on the history and impact of the Missouri-Kansas border wars during the era of the American Civil War. The workshops explore issues and events that precipitated hostilities between settlers in Kansas and Missouri from the Missouri Compromise of 1820 through the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and on through the Civil War era. Participants examine the struggles between the Kansas Jayhawkers and Missouri Bushwackers. Central to the discussion are two concepts of liberty-freedom to hold slaves versus freedom from slavery. The project utilizes a variety of landmark sites illuminating settlement, economic development, and pro- and anti-slavery activity in the area: Lecompton and Lawrence, Kansas, the John Wornall House, the Watkins Woolen Mill, the Steamboat Arabia Museum, the site of the battle of Westport, and the Jesse James farm. The staff includes project director Diane Mutti Burke (history, University of Missouri-Kansas City [UMKC]), program director Edeen Martin, and faculty members Nicole Etcheson (history, Ball State Univerity), LeeAnn Whites (history, University of Missouri-Columbia), Jonathan Earle (history, University of Kansas), Ann Rabb (archaeology, University of Kansas), Ethan Rafuse (military history, US Army Command and General Staff College, Ft. Leavenworth), and other faculty and staff from UMKC. Readings include collections of primary documents and scholarly writings by Etcheson, Mutti Burke, Earle, Michael Fellman, and T. J. Stiles.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,882 (approved); $179,882 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

University of Missouri Libraries (Kansas City, MO 64110)
Diane Mutti-Burke (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50601-13
Crossroads of Conflict: Contested Visions of Freedom and the Missouri-Kansas Border Wars

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the history and impact of the Missouri-Kansas border wars during the Civil War era.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the history and impact of the Missouri-Kansas border wars during the Civil War era. This Landmarks workshop explores issues and events that precipitated hostilities between settlers in Kansas and Missouri during the Civil War era. Central to the discussion are two concepts of liberty--freedom to hold slaves versus freedom from slavery--that divided many Americans as new territories opened and settlers moved westward. Participants consider the context of slaveholding in western Missouri and debates over extending slavery into the Kansas territory before turning to discussion of the creation of both pro- and anti-slavery territorial governments, the violent clashes that resulted in the 1850s, and the extension of conflict into the Civil War years, when Confederate and Union troops clashed with guerillas from both sides. The project uses a variety of landmark sites illuminating settlement, economic development, and pro- and anti-slavery activity in the area: Lecompton and Lawrence, Kansas, the John Wornall House, the Watkins Woolen Mill, the Steamboat Arabia Museum, the site of the battle of Westport, and the Jesse James farm. The staff includes project director Diane Mutti Burke (University of Missouri-Kansas City [UMKC]); program director Edeen Martin; historians Nicole Etcheson (Ball State University), Kristen Oertel (University of Tulsa), Christopher Phillips (University of Cincinnati), Jeremy Neely (Missouri State University), and Ethan Rafuse (US Army Command and General Staff College, Ft. Leavenworth); archaeologist Ann Rabb (University of Kansas); and other faculty and staff from UMKC. Readings include collections of primary documents and scholarly writings by Etcheson, Mutti Burke, Jonathan Earle, Michael Fellman, and T. J. Stiles. The program includes lectures, discussions, site visits, and development of teaching materials.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,192 (approved); $179,095 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

Henry Ford, The (Dearborn, MI 48121-1970)
William Pretzer (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - 10/06/2006); John Metz (Project Director, 10/07/2006 - present)
BH-50177-07
America's Industrial Revolution

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on America's Industrial Revolution, held at Henry Ford's Greenfield Village, the Henry Ford Museum, the Benson Ford Research Center, and the Ford Rouge Factory.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $142,752 (approved); $142,752 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 9/30/2007

St. Mary's College of Maryland (St. Mary's City, MD 20686-3002)
Zachariah Messitte (Project Director, 08/18/2004 - present)
BH-50082-05
Maryland's Birthplace -- An American Legacy

Two one-week workshops for 90 teachers on the growth of concepts of liberty in Maryland, to be held at the Center for the Study of Democracy at St. Mary's College of Maryland.

Project fields: History, General; U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $147,920 (approved); $147,920 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

California State University, Monterey Bay (Seaside, CA 93955)
Ruben Mendoza (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50515-12
The Fourteenth Colony: Native Californians, Missions, Presidios, and Colonists on the Spanish Frontier, 1769-1848

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers to explore the architectural, archaeological, cultural, and historical record of Spanish colonial missions in California.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers to explore the architectural, archaeological, cultural, and historical record of Spanish colonial missions in California. This workshop, sponsored by the Institute for Archaeology of the California State University, Monterey Bay, unfolds around visits to Spanish colonial missions. Inquiry centers on such key questions as: What motives sent the joint Spanish military and religious expedition into "Alta California"? How do primary documents and the missions themselves help us understand the Spanish colonial heritage and its impact? Training in how to "read" a mission provides the interpretative framework of the workshops. In field trips, consideration is given to period artifacts, materials, construction methods, the social implications of built space, and the special features and distinctive functions of each site. The program begins on Sunday with a formal dinner and keynote address on Father Junípero Serra by historians Robert Senkewicz (Santa Clara University) in week one, and by Douglas Monroy (Colorado College) in week two. The focus of the first full day is the Mission San Juan Bautista, with buildings and features dating to 1797, including a soldiers barracks, nunnery, and livery stable. The Alameda (now Third Street) boasts a number of later eighteenth-century Spanish and early nineteenth-century Mexican-Indian adobes, and numerous examples of later architectural styles. On Tuesday, a morning visit to San Miguel Arcangel supports study of the artistic and musical traditions that pervaded daily life; arts curator Carol Kenyon introduces the brilliant fresco murals painted by the Salinan Indian peoples; and Spanish colonial music expert John Warren treats the participants to a demonstration performance by the New World Baroque Orchestra. At San Antonio de Padua in the afternoon, anthropologist Robert Hoover discusses its intact aqueduct system and water-driven mill, distinctive features of this "best preserved and most pristine" of missions in the Monterey Bay. On Thursday, the final field trip is to Mission San Carlos Borromeo and the Royal Presidio of Monterey, where guest scholars guide discussion on a range of topics, with emphasis on indigenous acculturation and change. Wednesday and Friday sessions are organized around "focus" group interactions, resource development using such collections as the Huntington Library's California population database, review of content in relation to classroom teaching, and presentation of curricular projects. On Saturday, historian Douglas Monroy guides concluding discussions in week one, and anthropologist Maria De Fátima Wade (University of Texas, Austin) in week two. The workshop is directed by archaeologist Ruben Mendoza, whose California Missions Source Book serves as a basic text. Other readings, primarily drawn from books and articles by visiting scholars, represent a cross-section of fields, including anthropology, archaeology, history, art history, and music.

Project fields: U.S. Regional Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $188,695 (approved); $187,087 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

Funding details
Original grant (2013) $176,698
Supplement (2013) $11,997

Jackson State University (Jackson, MS 39217-0001)
Leslie McLemore (Project Director, 08/20/2003 - present)
BH-50014-04
Landmarks of American Democracy: From Freedom Summer to the Memphis Sanitation Workers' Strike

Two one-week workshops on landmarks central to the Freedom Summer and the Sanitation Workers' Strike, important episodes in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s.

Project fields: Political Science, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $166,122 (approved); $166,122 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

NorthEast Washington Educational Service District 101 (Spokane, WA 99223-7738)
Robert McCoy (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50550-13
Atomic West, Atomic World

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Hanford Nuclear Reservation and the development of the atomic bomb during World War II and the Cold War.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Hanford Nuclear Reservation and the development of the atomic bomb during World War II and the Cold War. Robert McCoy and Jeffrey Sanders of Washington State University (WSU) lead this project centered on Hanford Nuclear Reservation, the principal site of plutonium production for atomic weapons during the Manhattan Project and the Cold War. It is now the largest Superfund site in the United States, containing almost two-thirds of the nation's nuclear waste. McCoy is a public historian with expertise on memory and commemoration; Sanders is an environmental historian of the American West. Four core topics are explored: 1) The Race to Build the Bomb; 2) Making the High Tech "Atomic West"; 3) Living in the "Atomic West"; and 4) Environmental and Social Legacies of the "Atomic West." Visiting scholars include University of Washington's John Findlay and Bruce Hevly, who have co-authored two books on Hanford and the atomic West; public and environmental historian Andy Kirk (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), who connects Hanford and its environmental legacies with larger regional and national contexts; and Kate Brown (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), who provides both national and international perspectives on issues of human health at Hanford and similar sites in the former Soviet Union. Participants visit the historic Hanford B-reactor, which produced plutonium used in the first bomb tested at the Trinity site and in the "Fat Man" atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki; this site will ultimately become part of the larger Manhattan Project National Park. They also explore Hanford's history through "The Secret City Revealed" show at the Columbia River Exhibition of History, Science, and Technology (CREHST) museum. A docent-led boat tour of the Hanford Reach, the last free-flowing stretch of the Columbia River, illuminates the role of the river and nearby Grand Coulee Dam in providing cooling water and abundant electricity to the reactors, as well as the nuclear complex's unintended legacies for this "off-limits" area (site contamination, but also protection from commercial development). Readings from a range of primary and secondary sources include oral histories from Hanford, the Nevada Test site, and the Pacific Northwest Labor and Civil Rights Project; Richard Rhodes's The Making of the Atomic Bomb; Richard White's Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River; and works by guest faculty Findlay, Hevly, and Brown. With access to archival materials, teachers create individual projects related to their experiences. Resources from the program, such as recorded presentations with accompanying materials, are to be made freely accessible to educators nationwide through WSU's K-12 iTunes U site and the project website.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $177,000 (approved); $169,367 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association (Deerfield, MA 01342-5004)
Barbara Mathews (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50536-12
Living on the Edge of Empire: Alliance, Conflict, and Captivity in Colonial New England

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on cross-cultural contact and conflict, set in colonial Deerfield, Massachusetts.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on cross-cultural contact and conflict, set in colonial Deerfield, Massachusetts. This workshop uses the 1704 Raid on Deerfield as an entry point for studying encounters between Native Americans, African-American slaves, and European settlers in the early colonial period. During the raid-part of a war between England and France over the Spanish crown-French and Native American forces set fire to Deerfield and slew more than fifty villagers. Workshop topics include Native American nations and alliances, European religious and political conflicts, daily life in colonial and tribal settlements, slavery, and captivity narratives. Based at the Old Deerfield Village Historic Landmark District, the project involves visits to several collections of eighteenth century artifacts, the colonial Wells-Thorn House, and the Pocumtuck children's museum, as well as the Pocumtuck Fort, where an archaeologist introduces participants to an active dig site. As part of a session on the legacy of the raid in history and memory, participants view and discuss two films, Ononko's Vow (1910) and Captive: The Story of Esther (2005). Among the readings are Evan Haefeli and Kevin Sweeney's Captors and Captives: The 1704 French and Indian Raid on Deerfield, William Cronon's Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England; and Joanne Melish's essay "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Colonial New England." Participants also read The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story from Early America by Yale historian John Demos, who gives a talk on his research. Other visiting historians include Joanne Melish (University of Kentucky) and Kevin Sweeney (Amherst College). Margaret Bruchac, a Wobanaki Indian and anthropologist at University of Connecticut, lectures on local Indian history and lead a tour of former tribal lands. Participants spend part of each day developing lesson plans and other curricular materials under the guidance of staff historians and master teachers.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,294 (approved); $177,202 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

Chicago Architecture Foundation (Chicago, IL 60604-2527)
Jean Linsner (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - 10/03/2012); Jennifer Masengarb (Project Director, 10/04/2012 - present)
BH-50430-11
The American Skyscraper: Transforming Chicago and the Nation

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the origins of the skyscraper in Chicago and its relationship to urbanization.

"The American Skyscraper: Transforming Chicago and the Nation" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers on the development of the skyscraper in Chicago and the relationship of such buildings to urbanization. Between 1885 and 1895, as technological innovations (elevators, the steel frame, and fireproof building materials, among others) made tall buildings both physically possible and commercially feasible, Chicago experienced a skyscraper boom. This workshop hosted by the Chicago Architecture Foundation (CAF) focuses on the central question: How does the rise of the skyscraper stimulate and reflect change in American life? Participants examine the city's geographical features, as well as the interplay of cultural, philosophical, and aesthetic influences that marked the evolution of Chicago's built landscape from the 1880s through the present. Teachers visit several landmark buildings and architectural firms throughout Chicago's "Loop." Lecture/discussion sessions with historian Henry Binford (Northwestern University) and architectural historians Katherine Solomonson (University of Minnesota) and Joanna Merwood-Salisbury (Parsons The New School for Design), as well as with practicing architects, advance exploration of the complexities of the tall building boom. Readings include selections from (among other works) William Cronan, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West; Donald Miller, City of the Century: The Epic of Chicago and the Making of America; Daniel Bluestone, Constructing Chicago; and Carl Sandburg, Chicago Poems. Participants receive CAF's Schoolyards to Skylines: Teaching with Chicago's Amazing Architecture.

[Grant products]
Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $177,523 (approved); $177,523 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

Chicago Architecture Foundation (Chicago, IL 60604-2527)
Jean Linsner (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - 09/04/2012); Jennifer Masengarb (Project Director, 09/05/2012 - present)
BH-50489-12
The American Skyscraper: Transforming Chicago and the Nation

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the development of the skyscraper in Chicago and the relationship of skyscrapers to urbanization.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the development of the skyscraper in Chicago and the relationship of skyscrapers to urbanization. The Chicago Architecture Foundation (CAF) offers a workshop to explore how the rise of the skyscraper stimulated and reflected change in American life. Between 1885 and 1895, rising land prices and technological changes such as the invention of the elevator and the steel frame made a new building type, the skyscraper, both commercially necessary and physically possible. In the heart of Chicago's city center or "Loop," a boom of new tall buildings formed what became known as the "Chicago School" of architecture. Workshop participants examine the interplay of economic, cultural, and aesthetic influences that transformed Chicago's built landscape from the 1880s through the present. Teachers visit several landmark buildings throughout the "Loop," such as the Reliance Building (D. H. Burnham & Co., 1895), the Chicago Tribune Tower (Raymond Hood, 1925), and the Federal Center (Mies van der Rohe, 1964, 1974). Sessions with historian Henry Binford (Northwestern University) and architectural historians Katherine Solomonson (University of Minnesota) and Joanna Merwood-Salisbury (Parsons The New School for Design), as well as with practicing architects, advance exploration of the complexities of the tall building boom. Readings include selections from (among other works) William Cronon, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West; Daniel Bluestone, Constructing Chicago; Louis Sullivan's 1896 essay, "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered"; and Carl Sandburg's 1916 Chicago Poems. Participants receive CAF's award-winning curriculum guide, Schoolyards to Skylines: Teaching with Chicago's Amazing Architecture.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $172,393 (approved); $172,193 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

Chicago Architecture Foundation (Chicago, IL 60604-2527)
Jennifer Masengarb (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50559-13
The American Skyscraper: Transforming Chicago and the Nation

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the development of the skyscraper and its impact on the city of Chicago and on urbanization throughout the world.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the development of the skyscraper and its impact on the city of Chicago and on urbanization throughout the world. The Chicago Architecture Foundation (CAF) offers a workshop to explore how the development of the skyscraper changed the city of Chicago and the world. At the close of the nineteenth century, a boom of new tall buildings in Chicago's city center, or "Loop," formed what became known as the "Chicago School" of architecture. Workshop participants examine the economic and technological factors that precipitated this boom as well as the social and aesthetic changes that it unleashed. They further consider the place of these now-historic buildings in twenty-first-century Chicago and the bold new superstructures in Asia and the Middle East. The workshop features several landmark buildings in the "Loop," such as the Reliance Building (D. H. Burnham & Co., 1895), the Chicago Tribune Tower (Raymond Hood, 1925), and the Federal Center (Mies van der Rohe, 1964, 1974). Aided by a series of exercises ("how to read a building," "how to sketch like an architect," and "how to use buildings as primary resources"), teachers learn how architecture conveys meaning. The study of original drawings and photographs shows how period images shaped public understanding and responses. Lectures and discussions are led by historian Henry Binford (Northwestern University); architectural historians Katherine Solomonson (University of Minnesota) and Joanna Merwood-Salisbury (Parsons The New School for Design), and practicing architects. Readings include selections from (among other works) William Cronon's Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West; Daniel Bluestone's Constructing Chicago; Louis Sullivan's 1896 essay, "The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered"; and Carl Sandburg's 1916 Chicago Poems. Participants receive CAF's award-winning curriculum guide, Schoolyards to Skylines: Teaching with Chicago's Amazing Architecture.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $169,000 (approved); $169,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

University of Missouri, Kansas City (Kansas City, MO 64110-2446)
Edeen Martin (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50244-07
The Missouri-Kansas Border Wars: Contested Visions of Freedoms

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers on conflicts in Kansas and Missouri over conflicting visions of freedom during the Civil War era.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,000 (approved); $150,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

University of Missouri, Kansas City (Kansas City, MO 64110-2446)
Edeen Martin (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50337-09
Crossroads of Conflict: Contested Visions of Freedom and the Missouri-Kansas Border Wars 2010

Two Landmarks workshops for eighty teachers on the history and impact of the Missouri-Kansas border wars that preceded the American Civil War.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $160,000 (approved); $160,000 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

Millsaps College (Jackson, MS 39210-0002)
Suzanne Marrs (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50203-07
Eudora Welty's Secret Sharer: The Outside World and the Writer's Imagination

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers to study landmarks and archival collections associated with Eudora Welty in their historical context.

Project fields: American Literature
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $151,382 (approved); $151,382 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Millsaps College (Jackson, MS 39210-0002)
Suzanne Marrs (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50502-12
One Place, One Time: Jackson, Mississippi, 1963

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers focused on the year 1963 in Jackson, Mississippi, with the murder of civil rights leader Medgar Evers and its aftermath.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers focused on the year 1963 in Jackson, Mississippi, with the murder of civil rights leader Medgar Evers and its aftermath. After midnight on June 12, 1963, civil rights leader Medgar Evers was shot in his driveway in Jackson, Mississippi, just hours after President Kennedy had pledged his support for sweeping civil rights legislation in a televised address to the nation. By working "both backwards and forwards" from this focal point, this new workshop helps teachers to "understand the complex intersections of race and power, cultural change and resistance, institutions and individuals and to make these intersections vivid for their students." This project is led by Millsaps faculty members Suzanne Marrs and Stephanie Rolph, a historian of the civil rights era in the South. Myrlie Evers-Williams, Evers's widow, gives a keynote address on Sunday evening. Monday begins with an introductory lecture by Rolph, after which Mississippi civil rights movement veteran Leslie McLemore (political science, Jackson State University) leads a tour of civil rights sites, including the Medgar Evers House. The tour concludes at the Margaret Walker Alexander Center, where director Robert Luckett (history, Jackson State University) examines archival holdings with participants. The next day, biographer Michael Vinson Williams (history and African-American studies, Mississippi State University) discusses Evers's life, and staff at the Department of Archives and History introduce their Evers Papers and holdings from the Sovereignty Commission, a de facto intelligence organization. Reverend Edwin King, himself spied upon by the Sovereignty Commission, discusses his response to the opening of these papers, and on Wednesday details the roles of Tougaloo College (where he was chaplain in 1963) and Millsaps College (from which he graduated) in the "Jackson Movement." Participants explore works by Eudora Welty (including a story in the voice of the then-unidentified assassin) and learn about Welty's civil rights involvement in touring the Welty House. On Thursday, former NEH councilmember Peggy Prenshaw discusses autobiographical writings by Myrlie Evers, Anne Moody, and Willie Morris, as well as other responses to the assassination (Margaret Walker Alexander's poems; Bob Dylan's song "Only a Pawn in Their Game"). The role of journalism "then and now" is taken up on Friday: Rolph leads participants in analyzing the press response to Evers's killing, and investigative reporter Jerry Mitchell discusses his 1993-1994 Jackson Clarion-Ledger articles looking back at the assassination, which spurred the reopening of the murder case against Byron de la Beckwith, convicted in 1994. Rolph then gives a concluding session on the legacy of 1963 Jackson, and participants share their research and curricular work from the week.

Project fields: American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,530 (approved); $168,258 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

Wing Luke Memorial Foundation (Seattle, WA 98104-2948)
Charlene Mano Shen (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50586-13
From Immigrants to Citizens: Asian Americans in the Pacific Northwest

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to explore the history and culture of Asian immigrant groups in the Pacific Northwest and their significance to the nation.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers to explore the history and culture of Asian immigrant groups in the Pacific Northwest and their significance to the nation. The Wing Luke Museum offers a workshop on the nineteenth-century wave of Asian Pacific immigration to the Pacific Northwest. Participants study the distinct histories of Native Hawaiians, Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Asian Indians, exploring the contrasts between the groups' contributions to the region's economy, the protracted history of legal exclusion, and the tensions that emerged as they sought inclusion as Americans. Readings by workshop scholars, drawn from throughout the United States, and documents and artifacts from the Wing Luke collection augment the core text, Ronald Takaki's 1989 classic, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. The scholars include Erika Lee (University of Minnesota), author of At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era; Gary Okihiro (Columbia University), author of Whispered Silences: Japanese Americans and World War II); and Chris Friday (Western Washington University), author of Organizing Asian American Labor: The Pacific Coast Canned Salmon Industry. Visits to key buildings, some of which are closed to the public, as well as to existing immigrant communities are into the daily schedule. In Seattle, participants visit Japantown, Chinatown, and Manilatown. Further afield, they see the Japanese American Exclusion Memorial and Filipino Community Hall on Bainbridge Island and a number of Chinese buildings, gardens, and archives in Port Townsend. They also visit the Port Gamble Historic District, former home of Native Hawaiians, and a Sikh religious center. Several sessions help teachers develop curriculum projects that are incorporated into a website along with primary texts, maps, and historic timelines.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,914 (approved); $177,440 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

National Trust for Historic Preservation (Washington, DC 20036-2107)
Katherine Malone-France (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50184-07
Race and Place: African Americans in Washington, DC from 1800-1954

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers on slavery, emancipation, Reconstruction, and segregation in Washington, D. C.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $156,152 (approved); $156,152 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 9/30/2007

National Trust for Historic Preservation (Washington, DC 20036-2107)
Katherine Malone-France (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50247-07
Race and Place: An Examination of African Americans in Washington, DC from 1800-1954

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers on slavery, emancipation, Reconstruction, and segregation in Washington, D. C.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $166,180 (approved); $166,180 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Savannah-Chatham County Public Schools (Savannah, GA)
Candy Lowe (Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present)
BH-50029-04
Planned, Built, and Preserved: Savannah's Three-Century History

Two one-week workshops focused on the founding, city plan, architecture, and preservation of the city of Savannah, Georgia.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $151,000 (approved); $150,726 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Susan Lockwood (Project Director, 08/20/2003 - present)
BH-50011-04
Between Columbus and Jamestown: Spanish St. Augustine

Four week-long workshops focusing on the Spanish colonial history of St. Augustine, Florida.

Project fields: Education
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $261,587 (approved); $246,806 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Susan Lockwood (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50065-05
Between Columbus and Jamestown: Spanish St. Augustine

Four one-week workshops for 200 teachers examining Spanish St. Augustine in the context of American colonial history.

Project fields: Education
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $259,149 (approved); $259,149 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Florida Humanities Council (St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5005)
Susan Lockwood (Project Director, 08/17/2005 - present)
BH-50136-06
Between Columbus and Jamestown: Spanish St. Augustine

Four one-week workshops for 200 school teachers examining Spanish St. Augustine in the context of American colonial history.

Project fields: Education
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $277,900 (approved); $260,849 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Chicago Architecture Foundation (Chicago, IL 60604-2527)
Jean Linsner (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50296-08
The American Skyscraper: Transforming Chicago and the Nation

No project description available

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $143,792 (approved); $143,792 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

Chicago Architecture Foundation (Chicago, IL 60604-2527)
Jean Linsner (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50321-09
The American Skyscraper: Transforming Chicago and the Nation

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the development of the skyscraper in Chicago and the relationship of such buildings to urbanization.

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $162,951 (approved); $162,951 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

Molly Brown House Museum (Denver, CO 80203-2417)
Anne Levinsky (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50316-09
Molly Brown and Western Biography: A Look at Life and Legend

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers using the life and biography of Molly Brown to examine the American West in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $155,892 (approved); $155,892 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

Community College Humanities Association (Newark, NJ 07102)
Carole Lester (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50260-08
Remembering the Alamo: Landmarks of American History and Culture

No project description available

Project fields: Interdisciplinary Studies, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $170,399 (approved); $170,399 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

Middle Tennessee State University (Murfreesboro, TN 37132-0001)
Janice Leone (Project Director, 08/11/2005 - present)
BH-50096-06
The Hermitage, Andrew Jackson, and America, 1801-1861

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers held at The Hermitage, Andrew Jackson's home, on major themes in nineteenth-century American history.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $142,656 (approved); $142,656 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Middle Tennessee State University (Murfreesboro, TN 37132-0001)
Janice Leone (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50206-07
The Hermitage, Andrew Jackson, and America 1801-1861

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers held at The Hermitage, Andrew Jackson's home, on major themes in nineteenth-century American history.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $140,915 (approved); $140,915 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Middle Tennessee State University (Murfreesboro, TN 37132-0001)
Janice Leone (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50309-09
The Hermitage, Andrew Jackson, and America 1801-1861

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers at The Hermitage, Andrew Jackson's home, on major themes in nineteenth-century American history.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $159,972 (approved); $159,972 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 12/31/2010

Association for Core Texts and Courses (Moraga, CA 94556-2744)
J. Scott Lee (Project Director, 08/14/2004 - present)
BH-50049-05
Renewing Cherokee Culture and American History Through the Cherokee Heritage Center and the Trail of Tears

Two one-week workshops for 90 high school teachers to increase knowledge of Cherokee/American History, to be held at the Cherokee Heritage Center at Tahlequah, Oklahoma.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $152,586 (approved); $152,586 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 3/31/2006

Montana Historical Society (Helena, MT 59601-4514)
Kirby Lambert (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present); Paula Petrik (Co Project Director, 08/08/2012 - present)
BH-50510-12
The Richest Hills: Mining in the Far West, 1862-1920

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers that connect the study of mines and mining in Montana to broad patterns in U. S. history.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers that connect the study of mines and mining in Montana to broad patterns in U. S. history. This workshop addresses the contribution of western mining to the social and economic history of the United States through the study of the different types of mining in four Montana towns. Lectures and discussions address such topics as the technological processes of mining; capital and labor in the mining industry; the architecture and commercial life of Bannack, Virginia City, Helena, and Butte; African-American, Jewish, and Chinese communities; and relations with Native Americans in the region. Project co-directors Kirby Lambert (Montana Historical Society [MHS]) and Paula Petrik (history, George Mason University) are joined by Robert Swartout (history, Carroll College), Ken Egan (literature, Humanities Montana), Fredric Quivik (industrial heritage and archaeology, Michigan Technological University), Ray Breuninger (geology, University of Montana), Mary Murphy (history, Montana State University), Nicholas Vrooman (Native American history, University of Montana), independent filmmaker Pamela Roberts, and other local experts. Readings include selections from Montana: A History of Two Centuries (Michael Malone et al.) and Montana: Stories of the Land (Krys Holmes), as well as scholarly chapters and articles, several by workshop faculty Petrik, Murphy, and Vrooman. The participants also use primary sources from MHS, including documents, maps, and photographs, as they develop teaching units.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $191,910 (approved); $191,910 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 6/30/2014

Funding details
Original grant (2013) $179,910
Supplement (2013) $12,000

Montana Historical Society (Helena, MT 59601-4514)
Kirby Lambert (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50614-14
The Richest Hills: Mining in the Far West, 1862-1920

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers that connect the study of mines and mining in Montana to broad patterns of U.S. history.

This workshop addresses the contributions of western mining to the social and economic history of the United States through study of the different types of mining in four Montana towns. Lectures and discussions address such topics as the technological processes of mining; capital and labor in the mining industry; the architecture and commercial life of Bannack, Virginia City, Helena, and Butte; African-American, Jewish, and Chinese communities; and relations with Native Americans in the region. Project co-directors Kirby Lambert (Montana Historical Society [MHS]) and Paula Petrik (history, George Mason University) are joined by Robert Swartout (history, Carroll College), Ken Egan (literature, Humanities Montana), Fredric Quivik (industrial heritage and archaeology, Michigan Technological University), Nicholas Vrooman (Native American history, University of Montana), Andrea Stierle (biochemistry, Montana State University [MSU]), Mary Murphy (history, MSU), educator and Crow tribe member Shayne Doyle (Native American studies, MSU), independent filmmaker Pamela Roberts, and other local experts. Readings include selections from Montana: A History of Two Centuries (Michael Malone, et al.) and Montana: Stories of the Land (Krys Holmes), as well as scholarly chapters and articles, several by workshop faculty Petrik, Murphy, and Vrooman. The participants also use primary sources from MHS, including documents, maps, and photographs, as they develop teaching units.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $167,863 (approved); $158,124 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Beryl Rosenthal (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - 11/20/2009); Sheila Kirschbaum (Project Director, 11/20/2009 - present)
BH-50269-08
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

No project description available

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $224,998 (approved); $224,998 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 9/30/2010

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Sheila Kirschbaum (Project Director, 03/26/2009 - present)
BH-50331-09
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution - Summer 2010 Teacher Workshops

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the textile industry in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case study of early nineteenth-century industrialization.

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $159,999 (approved); $159,999 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2009 – 6/30/2011

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Sheila Kirschbaum (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50402-10
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the textile industry in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case study of early nineteenth-century industrialization.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $170,051 (approved); $167,996 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 6/30/2012

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Sheila Kirschbaum (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present)
BH-50445-11
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the textile industry in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case study of early nineteenth-century industrialization.

"Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers. The program is offered by the Tsongas Industrial History Center, a partnership of the University of Massachusetts at Lowell and the Lowell National Historical Park, and focuses on the textile industry in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case study of early nineteenth-century industrialization. During the workshops, historians and other scholars lead lecture/discussions on key themes in Lowell's history. Merritt Roe Smith (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) places the local textile industry in an international context; Patrick Malone (Brown University) focuses on Lowell's water power system; Jack Larkin (Old Sturbridge Village) talks about the transition from an agrarian to a market-based economy; Gray Fitzsimons (formerly National Park Service) focuses on the textile industry's management structure and on the experience of Irish and French-Canadian immigrants; Robert Forrant (University of Massachusetts, Lowell) speaks about labor's responses to the new industrial order; and Chad Montrie (University of Massachusetts, Lowell) explores the tensions between the traditional and the modern in the literature of the early nineteenth century. Participants visit historic sites around Lowell and Concord such as Walden Pond and Minute Man National Historical Park; they also visit Old Sturbridge Village. Marie Frank (University of Massachusetts, Lowell) utilizes two selections (by Thomas Cole and Charles Sheeler) from the NEH Picturing America portfolio to explore responses to industrialization and the American landscape. The participants read selections by historians including Thomas Dublin, Merritt Roe Smith, Jack Larkin, Patrick Malone, Chad Montrie and Brian Mitchell, and writings by Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and young women who worked in the mills.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $172,880 (approved); $172,880 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 6/30/2013

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Sheila Kirschbaum (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present)
BH-50492-12
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the textile industry in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case study of early nineteenth-century industrialization.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the textile industry in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case study of early nineteenth-century industrialization. This workshop focuses on Lowell, Massachusetts, the first planned industrial city in the United States, as a means to study changes in work, economics, society, culture, and the environment that occurred between 1820 and 1860. To address the key themes that a study of Lowell invites, Merritt Roe Smith (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) places the local textile industry in an international context, Patrick Malone (Brown University) focuses on Lowell's water power system, Jack Larkin (Old Sturbridge Village) discusses the transition from an agrarian to a market-based economy, Gray Fitzsimons (GGF Historical Consultants) focuses on the textile industry's management structure and on the experience of Irish and French Canadian immigrants, Robert Forrant (University of Massachusetts, Lowell) speaks about labor's responses to the new industrial order, Chad Montrie (University of Massachusetts, Lowell) explores the tensions between the traditional and the modern in the literature of the early nineteenth century, and Marie Frank (University of Massachusetts, Lowell) utilizes two selections (by Thomas Cole and Charles Sheeler) from the NEH Picturing America portfolio to explore responses to industrialization and the American landscape. Participants directly examine Lowell's rich historic fabric such as the Suffolk Mill, the Boott Cotton Mill and Boarding House, and other mill sites along the Merrimack and Concord Rivers. Site visits to Old Sturbridge Village and the town of Concord put the industrial developments in a wider context. In addition to readings by workshop scholars, the participants read selections by historians Thomas Dublin, Patrick Malone, and Brian Mitchell; the period literature of Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Nathaniel Hawthorne; and the writings of young women who worked in the mills. The university provides online support through Blackboard, and teachers develop lesson plans, the best of which are posted on the workshop's website.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $180,861 (approved); $177,182 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 6/30/2014

Funding details
Original grant (2013) $169,430
Supplement (2013) $11,431

University of Massachusetts, Lowell (Lowell, MA 01854-2827)
Sheila Kirschbaum (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50634-14
Inventing America: Lowell and the Industrial Revolution

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers on the textile industry in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case study of early nineteenth-century industrialization.

This workshop focuses on Lowell, Massachusetts, as a significant case study of American industrialization between 1820 and 1860. Lowell tells the story of how Yankee ingenuity meets early industrial capitalism in a traditional agricultural society and develops into a full-fledged market-based economy. A fundamental transformation of American life occurred as the result of the mobilization of women and immigrants into the work force and accompanying changes in ethnic and cultural diversity, class relations, and social mobility; new economic models and volatile markets; and the rise of labor unions and progressive movements. The workshop is organized around a set of key topics: 1) Lowell's overall significance as an industrial showplace, 2) the transformation of New England's economic and social order, 3) changes in the experience of work, 4) worker protest and organization, 5) the struggle of Lowell's community to come to terms with slavery, 6) transformation of nature as a result of industrialization, and 7) the intellectual, artistic, and literary efforts to define an "American" culture. Sheila Kirschbaum, the workshop director, assembles a group of historians with particular expertise on Lowell, including Merritt Roe Smith (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Patrick Malone (Brown University), and Thomas Kelleher (Old Sturbridge Village), and University of Massachusetts, Lowell, faculty Robert Forrant, Bridget Marshall, Jennifer Cadero-Gillette, and Gregory Fitzsimons. On Monday, participants travel to Boott Mills to examine a working water-powered turbine and complete power train, following a presentation on the industrialization of textiles in Waltham and Lowell. On Tuesday, participants visit Old Sturbridge to discuss the transition from an agrarian to a market-based economy. Participants test their skills as assembly-line workers in connection with a lecture on industry management structure and working conditions on Wednesday. A Thursday trip to Walden Pond invites further reflection on the morning lecture on Emerson and Thoreau. On the last day, participants take a walking tour to examine Lowell's immigrant history. Secondary readings for the workshop include Thomas Dublin's Lowell: The Story of an Industrial City; Patrick Malone's Waterpower in Lowell; Jack Larkin's The Reshaping of Everyday Life: 1790-1840; and Ira Berlin's Many Thousands Gone, among others.

Project fields: American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $160,286 (approved); $160,286 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

University of California, Davis (Davis, CA 95618-6153)
Ari Kelman (Project Director, 03/05/2012 - present); Eric Rauchway (Co Project Director, 08/08/2012 - present)
BH-50512-12
The Transcontinental Railroad: Transforming California and the Nation

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the transcontinental railroad and its impact on nineteenth-century America.

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the transcontinental railroad and its impact on nineteenth-century America. This workshop explores the impact of the transcontinental railroad on the politics, society, economy, and environment of California and the nation. Daily topics include technology and labor, geography and the environment, the social and economic impact of the railroad, and the West in the American imagination. Based in Sacramento, the western terminus of the railroad, the project includes visits to the California State Railroad Museum, Old Sacramento State Historic Park, the Sacramento History Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, and the mansion of railroad baron Leland Stanford. Farther afield, participants take day trips to Stanford University's Bill Lane Center for the West, the Chinese Historical Society of America, and the treacherous Donner Pass, an example of the difficult terrain faced by railroad workers. In addition to co-directors Ari Kelman and Eric Rauchway of University of California, Davis, the faculty includes historians Richard White (Stanford University) and Richard J. Orsi (California State University, East Bay), as well as museum curators and staff. White discusses selected chapters from his prize-winning book Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America. Other readings are drawn from Amy Richter's Home on the Rails: Women, the Railroad, and the Rise of Public Domesticity; Alexander Saxton's The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California; Wolfgang Schivelbusch's The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century; Andrew C. Isenberg's The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1850-1920; and The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier, 1820-1920, edited by William Truettner. During the workshop, participants develop a resource list, annotated bibliography, and lesson or unit plans for posting on the project's website.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $180,000 (approved); $179,286 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2012 – 12/31/2013

California State University, Long Beach - University Library (Long Beach, CA 90840-1901)
Tim Keirn (Project Director, 03/07/2013 - present)
BH-50561-13
The Cold War Home Front in Southern California

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Southern California's aerospace development and its impact from World War II through the Cold War era.

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Southern California's aerospace development and its impact from World War II through the Cold War era. "The Cold War Home Front: Living and Working in Sunbelt Southern California, 1941-1981" explores the role of aerospace research and production during World War II and the Cold War and its effects on everyday people. The workshop opens by considering how and why the aerospace industry developed in Southern California, with attention to the area's transformation during World War II and to the experiences of women and minorities in wartime aircraft production. Subsequent days address how Cold War aerospace production changed the region and the nation; how the growing diversity of Southern California influenced workers' experiences; how popular culture reflected the "space age" (in such forms as Cold War science fiction films); and how the aerospace industry shaped suburban life. California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) hosts the workshop under the leadership of historians Tim Keirn and Dave Neumann. Three principal faculty members from University of Southern California (USC) guide the participants throughout the week: California historian Kevin Starr; William Deverell (director of the Huntington Library-USC Institute on California and the West [ICW]), whose lecture-discussions on the initial rise and subsequent decline of California aerospace bookend the program on Monday and Friday; and historian of science Peter Westwick, director of the Aerospace History Project within the ICW. CSULB historians Eileen Luhr and Ali Igmen, historian Jon Weiner (University of California at Irvine), and memoirist D. J. Waldie offers additional guest presentations. Site visits include behind-the-scenes tours of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Columbia Memorial Space Center, the historic Long Beach Airport, the Wende Museum's Communist bloc collections, and the California Science Center. Visits are guided by experts such as Gerald Blackburn, a former Boeing project manager and president of the Aerospace Legacy Foundation. In preparation for the workshop, participants read Blue Sky Metropolis: Aerospace and Southern California (a collection edited by Westwick and Deverell). Various additional articles and excerpts from historians and cultural critics are discussed in the course of the workshop, on topics ranging from "Science Fiction Films and Cold War Anxiety" to the housing patterns of "Chocolate Cities and Vanilla Suburbs" in and around Los Angeles. Participants' lesson plans and all supporting digitized materials are to be made publicly available on CSU's interactive Multimedia Educational Resources for Learning and Online Teaching site.

Project fields: Education
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $177,527 (approved); $163,453 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2013 – 12/31/2014

Salem State University (Salem, MA 01970-5353)
Patricia Johnston (Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present)
BH-50028-04
Salem, Massachusetts (1801-1861): National Culture, International Horizons

Four one-week workshops to explore the political, economic, and social history of 19th-century Salem, Massachusetts, through material and documentary sources.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $289,658 (approved); $289,658 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2005

Salem State University (Salem, MA 01970-5353)
Patricia Johnston (Project Director, 08/18/2004 - present)
BH-50083-05
Becoming American: Trade, Culture, and Reform in Salem, Massachusetts, 1801-1861

Three one-week workshops for 120 teachers to explore the political, economic, and social history of nineteenth-century Salem, Massachusetts, through material and documentary sources.

Project fields: Art History and Criticism
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $250,000 (approved); $249,943 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2006

Ford's Theatre Society (Washington, DC 20004-1403)
Sarah Jencks (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50658-14
The Seat of War and Peace: The Lincoln Assassination and Its Legacy in the Nation’s Capital

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two teachers to explore events surrounding the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, the political aftermath of the national tragedy, and the enduring legacy of our sixteenth president.

The workshop takes place at the restored Ford's Theatre in Washington, DC, on the 150th anniversary of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Geographer Kenneth Foote (University of Connecticut) leads a Sunday evening discussion about the history of Ford's Theatre, the assassination on the night of April 14, 1865, and national memory of the event. On Monday, historians Kenneth Winkle (University of Nebraska, Lincoln) and Terry Alford (Northern Virginia Community College) describe the city during the war years, the city's celebration of the South's surrender, and the extent of the conspiracy to kill Lincoln. Participants visit the Ford's Theatre museum, then cross the street to visit Petersen House, where the dying Lincoln was carried. They also visit the adjacent Center for Education and Leadership, which contains exhibits on Lincoln's funeral and artifacts on the hunt for, and trial of, the assassins. On Tuesday, participants retrace the first portion of Booth's escape route through southern Maryland, and visit conspirator Mary Surratt's tavern in Surrattsville (now Clinton), Maryland. Back at Ford's Theatre in the early afternoon, they view and discuss the film The Conspirator, told from the viewpoint of Mrs. Surratt. On Wednesday, historian Martha Hodes (New York University) discusses emotional and personal responses to the assassination across America. Following this, participants reflect on the Civil War's enormous death toll with visits to Arlington National Cemetery, the former site of the Mary Custis Lee plantation, which was home to General Robert E. Lee. On Thursday, historian Kate Masur (Northwestern University) leads a session on African-American politics in the capital city during Reconstruction, after which participants visit Cedar Hill, former home of abolitionist Frederick Douglass, as well as the African-American Civil War Memorial and Museum in the district. In the evening, participants view Steven Spielberg's film Lincoln and discuss its portrayal of the last months of Lincoln's presidency. Friday's activities are organized around the theme "Lincoln's Legacy in Reconstruction," with a visit to the Lincoln Memorial, site of Marian Anderson's 1939 Easter Sunday concert and the 1963 March on Washington. Historian Edward T. Linenthal (Indiana University) leads a wrap-up discussion on Saturday morning, situating the lessons learned during the week in the broader context of U.S. history. Workshop readings include Brian Anderson, Ford's Theatre; Jay Winik, April 1865: The Month That Saved America; Terry Alford, Fortune's Fool: The Biography of John Wilkes Booth; Martha Hodes, Mourning Lincoln; Kate Masur, An Example for All the Land: Emancipation and the Struggle Over Equality in Washington, D.C.; Kenneth Winkle, Lincoln's Citadel: The Civil War in Washington, D. C.; and articles by David Blight, Ta-Nehisi Coates, Thavolia Glymph, James McPherson, Timothy Good, and Gary Zola.

Project fields: Political History; U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $172,039 (approved); $172,039 (awarded)
Grant period: 9/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History (New York, NY 10036-5900)
Kenneth Jackson (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present); Karen Markoe (Co Project Director, 07/21/2011 - present)
BH-50462-11
Empire City: New York from 1877-2001

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers using New York City landmarks to illuminate local and national history since 1877.

"Empire City: New York from 1877-2001" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held during summer 2012 for eighty school teachers using New York City landmarks to illuminate major themes in local and national history since 1877. The workshops use lectures, discussions, and site visits to situate New York City within broader urban history and American history. Co-directors are Kenneth Jackson (Columbia University) and Karen Markoe (State University of New York, Maritime College). The program opens with consideration of Manhattan's rise to national dominance after the Civil War, followed by a walking tour of Central Park and visit to the New-York Historical Society, where Sandra Trenholm (Gilder Lehrman Collection) guides participants in working with primary documents. Day two's focus on Gilded Age New York includes prizewinning biographer David Nasaw (Graduate Center of City University of New York) on "Andrew Carnegie and His Gospel of Wealth," and a visit to magnate Henry Clay Frick's mansion. To explore immigration, participants read Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives and E.L. Doctorow's Ragtime, then experience immigrant neighborhoods including Five Points, Little Italy, and Chinatown. The program also addresses the "Black Metropolis," including visits to Harlem and the Bronx as well as readings from Langston Hughes and Ralph Ellison. On the final day of the workshop, Joshua Freeman (Queens College) covers the transition from industrial to service and residential use, as seen in the Meat Packing District. Concluding the site visit at Ground Zero, project director Kenneth Jackson discusses the local and national effects of 9/11.

[Grant products]
Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $158,969 (approved); $158,969 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History (New York, NY 10036-5900)
Kenneth Jackson (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50651-14
Empire City: New York and the Transformation of American Life, 1877-1929

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two school teachers using New York City landmarks to illuminate major themes in local and national history from 1880 to 1929.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $150,762 (approved); $150,762 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Nebraska State Historical Society (Lincoln, NE 68508-1651)
Lynne Ireland (Project Director, 08/21/2003 - present)
BH-50023-04
Shifting Power on the Great Plains: Fort Robinson and the American West

Two one-week workshops at Fort Robinson (Nebraska) Historic Landmark on the role of the fort in American history from 1868 until the end of World War II.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $152,187 (approved); $152,187 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2004 – 12/31/2004

Middle Tennessee State University (Murfreesboro, TN 37132-0001)
Robert Hunt (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50267-08
Traveller's Rest, Occupied Nashville, and the Civil War and Emancipation in the Upper South

No project description available

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $160,368 (approved); $160,368 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

Mark Twain House (Hartford, CT 06105-6400)
Craig Hotchkiss (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50271-08
Huckleberry Finn in Post-Reconstruction America: Mark Twain's Hartford Years, 1871-1891, a Workshop for Teachers

No project description available

Project fields: American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $141,894 (approved); $141,894 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

Mark Twain House (Hartford, CT 06105-6400)
Craig Hotchkiss (Project Director, 03/09/2011 - present)
BH-50423-11
Huck, Jim and Jim Crow: a Workshop for Teachers

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on Mark Twain, Huckleberry Finn, and race in post-Reconstruction America.

"Huck, Jim, and Jim Crow" consists of two one-week NEH Landmarks of American History and Culture Workshops held summer 2012 for eighty school teachers on Mark Twain, Huckleberry Finn, and race in post-Reconstruction America. The workshops explore Mark Twain and his writings in their social, political, and historical contexts. Project director Craig Hotchkiss heads a team of scholars and educators who prepare participants to teach their students about Huckleberry Finn, the important issues it addresses, and the controversies it has engendered. The program opens with a tour of the Mark Twain House in Hartford, Connecticut, where Twain lived from 1871 to 1891. The tour is led by Hotchkiss and chief curator Patricia Philippon, who introduces the museum's library, archives, and collections. Scholarly presentations begin on the first day with Kerry Driscoll (St. Joseph College) on "The Origins of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." Other literary scholars include John Bird (Winthrop University) on the novel's use of dialect; Robert Hirst (General Editor of the Mark Twain Project, University of California at Berkeley) exploring "Mark Twain on Racism" through the author's own notes and drafts of the novel; Stephen Railton (University of Virginia) on Twain's relationship with George Washington Cable and their "Twins of Genius Tour"; Ann Ryan (Le Moyne College) on the era's representations of black men; and Bruce Michelson (University of Illinois) on the novel's ending. Further framing is provided by Wilbert Jenkins (Temple University) on African Americans during Reconstruction and the advent of Jim Crow, and Eric Lott (University of Virginia) on the blackface minstrel tradition. Curator David Pilgrim (Ferris State University) also guides teachers through the exhibition "Hateful Things," on loan from the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia.

[Grant products]
Project fields: American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $179,683 (approved); $145,873 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2011 – 12/31/2012

Minnesota Historical Society (St. Paul, MN 55102-1903)
Nancy Wagner (Project Director, 08/16/2005 - 12/22/2005); Erik Holland (Project Director, 12/23/2005 - present)
BH-50111-06
Fort Snelling: A Contentious Ground

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers to study the early years of historic Fort Snelling as a representative military post in the context of Indian relations, economic growth, and westward expansion.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $147,004 (approved); $147,004 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Villanova University (Villanova, PA 19085-1478)
Marylu Hill (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50212-07
Benjamin Franklin and the Invention of America

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers on Benjamin Franklin's life and contributions to American civic character, with visits to relevant Philadelphia sites.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $146,603 (approved); $146,603 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Boston University (Boston, MA 02215-1300)
Linda Heywood (Project Director, 03/23/2010 - present)
BH-50406-10
African Americans in Massachusetts: From Slavery to Today

Two one-week Landmarks workshops for eighty school teachers on the African-American community in Massachusetts and the role of New England in African-American history.

Project fields: African American Studies
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $180,382 (approved); $180,382 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2010 – 12/31/2011

Ohio Historical Society (Columbus, OH 43211-2474)
Elizabeth Hedler (Project Director, 03/05/2014 - present)
BH-50620-14
Following in Ancient Footsteps: The Hopewell in Ohio

Two one-week workshops for seventy-two teachers on the Hopewell, an American Indian civilization that flourished in Ohio between 100 BCE and 400 CE.

The Creative Learning Factory at the Ohio Historical Society offers a six-day program for teachers to explore the Hopewell landscape at the Newark Earthworks, Fort Ancient, and the five earthworks included in Hopewell Cultural National Historical Park: Mound City, Hopeton Earthworks, Hopewell Mound Group, Seip Earthworks, and High Bank Works. The Hopewell culture reached its fullest expression in the valleys of the major streams that flowed southward into the Ohio River in southern Ohio and neighboring Indiana during the Middle Woodland period, which spanned between 100 BCE and 400 CE. The Hopewell culture is best known for its monumental earthworks and the broad range of exotic raw materials its artisans acquired and crafted into distinctive works of art. Hopewellian earthworks, such as the sprawling Newark Earthworks and Fort Ancient, represent a florescence of art, architecture, ritual, and interregional interaction that was unparalleled in North America up to that time. The workshop immerses teachers in the Hopewell culture of ancient America through field study opportunities and scholarly presentations. Director Elizabeth Hedler (historian, Ohio Historical Society) is joined by lead faculty Bradley Lepper (curator of archaeology, Ohio Historical Society), Terry Barnhart (historian, Eastern Illinois University), Steven Warrant (historian, Augustana College), Robert Riordan (anthropologist, Wright State University), Bret Ruby (archaeologist, Hopewell Culture National Historical Park), Richard Shiels (historian, Ohio State University), Glenna Wallace (Chief of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma), and Linda Pansing (curator, Ohio Historical Society). Specific themes to be covered in the presentation and discussion sessions include "Early Efforts at Surveying and Mapping the Mounds"; "Hopewell Sites and Artifacts in American Popular Culture"; "Ancient Life and Hunting Strategies," "Building the Hopewell Landscape: Fort Ancient and the Earthworks of Southern Ohio"; "Octagon Earthworks and Hopewell Astronomy"; and " 'A Ranging Sort of People': Slavery and Diaspora in Early America." In addition, participants engage in a simulated archaeological dig, visit major excavations, hike interpretive trails, and watch interactive videos to expand their understanding of the sites. Readings for the workshop include Ray Hively and Robert Horn's description of the lunar alignments found at the Newark Earthworks; papers by James Brown and Robert Hall regarding Hopewell culture and ritual; and Peter Nabokov's study of American Indian sacred places.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $170,598 (approved); $170,598 (awarded)
Grant period: 9/1/2014 – 12/31/2015

Save Ellis Island (Mt. Olive, NJ 07828-1388)
Dorothy Hartman (Project Director, 08/17/2005 - present)
BH-50148-06
Ellis Island: Public Health and Immigration, 1900-1924

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers focused on Ellis Island, an immigration gateway to America, and its role in providing a healthy workforce for America in the early 20th century.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $152,648 (approved); $152,648 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Save Ellis Island (Mt. Olive, NJ 07828-1388)
Dorothy Hartman (Project Director, 03/16/2006 - present)
BH-50158-07
Ellis Island and Immigration to America, 1892-1924

Two one-week workshops for eighty school teachers on the history of late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century immigration at Ellis Island.

Project fields: Education
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $157,328 (approved); $157,328 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2006 – 9/30/2007

Save Ellis Island (Mt. Olive, NJ 07828-1388)
Dorothy Hartman (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50205-07
Ellis Island 1891-1924: Immigration, Public Health, and the American Workforce

Two one-week workshops for 80 school teachers on the history of late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century immigration at Ellis Island.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $157,105 (approved); $157,105 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2007 – 9/30/2008

Save Ellis Island (Mt. Olive, NJ 07828-1388)
Dorothy Hartman (Project Director, 03/18/2008 - present)
BH-50261-08
Ellis Island, Public Health and the American Workforce,1891-1924

No project description available

Project fields: History, General
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $181,900 (approved); $181,900 (awarded)
Grant period: 10/1/2008 – 12/31/2009

Montpelier Foundation (Orange, VA 22960-0551)
William Harris (Project Director, 08/17/2004 - present)
BH-50075-05
James Madison and Constitutional Citizenship

Two one-week workshops for 100 teachers examining James Madison's Constitutional thought and Montpelier as evidence of Madison's life.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $149,991 (approved); $149,991 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2005 – 12/31/2005

Montpelier Foundation (Orange, VA 22960-0551)
William Harris (Project Director, 08/16/2005 - present)
BH-50107-06
James Madison and Constitutional Citizenship

Two one-week workshops for 100 school teachers examining James Madison's Constitutional thought and Montpelier as evidence of Madison's life.

Project fields: U.S. History
Program: Landmarks of American History
Division: Education Programs
Total amounts: $159,143 (approved); $159,143 (awarded)
Grant period: 1/1/2006 – 12/31/2006

Montpelier Foundation (Orange, VA 22960-0551)
William Harris (Project Director, 03/16/2007 - present)
BH-50229-07
James Madison and Constitutional Citizenship