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Program: Summer Stipends*
Date range: 2014-2016
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FT-248139-16

Mark D. Usher
University of Vermont (Burlington, VT 05405-0160)

Ancient Greek Thought on Sustainability and Complex Systems

A book-length study tracing ideas about sustainability and complex systems from the ancient world to today.

Sustainability studies and the field of Complex Systems are often presented as new areas of human endeavor. To the extent that these approaches to understanding and living in the world utilize new technologies and scientific advances, they are indeed new, and important. However, the fundamental tenets of both are rooted in ancient Greek thought and culture. This project—-a book—-traces the trajectory of modern ideas about sustainability and complexity theory back to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Its aim is to invigorate and inform current thinking in these areas, and to underscore the extent of the Greco-Roman contribution to these topics of contemporary, global concern.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Classical Literature; Classics; Intellectual History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248228-16

Judith Steinhoff
University of Houston (Houston, TX 77204-0001)

Grief in Italian Gothic Art

A book-length study of the relationship between images of grieving in paintings and the public display of grief in late medieval Italy.

My project is a book on the ways that 14th-century Italian religious images shaped viewers’ understanding of religiously and socially acceptable grieving behaviors. While the focus is religious images in the church and in the home, also integral to the project are their relationships to sermons, religious plays, conduct literature, and laws regulating funerals. All of these “media”, widely known to the 14th-century public, I argue, informed each other and reinforced acceptable expressions of grief, particularly, but not only, for women. My work reveals that gendered social behaviors were encoded even in pictures created primarily for purposes of prayer and spiritual edification. It thus brings a wholly new perspective to the functioning of religious visual and performative imagery, and identifies a previously unexamined path of transmission for gendered behavioral expectations in 14th-century Italy.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248295-16

Bryan Daniel Lowe
Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN 37240-0001)

Beyond Founders, Sects, and the Nation-State: A Networks Approach to Buddhism in Ancient Japan

The translation and analysis of a 9th century text describing the spread of Buddhism in medieval Japan.

My project offers a new perspective on early Japanese Buddhism. In contrast to past scholars' focus on elite monks, powerful institutions, and national identity, I will highlight the lives of decidedly non-eminent preachers active in the provinces and illuminate teachings and practices that transcend sectarian and national borders. To do so, I will utilize a manuscript referred to as “Draft of Todai-ji Homilies (Todaiji fujumon ko),” as well as a variety of other sources including tales, gazetteers, and archaeological surveys. These materials record information about non-elite clerics who traveled from the capital to the provinces to perform sermons and conduct rituals. I will introduce a networks based approach, which illuminates exchange amongst individuals, teachings, and regions, to reassess the period. This research will result in the publication of a monograph of six chapters and an annotated translation of “Draft of Todai-ji Homilies.”

Project fields:
East Asian History; East Asian Studies; Nonwestern Religion

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2016 – 10/31/2016


FT-248386-16

Myles Gregory Osborne
University of Colorado, Boulder (Boulder, CO 80302-7046)

Pan-Africanism: The Mau Mau Revolt and Its Impact on Rural Society in the Caribbean

Two months of interviews towards a transnational history of the Mau Mau revolt in Kenya and its impact in the Caribbean.

Few social movements have greater significance than Pan-Africanism. With origins in the late 19th century—but peaking in the 1950s—Pan-Africanists sought to mobilize peoples of African descent across the world. Pan-Africanism has, however, been conceived largely as the brainchild and organ of “great men” (consider W.E.B. Du Bois or Marcus Garvey). But what of the bulk of the population in Africa and the Caribbean—what of their aspirations and efforts? My work explores how the rural poor, women, and uneducated of the Caribbean linked themselves to—and participated in—the African diaspora community during the 1950s. Moreover, it brings Africa’s most important anti-colonial war—Mau Mau—into global context, revealing how fighters based in central Kenya’s forests linked their struggle to wider waves of anti-imperialism in the Caribbean. This research rejects the nation state as a useful model, instead drawing transnational connections between peoples across the globe.

Project fields:
African History; History, Other; Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248538-16

Pablo Fernando Muchnik
Emerson College (Boston, MA 02116-4624)

Rawls and Kant on the Public Use of Reason

A chapter of a book-length study on Kant’s notion of religion and politics.
 

I will use the NEH summer stipend to work on the fourth chapter of my new book, Faith’s Labor Lost: Kant on Religion and Liberal Politics. This book offers a new conceptual framework to deal with religious claims in advanced liberal democracies. The standard strategy is to appeal to some version of John Rawls' "public reason"—a form of argumentation based on fundamental political values and beliefs one’s fellow citizens could not reasonably reject. This approach, however, forces religious citizens to privatize their deepest convictions. To avoid this problem, I will turn to Kant. For, although the notion of public reason has unmistakable Kantian origins, Rawls’ appropriation overlooks the fact that for Kant religion is an eminently public matter and plays an essential role in advancing the emancipatory goals of the Enlightenment. I want to understand the motivations of Rawls’ highly selective reading of Kant’s notion, and evaluate the consequences of such an approach.

Project fields:
Ethics; Philosophy of Religion; Political Theory

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 9/30/2016


FT-248619-16

Julia Emilia Rodriguez
University of New Hampshire (Durham, NH 03824-2620)

Nineteenth Century Anthropology and the Scientific Reconquest of the Americas

A history of the development of Americanist anthropology as a collaboration between scientists in Latin America and Europe.

This book project examines the genesis of Americanist anthropology in the late-19th century, a crucial moment in the centuries-old transatlantic enterprise to unearth new knowledge about the fundamental nature of humankind. It follows Americanists' own evidence trail, from physical artifacts to linguistic and cultural evidence, in the context of comparative study of Latin American civilizations. It identifies prominent figures and debates in anthropology on two continents as scientists grappled anew with existential questions -- what are the measures of civilization? Is there a single model of human social development? Can diverse peoples coexist in the same nation? It also explores how Americanist anthropology shaped key aspects of the transnational political culture of the era and outcomes in law locally, for example, practices of integration or exclusion of Native Americans and mixed race groups, the instruction of Native languages, and the return of human remains.

Project fields:
History of Science; Latin American History; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248633-16

Brian Hochman
Georgetown University (Washington, DC 20057-0001)

A History of Wiretapping in the United States

A history of wiretapping in the United States, from the Civil War to the present.

All Ears: A History of Wiretapping in the United States explores one of modern media history’s most inconvenient truths: that technologies for eavesdropping on communications have proliferated as rapidly as communications technologies themselves. Third parties tapped the earliest telegraph wires during the nineteenth century, and America’s communications systems have been bugged ever since. Drawing on a range of primary source materials, All Ears uncovers the history of wiretaps and other eavesdropping technologies in the United States. In the process, the book chronicles debates about eavesdropping that have captured the public’s attention since the mid-nineteenth century. My central argument is that cultural contests over wiretapping constitute contests over what it means to communicate in a networked society--a society in which information needs to travel across vast distances, and a society in which technologies of all sorts enable the human voice to traverse them.

Project fields:
American Studies; Cultural History; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248660-16

Hilary Christine Havens
University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Knoxville, TN 37996-0001)

From Manuscript to Print: Revising the Eighteenth-Century Novel

A book-length study of how 18th-century British novelists revised their works, using new digital software that recovers deleted text from manuscripts.

My planned monograph, “From Manuscript to Print: Revising the Eighteenth-Century Novel,” recovers and analyzes material from major novel manuscripts and post-publication revisions in order to construct a new narrative about the eighteenth-century creative mind. Criticism of the eighteenth-century novel and even work in the burgeoning field of print culture has often neglected the importance of the process of revision, which in the eighteenth century often occurs in complex response to family and friends, to readers and editors, and to an author’s own previous texts. Many of my insights arise from my development of new digital paleographical methodologies to recover deleted text.

Project fields:
British Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248663-16

Katherine Unterman
Texas A & M University, College Station (College Station, TX 77843-0001)

Law and Imperialism in Guam, 1898-1950

A book-length study of the relationship between law and American empire in Guam, 1898-1950.
 

This project examines the relationship between law and American empire in the U.S. territory of Guam. Until now, Guam has been little more than a footnote in studies of American empire — always mentioned, yet never explored in depth. However, Guam provides an ideal lens for examining the nature of American power around the globe. Bridging legal history and American foreign relations, this project contends that law and legal justifications need to be considered alongside military and economic power as crucial tools of U.S. imperialism. Beginning in 1898, when Guam became an American possession, and continuing through the span of the twentieth century, the United States governed Guam as an exceptional legal space where the Constitution did not fully apply. This project reveals the practical impact of laws and judicial opinions on a colonized people, and sheds light on how law serves as an important facet of both governance and resistance in imperial spaces.

Project fields:
Diplomatic History; Legal History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248668-16

Jeffrey Forret
Lamar University (Beaumont, TX 77705-5748)

Williams' Gang: A Slave Trader, His Cargo, and Justice in the Old South

To support a book-length study of slave trader William H. Williams and the legal questions related to slave trading.

In 1840, Washington, D.C., slave trader William H. Williams purchased twenty-seven convicted slaves out of the Virginia State Penitentiary in Richmond, agreeing to sell them per state law outside the United States. He then allegedly attempted to dispose of his human cargo unlawfully in New Orleans, prompting a series of court cases that culminated before the U.S. Supreme Court in 1869, four years after emancipation, eleven years after Williams' death, and almost thirty years after the original incident. The burgeoning scholarly literature on the internal slave trade in the Old South has overlooked the water-borne transport of slaves within the United States as well as the complex legal questions raised by professional slave trading. My project examines the criminal pasts of the slaves whom Williams purchased as well as his own history of encounters with the law, offering an unprecedented look at the legal issues surrounding the coastwise domestic slave trade in the American South.

Project fields:
African American History; Legal History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-248676-16

Stefan Fiol
University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH 45220-2872)

Dialects of Dhol-Damaun: Drumming as Historiography in the Uttarakhand Himalayas

Research leading to the publication of a book with accompanying maps and musical notation documenting the role of ceremonial drumming in preserving the social and religious history of the central Himalayas.

This study investigates drumming as the performance of history in the central Himalayas of North India. Although drummers do not often think of themselves as historians, their rhythmic patterns carry information about the historical movements of populations and their cultural and religious practices. This research foregrounds the role of marginalized, lower-caste hereditary drummers in shaping local histories through the embodied processes of learning, remembering, organizing, transmitting, and adapting diverse sets of rhythmic patterns. By applying theoretical and methodological insights from music cognition, socio-linguistics, human geography, and collective memory studies, this study charts an innovative approach to historiography through the analysis and comparison of drumming patterns.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
Ethnomusicology; South Asian Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2016 – 10/31/2016


FT-248681-16

Tamara Chaplin
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (Urbana, IL 61801-3620)

Postwar French Media, and the Struggle for Gay Rights

A book-length study of the history of French lesbian activism since World War II.

In 2013, France legalized gay marriage. Desiring Women: Lesbians, Media, and the Struggle for Gay Rights in Postwar France argues that lesbian engagement with the media helped liberalize French attitudes towards sexual difference in the postwar era. My book insists that we look at lesbians both because they achieved this end by using new forms of social media, and because wider French support for gay rights only surfaced in the 1990s after alternative and mainstream media reframed "deviant" homosexual desire as maternal and familial. Drawing on text, radio, TV, the Internet, and extensive filmed interviews, Desiring Women offers a rich rendering of a previously undocumented French lesbian past. In so doing, it provides the first postwar history of an understudied French sexual minority, shows how lesbians challenged the republican model of French citizenship, and prefigures the ways in which oppressed groups use social media (e.g., the Arab Spring) to drive political change.

Project fields:
European History; Gender Studies; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/30/2016


FT-248688-16

Peter Christensen, PhD
University of Rochester (Rochester, NY 14627-0001)

Architecture and the German Construction of the Ottoman Railway Network in the 19th Century

A book-length manuscript on the construction of the Ottoman railway network in the 19th century.

The Ottoman railway network, considered the pride of that empire’s modernizing impulses, was actually engineered by Germans. While it employed local builders and craftsmen, it also accelerated German influence in the region, and set the stage for an ambiguous form of colonialism. No one has yet examined the relationship of the built environment to political agendas in this ambiguously colonial environment. An NEH Summer Stipend will support completion of my book, which uses train stations, settlements, maps, bridges, monuments, and an archaeological canon as its evidence. I examine the goals of the agents involved in the railways’ realization from political, geographic, topographic, archaeological, constructional, architectural, and urban perspectives. I argue that the early internationalization of infrastructure construction bore some of the trademarks of imperialism while also syncretizing cultural difference in a new visual idiom that represented emergent nationalisms.

Project fields:
Architecture; European History; History, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248690-16

April Oettinger, PhD
Goucher College (Baltimore, MD 21204-2780)

Lorenzo Lotto and the Sublime Turn in Venetian Landscape Art

A book-length study on the landscape paintings by the Venetian Renaissance master Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480-1557).

My project addresses the genesis and cultural dimensions of the sublime landscape in early 16th-century northern Italian landscape painting and the role of landscape expression in shaping not only landscape practice and theory, but also literary descriptions of the land. Through a close consideration of the landscape ornaments of Lorenzo Lotto, my project elucidates the ways in which Lotto and his peers invoked and assimilated a range of landscape imagery to heighten the rhetorical affect of their devotional paintings, portraiture, and mythological subjects, effecting a “sublime turn” in landscape practice that not only shaped discussions of landscape in 16th-century theories of painting, but also informed the more dramatic landscapes described in 16th-century poetry and accounts of the land in the writings of early modern natural philosophers.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Italian Literature; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248702-16

Amy Lynn Wlodarski
Dickinson College (Carlisle, PA 17013-2896)

The Postwar Humanism of American Composer George Rochberg (1918-2005)

Preparation of a book about the music of American composer George Rochberg (1918-2005).

My book project considers Rochberg's musical works and writings within their postwar contexts. I explore how he experienced and responded aesthetically to the tragedies of the twentieth century while also revealing how those events ultimately influenced his theory of musical borrowing: ars combinatorial. During the summer of 2016, I propose to research at various domestic archives (PA, MD, NY, DC) that contain materials pertaining to Rochberg's service with the 281st Army Infantry and at his personal archive (Basel, Switzerland), which contains unpublished materials (journals, correspondence, essays, sketchbooks) that provide insight into his postwar political views and his political and aesthetic assessment of mid-century composers. I will complete a draft of the book introduction and the first chapter, which set the political and aesthetic foundation for the larger study.

Project fields:
Aesthetics; Jewish Studies; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248726-16

Jason Cameron White
Appalachian State University (Boone, NC 28608-0001)

The Levant Company Between the English State and the Muslim World, 1581-1688

Preparation of a monograph on the English Levant Company, a trading company which had a monopoly on all English trade with the Ottomon Empire until 1754.

During the seventeenth century, the English Levant Company operated between two worlds. In England, it had to negotiate the many political tumults of the century, which included civil war, regicide, restoration, and revolution, as well as many calls to revoke its monopoly on all trade between England and the Ottoman Empire. On the other end of its trading network, the Company had to negotiate the complexities of the empire's administrative and legal apparatus, navigate Ottoman political turmoil, which included the murders of two Sultans, and establish working relationships with Turkish, Greek, Armenian, and Jewish merchants, factors, growers, and traders. This project will analyze how the Company bridged these two worlds in order to better understand the origins of globalization, capitalism, the British Empire, and the historical relationship between the west and the Muslim world.

Project fields:
British History; Economic History; Literary Criticism; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-248733-16

Jyotsna G. Singh
Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI 48824-3407)

Muslim and Christian Identities in the Early Modern World

A study of Christian-Muslim encounters in the early modern period.

This is an interdisciplinary study that looks afresh at the expanding early modern European world with an emphasis on Christian-Muslim cross-cultural encounters. Recent scholarship has often focused on Europeans casting their gaze on the Islamic domains, especially on Anglo-Ottoman (Turkish) interactions. Transcultural Islam pluralizes that gaze by identifying distinct yet often overlapping processes of identity formation in both the Muslim and Christian worlds, with a particular emphasis on Mughal India from the mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth centuries. Developing five case studies on the shifting and diverse constructions of Islam within inter-cultural and intra-cultural contexts, this book draws on varied works, ranging from Anglican travel narratives, Western discourses on the Qur'an, and Mughal biographies and paintings, among others. In doing so, it charts historical struggles over the meaning of "religion" within Christian and Islamic histories and cultures.

Project fields:
Comparative Religion; Renaissance Studies; South Asian Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248749-16

Jennifer Ann Adair
Fairfield University (Fairfield, CT 06824-5195)

The Politics of Human Rights and Argentina's Transition to Democracy in the 1980's

A history of Argentina's transition to democracy in the 1980s.

In Search of the Lost Decade is the first in-depth history of Argentina's transition to democracy following years of military rule and fiscal crisis. Through a focus on state programs to alleviate hunger and to fortify the foundations of a faltering welfare state, the book traces how citizens and government leaders forged an everyday politics of human rights that defined basic necessities and food security as the litmus tests of constitutional return. The study draws on unpublished sources and oral histories that illuminate the less commonly known actors and events that established the meanings of a just, democratic society. While grounded in an investigation of the daily contests that shaped post-dictatorship Argentina in the 1980s, the book reveals the social logics that justified the rise of neoliberalism at the end of the twentieth century, and offers a critical reinterpretation of the aftermath of Cold War authoritarian regimes and Latin America’s so-called "lost decade."

Project fields:
Latin American History; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248750-16

Michael Woods
Marshall University Research Corporation (Huntington, WV 25701-2218)

Arguing until Doomsday: Stephen Douglas, Jefferson Davis, and the Struggle for American Democracy

A book-length study of the disagreements between Senators Stephen Douglas and Jefferson Davis that led to pre-Civil War division in the Democratic Party.

I propose to use a Summer Stipend to complete the archival research for my third book, Arguing until Doomsday: Stephen Douglas, Jefferson Davis, and the Struggle for American Democracy. I use the rivalry between Democratic Senators Stephen Douglas of Illinois and Jefferson Davis of Mississippi to reinterpret the breakup of the Democratic Party prior to the Civil War. By 1860, the division between northern and southern Democrats facilitated the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln, which triggered secession. By tracing the struggle between northern and southern Democrats back to the 1840s, this book uncovers the deep roots of the party's dramatic rupture. The incompatibility of Davis and Douglas’s views on democracy, property rights, and territorial expansion meant that their shared racism and anti-abolitionism could not prevent a disastrous political estrangement. My book’s dual-biographical format will also enhance its appeal to specialists and lay readers alike.

Project fields:
Political History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248759-16

Barry Lam
Vassar College (Poughkeepsie, NY 12604-0001)

Soldier Philosophers: The Ethics of War from Soldiers who Served

A digital one-hour audio podcast on soldier-philosophers.

For the first time in a generation, people are entering academic philosophy after having served as soldiers in protracted oversees wars. These Soldier Philosophers are using their war experiences to re-evaluate the philosophy of war. Armies and navies are no longer the only combatants, and on the battlefield, the line between combatant and noncombatant seems to shift almost by the minute, requiring a change in conception of the proper targets of wartime killing. The military experiences of Solider Philosophers and their philosophical reflections build a timely bridge between advanced philosophical research in the ethics of war and public interest in the humanities. From their stories, reflections and interviews, I raise new questions about the ethics of war and relate them to daily life and public policy, culminating in an entertaining, accessible pilot episode of a digital audio miniseries aimed at the general public.

Project fields:
Ethics; Philosophy, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248762-16

Linda Marguerite Rupert
University of North Carolina, Greensboro (Greensboro, NC 27412-5068)

Flight to Freedom: How Fugitive Slaves Shaped Imperial Policy in the Early Modern Caribbean

A study of the impact of fugitive slaves on colonial relationships in the early modern Caribbean.

I request funding to complete the first two chapters of my monograph, a study of fugitive slaves who found freedom in Spanish America by fleeing from English, French, Dutch, and Danish possessions in the early modern circum-Caribbean. This will be the first book-length study of inter-imperial marronage (slave flight) throughout the Caribbean. The evidence shows that these migrations in some of the most remote parts of the area created ripples and waves that extended far beyond immediate shores, with regional, imperial, and geopolitical repercussions. This project explores the interplay between colonial policy, slave agency, developing legal systems, and geopolitics in eighteenth-century Atlantic empires. In considering the complex dynamic between individual human agency, wider socio-economic processes, and overarching political structures, and their impact on push and pull factors, this study also has potential for comparison with other refugees and asylum seekers past and present.

Project fields:
African American History; Immigration History; Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248791-16

Amy Rebecca Gansell, PhD
St. John's University, New York (Queens, NY 11439-9000)

Feminine Beauty in the Neo-Assyrian Royal Court at Nimrud, c. 883-612 BCE

A book-length study of the depiction of women in the art and artifacts at the Assyrian Northwest Palace at Nimrud.

My book invites readers inside the first-millennium BCE Neo-Assyrian Northwest Palace at Nimrud, an ancient Iraqi site that can never again be physically accessed. In March 2015, terrorists obliterated Nimrud’s excavated remains. It is therefore more imperative than ever that we interpret and publish the site’s rich history. With a narrative that aims to reconstruct the ancient human experience at Nimrud, I illuminate the bedecked bodies, images, artifacts, and identities of the queens who once lived and were buried here. As emblems of empire and fecundity, I propose that adorned queens and female imagery complemented the king’s potency and played a vital role in ideological conceptions of the empire and cosmos. Putting a story of people back into the palace at Nimrud, I hope that my book will inspire researchers, faculty, students, and interested members of the public around the globe to cherish and protect our world heritage of human history.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
Archaeology; Art History and Criticism; History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248792-16

Julia Osman
Mississippi State University (Mississippi State, MS 39762-6156)

Warfare and the Changing Relations Between French Soldiers and Civilians, 1600-1789

A book-length project on warfare and the changing relationship between French soldiers and civilians, 1600 to 1789.

My book project, “Disciplining War and the Civilian Imagination in France, 1600-1789” traces the relationship between soldiers and civilians over this two-hundred-year period in order to prove that attempts to distance civilians from war only makes them more susceptible to it in the long run. I will argue that war and military violence went from an everyday reality for people in the seventeenth century, to something experienced only in the imaginations of those living in the eighteenth century, when soldiers were isolated from the rest of the populace. The “imagined reality” of war, experienced through reading juicy, sensationalized, literature, may have paved the way towards mass citizen armies and “total wars” by the French Revolution of 1789. My project speaks to the NEH initiative ‘Standing Together: Humanities and the Experience of War’ and uses the humanities to help better understand the fluctuations and complications of soldiers’ relationships with the people they fight for.

Project fields:
Cultural History; European History; Military History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248802-16

John Tofik Karam
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (Urbana, IL 61801-3620)

Arabs at a South American Border Remaking the Hemisphere

A book-length study of Arab immigrants in the border region of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina.

I am applying for a NEH Summer Stipend to complete my book, "Manifold Destiny: Arabs at a South American Border Remaking the Hemisphere." It asks "How did Arabs at the "tríplice fronteira" (tri-border) between Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina transform these Americas?" Arab traders and activists built a plural hemisphere and brought an end to the U.S. dominance enshrined in the doctrine of "manifest destiny." In the 1950s, Lebanese and Palestinians began settling on the Brazilian and Paraguayan sides of the tri-border. Starting in the 1970s, their economic and political networks consolidated Brazil’s clout over the once Argentine-dominated Paraguay. Since the 1990s, they leveraged this new sphere of influence in relation to Mercosul and U.S. impositions. Arabs served as transformative agents of this hemisphere whereby no single authority rules, collaborating and competing in the many-sided struggles among Brazilian, Paraguayan, Argentine, U.S., and other powers.

Project fields:
Latin American History; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248806-16

Allison Hobgood
Willamette University (Salem, OR 97301-3922)

Disability in English Renaissance Literature

Completion of a book-length study of disability in English Renaissance literature.

My project excavates an archive of literary and other cultural texts to explore disability in Renaissance England. I argue that the drive to establish forms of physical and mental difference was a key shaping force in this period, and I give readers tools for grappling with mental and physical variation before the advent of "norms" as we know them. I read English Renaissance poetry and drama to uncover “early modern ideologies of ability”: to illuminate the “commonsense,” pervasive privileging of ablebodiedness in early modernity that energized a range of approaches to science, art, religion, and politics. I demonstrate how linguistic, spiritual, and intellectual capacities often aligned with Renaissance humanism and the Protestant Reformation were in fact reliant upon powerful fictions of ability. I reveal not only the diverse logics of ability operating in early modernity but illustrate the surprising ways these ableist norms were generative material for Renaissance writers.

Project fields:
British Literature; Literary Criticism; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-248808-16

Patricia Ann Tilburg
Davidson College (Davidson, NC 28036-9405)

The Parisian Workingwoman, 1880-1936

A book-length study of French women garment workers in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

From the late eighteenth-century, France has been a center of fashion and luxury craft production. At around that same time, the Parisian garment trade worker held a special place in French popular culture. In the 1830s and 40s, these women became common cultural currency with the creation of indelible fictional creations like the grisettes of romantic literature. My book manuscript assesses the legacy and cultural meaning of this type, particularly in its early twentieth-century incarnations, when the working Parisienne became an especially weighted icon and a meeting point of concerns about women’s work, labor reform, and national taste. This book brings together the lived experience of Parisian workingwomen—gleaned through letters, contemporary interviews, and other archival materials—with the deeply romantic and deeply gendered cultural screen through which they were understood in this period.

Project fields:
European History; Labor History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-248812-16

Jeffrey Scott Ahlman
Smith College (Northampton, MA 01063-0001)

History, Culture, and the Power of Postcolonial Afterlives of Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972), Leader of Ghana

Two months of field-work and archival research in Ghana for an ethnographic study on the legacy of Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972), Ghana's first prime minister and president.

In death, few African politicians feature as prominently in their country’s and the continent’s political imaginings as Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah. Viewed as an icon of African liberation, Nkrumah not only led Ghana to its 1957 independence, but, more importantly, linked Ghana’s fortunes to Africa’s at large. This project focuses on the decades following the Ghanaian president’s 1966 overthrow and 1972 death as it interrogates competing secular and spiritual worldviews that center a deceased, yet active Nkrumah in broader Ghanaian debates over the “spirit” and integrity of the postcolonial nation. In doing so, the project presents an ancestral Nkrumah as a vehicle for reflecting on Ghanaians’ changing relationships to a postcolonial reality marked by the passing of decolonization’s promises.

Project fields:
African History; African Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
10/1/2016 – 11/30/2016


FT-248818-16

John Ott
James Madison University (Harrisonburg, VA 22807-0001)

The Visual Culture of Racial Integration, 1931-1954

Research toward a book-length study on African-American art in the 1930s and 40s.

This project investigates black and white artists' efforts towards racial integration, both in terms of imagery and within art institutions, during the decades just before the Civil Rights movement: from the infamous 1931 trial of the Scottsboro Boys until Brown v. Board's desegregation of public schools in 1954. Individual chapters address images of racial solidarity produced within the arts programs of the New Deal, graphics commissioned by multiracial labor unions, Jacob Lawrence’s paintings of the desegregation of the military in the late 1940s, the "enlightened capitalist” vision of integration in mass-market magazines like Life, Fortune, Ebony, and Sepia, and efforts by black modernists like Romare Bearden, Norman Lewis, and Hale Woodruff to claim abstraction as an integrationist visual style.

Project fields:
African American Studies; American Studies; Art History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248819-16

Neeti Nair
University of Virginia (Charlottesville, VA 22903-4833)

A History of Blasphemy Laws in South Asia

Research and writing of a book-length study of the history of laws regulating relations between religious communities in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

The proposed book project will trace the trajectory of a set of criminal and penal codes that were instituted over the course of a century in South Asia. A consequence of the British tendency to view each major religious community as imbued with characteristics that were presumed to be mutually antagonistic, these laws seeking to regulate relations between religious communities have had contradictory afterlives in the postcolonial successor states of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. This history will unravel the specific, contingent circumstances that produced these laws, draw out their relationship with religiously informed politics, and account for whether, as many others claim, the laws themselves are responsible for the increasing targeting of religious minorities across South Asia.

Project fields:
Legal History; South Asian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248846-16

Yoav Fromer, PhD
Tel Aviv University (Tel Aviv 69373 Israel)

The Literary Origins of Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s Political Imagination

Research and writing on the literary influences on Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan's political imagination and rhetoric.

This project seeks to explore the manner through which literature shaped some of Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s most salient policy initiatives and legislative proposals. In his four decades in public office, Senator Moynihan championed an array of issues including welfare reform, poverty eradication, foreign policy and government secrecy. But behind many of his notable achievements (such as the Moynihan Report and his opposition to the UN resolution equating Zionism with racism) lay a subtle – and entirely overlooked – literary inspiration. This project aims to highlight the counterintuitive correlation between the particular fiction that Moynihan read and the actual politics he pursued in order to demonstrate how literature helped frame his distinct political imagination and breed some of his key initiatives. By revealing the literary origins of Moynihan’s political vision, I wish to illuminate the broader import of the humanities to sustaining a healthy and vibrant democratic society.

Project fields:
American Government; American Studies; Intellectual History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248848-16

Febe Dalipe Pamonag
Western Illinois University (Macomb, IL 61455-1390)

Patients' Activism in the Culion Leper Colony, Philippines, 1905-1930s

A book-length study of the leper colony on Culion Island, the Philippines, during the period of American governance, 1898-1950

This project will advance our understanding of Filipino leprosy patients' engagement with American colonial officials, an understudied theme in the literature on empire and public health policy, and U.S. occupation of the Philippines. In 1905, American health authorities established a leper colony in Culion, an isolated island in Palawan. Suspected lepers were forcibly removed from their homes and relocated to Culion. Most scholarship on Culion highlights its role as a laboratory for civic experimentation and how it was embroiled in major political issues of the day. In this project, I consider the views and practices of leprosy patients to show their resistance, as well as adaptation and accommodation of certain regulations in order to improve their daily lives on the island. This project also addresses such issues as the criminalization of disease and the degree to which individual rights may be compromised in the name of public health, all of which have contemporary resonance.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
History, Other; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248850-16

Megan Kaes Long
Oberlin College (Oberlin, OH 44074-1099)

Modality and Tonality in English, French, German, and Italian Vernacular Songs, 1590-1620

Preparation of a book on western European music and the transition from the church modes to the major and minor system, 17th-19th centuries.

The transition from the modal system of pitch organization that governed Western art music through the late Renaissance (ca. 1600) to the tonal system that defines music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries has been a vexing problem for music scholars for the past fifty years or more. My in-progress monograph explores the role of an often overlooked repertoire of secular partsongs in this transition. I argue that popular, widely circulated vernacular song of Italy, England, Germany and France contributed substantially to musical change from the late 1590s through the 1620s. Completion of the manuscript requires that I see many of the musical sources in person; many critical sources are housed in the British Library in London, the Staats und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg, and the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. I seek NEH support for travel to these collections, transcription and analysis of the sources, and incorporation of new findings into the monograph.

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248851-16

Peter B. M. Vranas
University of Wisconsin, Madison (Madison, WI 53715-1218)

New Foundations for Imperative Logic

A book-length study on imperative logic.
 

Standard logic deals with statements, like “the door is open,” not with imperatives, like “open the door”. Just as statements follow from other statements (e.g., “the door is open” follows from “the door and the window are open”), imperatives follow from other imperatives (e.g., “open the door” follows from “open both the door and the window”). In standard logic, a conclusion follows from a premise if the truth of the premise guarantees the truth of the conclusion. In imperative logic, one cannot say this, since imperatives cannot be true or false. So what is it for an imperative conclusion to follow from an imperative premise? In a series of publications, I have proven several theorems which provide a novel answer to this question. My project is to make these results more widely accessible by organizing them into a book. This project is important because logic deals with the foundations of correct reasoning, and correct reasoning is essential in every field, including the humanities.

Project fields:
Logic

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248887-16

Kate Merkel-Hess
Pennsylvania State University, Main Campus (University Park, PA 16802-7000)

The Regional Warlords in Modern China

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on the role of regional warlords in twentieth-century Chinese history.

The Warlords addresses the collapse of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912, into rule by regional warlords. It challenges the typical story of the young republic’s disintegration and failure by examining the personal lives of the warlords and the ways that their personal intimacies—of love, marriage, family, friendship, enmity, and patronage—were wrapped up in the politics of the day. In exploring the stories of these men, their families, and their relationships with each other, two narratives of the Republic come into alignment: on the one hand, the crumbling of the early Republic’s optimism; and on the other hand, the social and cultural experimentation and openness that characterized the period. The resulting study sheds light not only on the ways that the warlords contributed to the affective communities that sustained the new nation but also on our understandings of the ways that private life, intimacy, and sentiment became critical building blocks for modern China.

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248888-16

Kim Felicia Hall
Barnard College (New York, NY 10027-6909)

"Othello Was My Grandfather": Shakespeare and Race in the African Diaspora

Research for a book on the relationship between William Shakespeare's play Othello and African American culture, 19th century to the present.

This book project uses versions of Shakespeare’s Othello to connect Shakespeare and freedom dreams in the African Diaspora. It examines stage, print, transnational and digital "performances" of Othello from the 19th century until today to discuss several linked phenomena: the role of Shakespeare in constructions of blackness and race; discussions of race and genealogy in Afrodiasporic thought; the appropriation of Shakespeare by black communities; the policing of canonical literature along racial lines; and the race/gender politics of the American stage and popular media. Othello the play and its performance history become a space through which black writers explore issues of racial belonging, interracial relationships, gender, migration and power.

Project fields:
African American Studies; British Literature; Theater History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2016 – 9/30/2016


FT-248889-16

John Lennon
University of South Florida (Tampa, FL 33620-9951)

Detroit is Conflict Graffiti from a Global Perspective

The ethnographic and cultural analysis of conflict graffiti in Detroit and cities in the Middle East.

Detroit Graffiti: The Roots and Routes of Conflict Graffiti from a Global Perspective addresses these questions: what can graffiti tell us about the everyday resistive practices of citizens in post-bankruptcy Detroit and how do these practices compare to resistive graffiti practices in other conflict areas around the world? Using theoretical framing with ethnographic detail, I will live in Detroit for a month, interviewing native Detroit graffiti writers, photographing the city’s walls, and analyzing the materiality of protest in Detroit, exploring how paint on walls contextualizes, informs, and changes the spatial geography of the protest movements. I examine graffiti as an evolving language of protest that is rooted in the specific material culture of a particular area but is read, interpreted, and remixed by a global audience. My work in Detroit is part of a comparative study linking Detroit’s protest graffiti scene with similar scenes in other national and international cities.

Project fields:
American Studies; Political Science, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248890-16

Michael Blake
University of Washington (Seattle, WA 98105-6613)

Justice, Migration, and Mercy

A book-length study on the morality of migration, the rights of citizenship, and asylum law.

I hope to write, in the summer of 2016, the central chapters of a monograph on the morality of migration. My thesis will be that many commentators who have looked at this issue have missed the point; by focusing on justice, at the expense of other virtues, they have ignored the true moral complexity of migration. I want to demonstrate that justice has some role to play in how we understand migration—in particular, in the analysis of who ought to count as a refugee. Many more people, though, do not have a right in justice to move, nor a right to remain where they are if they have crossed borders without legal permission. My argument, however, is that we have good moral reasons to develop programs by which many of these people will be given the rights of citizenship. These moral reasons, though, have less to do with the rights of the migrant, and more to do with the creation of a domestic political society that demonstrates and practices the virtue of mercy.

Project fields:
Ethics; Philosophy, Other; Political Theory

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248894-16

Rachel Judith Weil
Cornell University (Ithaca, NY 14853-2801)

Prisoners and Gaolers in Early Modern England

A book-length project pertaining to imprisonment and detention in England, 1600-1800.

I seek funding to complete archival research in the United Kingdom on conflicts between prisoners and gaolers in Early Modern England, and to write up the results. Prisoner-goaler conflict sheds light on relations of power and notions of freedom and rights as they played out in the early modern English prison. My analysis of these conflicts forms a section of a longer manuscript in progress which explores the phenomenon of custodial (as opposed to punitive) detention from approximately 1600-1800. The larger project asks what "mere detention" that was not intended as punishment looked like, and what it meant for English society to hold in custody people who were not in any formal sense "guilty."

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
British History; European History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248911-16

Erik R. Scott
University of Kansas, Lawrence (Lawrence, KS 66045-7505)

Soviet Defectors and the Borders of the Cold War World, 1945-1991

Two months of archival work toward a book-length manuscript on Soviet defectors during the Cold War (1945-1991).

This project examines the history of defection and uses it to investigate how the national and ideological borders of the socialist world were defined, disputed, and sometimes transgressed. It focuses on Soviet defectors and the development of the Soviet border regime in particular but also considers how defection developed in other settings. Tracing the winding journeys of defectors from the Soviet Union to the West through border zones, transit hubs, extraterritorial spaces, and disputed areas beyond the limits of state jurisdiction, such as international waters and airspaces, the project draws on Soviet and American archival documents to challenge the notion of the Cold War world as a place of stable boundaries and offer a granular perspective on how states operate in liminal spaces and how people navigate them.

Project fields:
Russian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-248921-16

David Head, PhD
Spring Hill College (Mobile, AL 36608-1791)

"Wavering on a Tremendous Precipice": George Washington, the Newburgh Conspiracy, and the Fate of the Continental Army

A book-length study of George Washington's Continental Army and the Newburgh Conspiracy of 1783 as a significant event in the formation of the new nation.

My project investigates the challenge of reintegrating the military into civilian life as seen in the Newburgh Conspiracy, a still mysterious affair at the end of the American Revolution when angry officers apparently collaborated with nationalist-minded politicians to pressure Congress to approve new taxes that would be used to pay the army, satisfy the nation’s creditors, and strengthen the central government. The book will be the first full study of the episode and its significance for the new nation. Works on the revolution often move from the victory at Yorktown to the origins of the Constitution, and when Newburgh is discussed, it is to praise Washington's leadership, condemn the scheming founders, or evaluate whether it was a true conspiracy. I approach the episode broadly, using it to see how the U.S. transitioned to peace; that is, how soldiers are reestablished in civilian life, how a nation does justice to its soldiers, and how civilians adjust to the return of peace.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Military History; Political History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248929-16

Jamieson Clifford Donati
Unknown institution

Urban Spaces and Social Realities in the Peloponnese (700-100 BCE)

An article on the development of ancient Peloponnesian urbanization based on a synthesis of existing fieldwork and digital mapping.

This research project explores how the relationships between Greek urban forms and sociocultural and political realities shaped the worlds in which people lived in the Peloponnese (Southern Greece) from 700-100 BCE. Its methodological approach moves beyond conventional procedures by forming an interdisciplinary rapport between Archaeology and novel technologies. Notably, research incorporates a vast collection of new geophysical data from fieldwork recently completed at three Classical period settlements in the Peloponnese (Elis, Heraia, and Mantinea). This original material gives a comprehensive overview of the spatial characteristics of these Greek cities on an impressive scale, and, along with contextual evidence from excavations, field survey, and historical sources, it forms the basis for a broader survey of the diverse urban landscapes of the Peloponnese.

Project fields:
Ancient History; Archaeology; Urban Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-248934-16

Garry Sparks
George Mason University (Fairfax, VA 22030-4444)

Translating Kislak Manuscript 1015: A Priest’s Early Fieldnotes Among the Maya

A scholarly transcription, annotation, and translation of sections of a sixteenth-century Mayan manuscript.

This research project will consist of a critical, annotated, interlinear translation of Library of Congress Kislak Manuscript 1015 – an anonymous set of texts in K’iche’ Maya language. Particular attention will focus on, and thus lead to a polished English translation of, those few sections of Kislak 1015 that seem to date to 1552 and correspond to the later “Theology of the Indians,” which was originally written in K’iche’ Maya in 1553-4 by Spanish friar Domingo de Vico in Guatemala. This critical and comparative intertextual analysis will help to further identify this recently acquired document by the Library of Congress and prepare a planned exact reproduction of it for publication for the wider public. It will also add more detailed understanding of Kislak 1015 to an increasing body of current scholarship on the first documents written in Mayan languages by Catholic missionaries and highland Maya elites within the period of first contact of the early sixteenth century.

Project fields:
Arts, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248958-16

Jennifer Leslee Derr
University of California, Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, CA 95064-1077)

A History of Hepatitis C in Egypt

Archival and field work in Cairo and Geneva towards a history of the hepatitis C virus in Egypt.

With an infection rate of between 14 and 22% of the total population, the incidence of hepatitis C virus in Egypt is the highest of any single country in the world. The Making of an Epidemic: Hepatitis C in Egypt will trace the history of the disease in Egypt, focusing on the experiences of scientists, doctors, and patients, the virus' entanglements with the Egyptian state and medical establishment, and the story that the epidemic tells about global biomedicine in the second half of the twentieth century. Consisting of six book length chapters, the manuscript will begin with the virus' spread through a nationwide treatment campaign for the parasitic infection schistosomiasis organized by the Egyptian government and the World Health Organization. It will then chart the experiences of those suffering from the infection, before the virus' identification. The final two chapters of the manuscript will detail the epidemic's trajectory since its 1989 discovery.

Project fields:
History of Science; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248983-16

Allison Noelle Madar
California State University, Chico Foundation (Chico, CA 95929-0001)

A People Between: Servitude and the Law in Eighteenth-Century Virginia

A book-length study of the legal and social conditions of slavery and servitude in colonial Virginia.

My project offers new answers to one of the longest-standing questions in early American history: What was the nature of the transition from indentured servitude to slavery? A People Between examines the legal and social dynamics of servitude. It explores the labor system itself and the role the law played in managing servants in a society dominated by racial slavery. Historians of slavery in the eighteenth-century British Atlantic often narrate the development of slave law as a counterpoint to the laws of servitude. They contend that the legal framework colonists developed to control slaves also made life more tolerable for the temporarily bound. I argue that the legal structures designed to control slaves enhanced masters’ power over their servants. The laws themselves did not always distinguish between slaves and servants, and with the expansion of slavery during the eighteenth century there was also a retrenchment of temporary bondage.

Project fields:
History, Other; Labor History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249000-16

Julie Hubbert
University of South Carolina, Columbia (Columbia, SC 29208-0001)

Music in New Hollywood Film

Archival research leading to publication of a book on the history of cinematic sound and sound technology in Hollywood film of the 1960s and 1970s.

The 1960s and 70s has long been valued as an important moment in the history of Hollywood studio filmmaking, a period of intense experimentation known as “New Hollywood.” In describing the “new” of New Hollywood, most scholars have focused on the visual and thematic aspects of style and genre that surfaced during the period. Little has been said, however, about the equally extraordinary revolution happening in film sound. This book corrects this gap by focusing on the most transgressive element in the New Hollywood soundtrack: music. By uniquely rooting this soundtrack revolution in the “high-fidelity” movement of the 1950s and 60s, this book considers the degree to which new technical and aesthetic standards of recorded sound also shaped film sound. It examines the new preference for recorded music, the striking stylistic range of musical repertoire that surfaced in these films, and the radical collapse of cinematic space the new high fidelity aesthetic encouraged.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
Film History and Criticism; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249004-16

Paula Susan De Vos
San Diego State University Research Foundation (San Diego, CA 92182-0001)

Apothecaries and the Art of Pharmacy in New Spain and the Hispanic World

A history of the pharmaceutical craft and its development as a major industry in Latin America.

I am applying for a 2016 NEH Summer Stipend to support the completion of a book manuscript by August. At present, I have final drafts of 4 of the book’s 9 chapters and need time to finish revising the other 5 drafted chapters. A Summer Stipend would allow me to forgo teaching a summer school course (which I have taught each of the past four years) in order to finish revisions and submit the full manuscript by August to the University of Chicago Press. The book, a history of pharmacy in colonial Mexico and the Spanish Atlantic, traces the ancient and medieval Mediterranean origins of pharmaceutical practice, its transmission to colonial Mexico, and its subsequent transformation from a highly specialized “art,” or artisanal practice, to the beginnings of an industrialized enterprise of chemical synthesis, mass manufacture, and big business.

Project fields:
History of Science; Latin American History; Medieval History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249015-16

Joan Marie Titus
University of North Carolina, Greensboro (Greensboro, NC 27412-5068)

Dmitry Shostakovich (1906-1975) and Music for Stalinist Cinema

Research for a book on Soviet film music composed by Dmitry Shostakovich (1906-1975) from 1936 to 1953.

Despite Dmitry Shostakovich’s celebrated reputation as a concert and stage composer, his film music only recently has garnered attention from audiences and scholars. A history of his scoring for Soviet cinema, and generally of Russian film music, has yet to be substantively written. My proposed research project fills this gap. This project will result in a book, titled Dmitry Shostakovich and Music for Stalinist Cinema, which traces his rise as one of the Soviet Union’s preeminent film composers from 1936 until Josef Stalin’s death in 1953. This book provides an examination of his scoring practices, his unique relationship with directors and with the film industry, and his engagement with cultural politics and audiences. It will be based on archival materials, provide detailed musical and cinematic analysis, and provide a review of contemporaneous reception. The NEH summer stipend would be used to begin the phase of Russia-based research in summer 2016 for this new book project.

Project fields:
Interdisciplinary Studies, Other; Media Studies; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249028-16

Matthew Rebhorn
James Madison University (Harrisonburg, VA 22807-0001)

Mind-Body Relationship in Animate Body in Antebellum American Literature

A book-length study of the relationship between mind and body in antebellum American literature.

This project explores the interface between debates about the mind-body relationship in the antebellum period and the production of American letters. Building on early medical archives, this project explores the way artists imagined the animate body--that is, a body that seems to have a mind of its own--using it to achieve two interrelated ends. First, by wrestling with this conceptualization of the body, they changed how people read a novel, why people acted the way they did, and what constituted the rhythm of poetic expression. Second, by understanding the body in this way, these artists articulated a new kind of subjectivity for figures often linked to their bodies, such as chattel slaves, working-class laborers, and women. As I argue, some of the most aesthetically innovative as well as some of the most politically resistant modes of expression in the antebellum period were catalyzed by the way these various artists “minded the body.”

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249036-16

Ben Preston Robertson
Troy State University Main Campus (Troy, AL 36082-0001)

The Plays of English Author and Critic Elizabeth Inchbald (1735-1821)

Preparation of the first complete scholarly edition of plays by English writer, Elizabeth Inchbald (1753-1821).

This project involves the collection and publication of authoritative versions of the complete plays of actor, novelist, playwright, and literary critic Elizabeth Inchbald (1753-1821). Having collected copies of the manuscripts of all of Inchbald's plays at the Huntington Library (San Marino, California), I would like to use the research period (June and July 2016) to work on transcriptions, critical reception studies, and introductions for each of the twenty plays. The project is already underway and has an estimated completion date of 2020.

Project fields:
British History; British Literature; Theater History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249058-16

Ken Koltun-Fromm
Haverford College (Haverford, PA 19041-1392)

Depiction of the Sacred in Visual and Textual Forms

A book-length study of the visual features of religious expression.

My work in comic studies focuses on representations of the sacred in graphic mediums to better interrogate the visual features of religious expression. Questions concerning textual authority, text/image relation, cultural dimensions of seeing, and conflicting modes of visual representation dominate this research agenda, as they do much of the humanities. Graphic narratives can help us see how claims to the sacred arise in visual and textual forms, and the ways in which argumentative structures lay claim to reader assent. These methodological and humanistic interests engage three interrelated projects: 1) the preparation of an outline for the introductory chapter of Sacred Texts and Comics, a volume I am co-editing with Assaf Gamzou; 2) the design of a Wordpress website for contributors to the co-edited volume and the broader public; and 3) the drafting of “Representations of the Sacred in Craig Thompson’s Habibi,” my independent chapter for the edited volume.

Project fields:
History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts; Religion, Other

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249063-16

Christopher J. Lukasik
Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040)

The Image in the Text: Intermediality, Illustration, and Nineteenth-Century American Literature

An book-length study of the relationship between illustration and text in American literature.

The Image in the Text examines the spectacular growth of illustration within American literary culture in the fifty years running from 1825—when steel-plate replaces copper-plate engraving and facilitates the rise of the literary annual in the United States—to 1875—when the photographic half-tone will emerge and once again transform how images appear in print. My project expands our sense of nineteenth-century American literature to embrace not only the full range of print media in which literature was published—illustrated novels, literary annuals, illustrated magazines, and pictorial weeklies—but, more broadly, to include the images that were often so vital to their circulation and consumption. Upon its completion, The Image in the Text will be the first cultural history of illustration that synthesizes literary, book, and art history with theoretical work from visual and media studies.

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies; Art History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249066-16

Jacob Michael Jewusiak
Valdosta State University (Valdosta, GA 31698-0100)

Aging and the Elderly in 19th- and 20th-Century British Novels

Completion of a book-length study on aging and the elderly in 19th and 20th-century British novels.

Literary criticism provides compelling models for understanding youthful plots such as the bildungsroman and the rapid social transformations of modernity, but does not often account for the elderly subject who lingers on the margins of such culturally dominant narratives. NARRATING AGING: TEMPORAL REALISM AND THE VICTORIAN NOVEL addresses this gap by analyzing the formal significance of old age and aging in the novels of Charles Dickens, Elizabeth Gaskell, Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells, and Virginia Woolf. I argue that the difficulty of representing aging as a continuous process provokes novelists to theorize narrative duration and contest the conventions of realism. Focusing on aging masculinity, “redundant” women, queer sexuality, and the otherness of old age, my chapters show how the formal problem of duration becomes a political problem for the elderly, who vanish—in the Victorian novel and contemporary literary criticism—amidst the proliferation of youthful metaphors and plots.

Project fields:
British Literature; Interdisciplinary Studies, Other; Literary Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249073-16

Jeffrey Levenberg
Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong 19047-8025 China)

Italian Compose Carlo Gesualdo (1566-1613): Insights from Giovanni d'Avella's Regole di musica

Preparation of an article and monograph on the music of Renaissance composer Carlo Gesualdo (1566-1613).

Italian Renaissance composer and prince Carlo Gesualdo (1566-1613) composed both secular and sacred music, gaining notoriety due to the unusual style of his music as well as his scandalous personal life.  Gesualdo’s sacred music raised such controversy during his lifetime that the Church placed him under edict at the height of the Roman Inquisition.  While the style of his music remains difficult to understand, Gesualdo influenced later generations and thus remains important in the historiography.  Yet, lacunae among the primary source records from the Gesualdo castle and the Kingdom of Naples have precluded a complete understanding of the original conception and reception of his music, both secular and sacred.  A newly recovered Neapolitan treatise on music, however, stands to fundamentally transform current notions about Gesualdo’s life and works. Giovanni d’Avella penned a defense of Gesualdo after the public censuring of his music. The wide range of cultural contexts underpinning this singular document await exploration in the Franciscan Order’s archive in Naples.

Project fields:
Intellectual History; Music History and Criticism; Renaissance History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249074-16

Dorian Borbonus
University of Dayton (Dayton, OH 45469-0001)

Tombs and Burial Practices in Ancient Rome

A book-length survey of tombs and funerary culture in Rome from 200 BCE to 200 CE.

This research project analyzes tomb monuments in Rome and its immediate surroundings during the period of Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean (200 BCE to 200 CE). It will result in the first historical monograph on the imperial capital that is based primarily on funerary culture, which provides an alternative to conventional histories that are oriented towards events, historical figures, or texts. In contrast, my project visualizes the continuous growth and consolidation of Rome’s empire and its effects on an urban population that lived and operated close to its center of power. This narrative relates to ongoing research in the Humanities by showing how the timeless human experience of mortality was translated into concrete cultural expressions in a specific historical context. I am seeking the support of a NEH summer stipend to carry out personal autopsy of Roman funerary monuments and consult photographic archives in Rome.

Project fields:
Ancient History; Archaeology; Architecture

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249089-16

Jane Degenhardt
University of Massachusetts, Amherst (Amherst, MA 01003-9242)

Chance, Providence and Overseas Exploration in Early Modern English Drama

Completion of a book-length study on British maritime exploration, ethics, and the concept of fortune in 17th-century English drama.

My book-in-progress, Fortune's Empire, focuses on the shifting meaning of "fortune" in early modern English drama to explore the ways that England's early forays into overseas trade and colonial exploration forged a new connection between financial and cosmic "fortune." As I demonstrate, England's nascent overseas ventures heightened awareness of the role of fortune in the world--both as a cosmic force of chance and as an emerging understanding of wealth that was earned rather than inherited. I show how the theater played an active and vital role in shaping and critiquing these evolving understandings of fortune and cultivating proper ethical responses to new forms of economic investment. Drawing attention to an archive of plays dramatizing maritime travel, trade, and exploration, I identify "fortune" as a pivotal keyword in early modern English drama, arguing that it distinguishes England's incipient struggle to enter the world of empires.

Project fields:
British Literature; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-249099-16

Katy L. Chiles
University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Knoxville, TN 37996-0001)

The Idea of Authorship in Early African American and Native American Literatures

A book-length study of collaborative authorship in early African American and Native American literature.

Raced Collaboration tells the rich story of how-often against significant odds-early African Americans and Native Americans produced English language texts. Despite the fact that the majority of these works were produced through collaboration, Raced Collaboration is the first comprehensive study of the crucial role that collaboration played in early African American and Native American literatures. While much scholarship on antebellum American literature still has a propensity to focus on writers who we tend to think created their writings alone, this book investigates the remarkable--but heretofore unremarked upon--ways that these writers practiced many kinds of collaboration, in order to open up new understandings of the primary works and of the broader issue of authorship; to deepen our appreciation of what early African Americans and Native Americans have done with forms of communication; and to broaden our understanding of the literatures produced in antebellum America.

Project fields:
African American Studies; American Literature; Native American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249101-16

Jessica Homan Clark
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)

Subordinated Heroes: Junior Officers in the Roman Army

A book-length study on the literature and history of junior officers (military tribunes) in the Roman army.

Political success and military success went hand in hand in the Roman Republic: great leaders fought, won, and then advertised how they fought and why they won. This generalization is well supported by ancient evidence and modern analyses. It is often coupled with an untested assertion, however — that young men who aspired to political heights sought glory and distinction as junior officers in the Roman army. That might seem likely, but ancient evidence contradicts this representation of young men’s service. A position as a junior officer was not a stage on which to perform one’s exceptionalism, but rather a complicated proving ground for a host of civic virtues or their opposites. In a broader sense, Rome’s young officers united enlisted men with commanders, allied auxiliaries with legions, and service in war with its corollary at home. They captured the imagination of poets and historians, but left us no concrete definitions for their roles in the Roman army. They deserve a book.

Project fields:
Classical History; Classical Literature; Military History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249114-16

Gregory Zinman
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (Atlanta, GA 30332-0001)

The Moving Image Without Photography

Writing and website development leading to publication of a book on the 19th- and 20th-century history of moving images created without cameras and an online supplement presenting related essays and videos.

Handmade: The Moving Image Without Photography reveals a new history of the moving image, told through its engagement with other media and art forms. Think of a Jackson Pollock painting that moves, or a hand-drawn score that produces music when read by a film projector, or a hand-crafted machine that fractures light and bends time without a camera. Through a traditional scholarly monograph complemented by a custom-designed digital companion, Handmade provides a historical and theoretical framework for understanding these artisanal moving-image works and the technologies that make them. Handmade moves from film to performance to video, crossing from the Americas to Asia, so as to demonstrate the global, cross-disciplinary impact of this seemingly anomalous subset of experimental films and practices. In doing so, Handmade also illuminates the intersection of global cinema with other arts, and fundamentally reorients our understanding of the moving image’s past, present, and future.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Film History and Criticism; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249124-16

Jennifer K. Ladino
University of Idaho (Moscow, ID 83844-9803)

Affect and Environment at American Memory Sites

Research for a book on the impact of affect and memory on national memorial sites and their landscapes.

I seek support for Memorials Matter, a scholarly monograph that investigates how landscapes, built structures, and written texts at national memorial sites in the American West contribute to emotions about historical conflict and national identity. Working at the confluence of ecocriticism and affect theory, I ask: What emotions (such as nostalgia, shame, grief, and anger) do particular memorial sites promote? What roles do landscapes and built structures play in shaping public memory of, and emotions about, war and other conflicts? What new (often mixed) emotions emerge when we consider not just the written texts but also the physical environment at a memorial? The book features six memorials across a range of landscapes, a comparative approach that highlights the history of violence faced by multiethnic inhabitants of the West and suggests a better understanding of affect will help gauge how effective memorials are at healing a fractured nation and promoting cultural pluralism.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies; U.S. Regional Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249146-16

Michael Gallope
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (Minneapolis, MN 55455-0433)

Musical Notation and the Mid-Century Avant-Garde

Completion of an e-book about the philosophy and practice of avant-garde performance in the twentieth century.

This project has two aims. 1) It will offer a new philosophical account of the role of the musical score in the mid-century avant-garde. And 2) It will ground this argument in a media-rich e-book publication that showcases and animates a trove of relevant primary materials. In the 1950s and 1960s, the musical score emerged as the essential form for new directions in the nascent avant-garde fields of conceptual and performance art. The project argues that these scores are distinguished by the fact that they allow us to question, in ways that are unique and specific to each score, the minimal conditions and rules for an artwork to take place. These works challenge conventions of notation and performance at the same time that they dramatize specific collisions of different sensuous media: word, image, and sound. In advancing its arguments, the e-book adopts a media-rich digital format that will revitalize the presentation of hundreds of ephemeral documents, images, films, and recordings.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Comparative Literature; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249149-16

Kendra D Smith-Howard
SUNY Research Foundation, Albany (Albany, NY 12222-0001)

The Evolving Definition of "Clean" in 20th-Century America

A book-length study of how changing technologies and industry transformed the idea of cleanliness in American culture during 20th-century.

Between 1900 and 2000, Americans revised what they thought “clean” meant and altered the ways they attained it. These changes in the meaning and technologies of cleanliness carried important consequences for Americans’ understanding of and relationship to the natural world. Through case studies about laundry, paper products, and cleaning fluids, the proposed book examines the labor, environmental resource management, and policy developments related to the practices of cleaning up in the twentieth-century United States. It will deepen understanding of the post-World War II rise in the service sector of the economy and the effects of environmental policy on consumers and businesses. Ultimately, the book asks readers to think of the seemingly mindless tasks of scrubbing floors and sorting laundry as worthy of contemplation and challenges them to confront their shifting environmental footprint.

Project fields:
History of Science; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249202-16

Hilary Wills Becker
University of Mississippi, Main Campus (University, MS 38677-1848)

Commerce in color: A Study of the Ancient Roman PigmentIndustry

A book-length study of the economic and technological history of color pigments in the Roman Empire.

Commerce in color presents, for the first time, a study of the Roman pigment industry. Ancient Rome was awash in colors and yet the means by which Rome and its empire were supplied with a wide range of colors has never been studied. This book presents the archaeological and epigraphic evidence for pigment shops and their organization. The varied pigments used by Romans will be considered, using sources such as the natural historian Pliny the Elder, Egyptian papyri, modern chemistry, and pigments found in Roman pigment shops. This industry provides an opportunity to understand Roman trade by focusing on one class of good as it travels from mine to shop, as well as the relative monetary value of goods on the Roman commercial market. Indeed, certain Roman pigments were highly valued, attracting the attention of the Roman state, who controlled part of the industry, and the interest of unscrupulous individuals, who adulterated or faked premium pigments in order to make a profit.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Classics; Economic History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249217-16

Lori Harrison-Kahan
Boston College (Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3858)

Pioneering Jewish Women Writers in the Progressive Era

A book-length study of a group of American women Jewish writers based in San Francisco.

“The Deghettoization of American Jewish Literature: Pioneering Women Writers in the Progressive Era” examines a group of turn-of-the-twentieth-century, San Francisco-based writers whose work provides alternatives to the ghetto tale that has long dominated scholarship on early Jewish American literature. Broadening our understanding of pre-World War I Jewish literary history and American women’s writing, this project tells the stories of forgotten women writers (Emma Wolf, Bettie Lowenberg, Miriam Michelson, Harriet Lane Levy, Anna Strunsky, and Rose Strunsky) who made important contributions to American and transnational literary culture during the Progressive Era. The work of these writers may be over a century old, but their writings and careers offer fresh perspectives on Jewishness and gender and compel us to consider how and why certain voices have been excluded from the American literary and cultural canon and from ethnic literary history.

Project fields:
American Literature; Gender Studies; Jewish Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249219-16

Nicole Danielle Smith
University of North Texas (Denton, TX 76203-5017)

A Christian Mannes Bileeve: A Critical Edition of a Middle English Commentary on the Apostle's Creed

A scholarly edition of A Christian Mannes Bileeve, a 14th-century commentary on the Apostles' Creed written in Middle English.

My project is a critical edition of A Christian Mannes Bileeve (CMB), which Middle English Texts (Heidelberg, Germany) has agreed to publish. CMB is an unpublished and unedited vernacular explanation of the Apostles’ Creed. Its place at the beginning of a long and popular tradition of commentaries on the Creed that extends into the 17th century position it as a seminal text that documents the human condition and its relation to literacy and theology. In particular, CMB presents women as having a licit stake in theological argument. All four surviving manuscripts provide evidence of spiritual prose written for--and perhaps even by--religious women, thus placing them at the center of a complex and nuanced literary playing field informed by vigorous theological debate in late 14th-century England. CMB accordingly stands to influence the way we understand the intersection between women’s literacy and vernacular theology as England found itself on the cusp of intense religious reform.

Project fields:
British Literature; History of Religion; Medieval Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249220-16

Joseph D. Peschio
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (Milwaukee, WI 53212-1255)

The St. Petersburg Censorship Committee and the Early Bureaucratization of Russian Censorship

Archival research towards a book-length study on the 19th-century St. Petersburg Censorship Committee.

The state censorship apparatus was the single most significant literary institution in early-nineteenth-century Russia, yet we know very little about how it functioned and how it impacted the development of literary form. The reason for this is simple: Soviet-era scholars were not able to access the necessary archival materials, and publishing on the history of censorship was discouraged. My project seeks to remedy this lacuna through careful and systematic analysis of the archive of the St. Petersburg Censorship Committee, which was charged with regulating most of the nation's literary output in the key period between the Censorship Statutes of 1804 and 1826. The NEH Summer Stipend would support my return to the Petersburg archives and the next stages in my history of literary censorship in Russia. The "deliverables" of this project include journal articles and publications of archival materials in free-access digital venues, and, eventually, a monograph on the subject.

Project fields:
Interdisciplinary Studies, Other; Slavic Languages; Slavic Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2016


FT-249221-16

Rebecca Ann Tuuri
University of Southern Mississippi (Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0001)

The National Council of Negro Women in the Black Freedom Struggle

A book-length study of the National Council of Negro Women. 

This is the first full-length scholarly monograph on the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), the largest black women’s organization in the United States at the height of the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power Era. Whereas recent studies of militant and visible civil rights efforts seek to retrieve and analyze a radical model of social change, this story examines how the middle class black women of the NCNW used their respectability, moderate reputation, and national network to gain access to and money from powerful political and business leaders from the late 1950s through the 1970s. Their private, non-governmental, self-help approach even appealed to conservative leaders. However, NCNW also funneled financial resources and support to projects and individuals deemed too controversial by mainstream America to gain funding on their own, thus challenging clear-cut boundaries between radicals and moderates, leftists and liberals.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
African American History; U.S. History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249230-16

Jessica L. Ghilani
University of Pittsburgh, Greensburg Campus (Greensburg, PA 15601)

Advertising for US Army Volunteers since 1914

Research and manuscript revisions leading to publication of a book on the history of twentieth-century recruitment advertising by the U.S. Army.

"Selling Soldiering: Advertising for US Army Volunteers since 1914" is a book publication under contract with University of Iowa Press. In it I argue that the origins of volunteer military recruitment strategies and sales pitches can be detected deep into the history of 20th century conscription, before the draft's overturn in 1973. I reveal that recruiting appeals made to women as well as to other targeted demographic groups depended more on the surrounding social and political contexts than the recruitment model used to fill military ranks. Advertisements for army service served significant public relations purposes beyond just that of filling ranks. I examine the cultural influence of army advertisements on the civilian public's perceptions, the recruited soldiers' expectations, and the enlisted soldiers' experiences of military service. Such representations deeply inform public opinions, assumptions, and notions of civic obligation over time.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
American Studies; Communications; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-249242-16

Naomi Sheindel Seidman
Graduate Theological Union (Berkeley, CA 94709-1212)

Hebrew and Yiddish Languages in the Work of Sigmund Freud's (1856-1939)

Research for a book-length study of the role of the Hebrew and Yiddish languages in the work of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).  

I am writing a book on the Jewish languages in (or "behind") Freud's German, and about the translation of Freud's German into Jewish languages. While most readings of Freud in translation focus on translation as assimilation or loss, the translation of Freud's writings into Hebrew or Yiddish poses the dream of uncovering a "lost original," of which Freud's German is already a translation. Freud provides a key to thinking through the intersection between modern Jewish multilingualism and the translation of his own writings in the translation theory embedded in psychoanalysis and in his numerous multilingual jokes and dreams. I intend to mine the Jewish languages "behind" psychoanalysis or in its translational future to provide material for rethinking what it might mean to "return to Freud" and (re)translate his writings.

Project fields:
Comparative Languages; Jewish Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249250-16

James Lawrence Machor
Kansas State University (Manhattan, KS 66506-0100)

Mark Twain: Historical Reception and Iconic Authorship

A book-length study of the reception history of Mark Twain and his works.

I am requesting a Summer Stipend to write chapter 4 of my book on Mark Twain’s reception from the 1860s through the 20th century. Although scholars have extensively explored Twain’s life and writings, attention to the reception of his works has been limited, focusing largely on "Huck Finn." Indeed, though book-length reception studies have been done on the careers and "afterlives" of other major nineteenth-century authors such as Dickens and Whitman, no such study exists for Twain. In providing a full narrative history of the changing responses to his oeuvre, my book will be the first to draw on over 7,000 letters to Twain in the Mark Twain Papers. Given his canonical status and his nearly uninterrupted popularity since the 1870s, my book will thus fill a significant gap in reception study and in nineteenth-century literary studies while offering an original contribution that provides new insights into Twain’s position in literary history and his place in America’s cultural landscape.

Project fields:
American Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249253-16

Sandrine Sanos
Texas A & M University, Corpus Christi (Corpus Christi, TX 78412-5503)

War Displacement, and Gender in France, 1954-1967

A book-length study of intellectual and cultural responses to France’s colonial conflicts in Indochina and Algeria after World War II.

My book project is a cultural and intellectual history of political imagination in post-war France from 1954 to 1967. It analyzes how war, genocide, and displacement shaped political ideas and cultural identities in a time rife with conflicts both in France and abroad. While in the shadow of the Holocaust, the French empire was consumed by violence--most saliently the bloody and brutal Algerian war of independence. The project explores how anti-colonial leftist intellectuals as well as writers and artists who had migrated to France after experiencing violence proposed new ways of thinking about political community and belonging. The gendered rhetoric they used anchored their vision of politics and framed how injured and violated bodies were discussed. While most histories of the postwar period tend to cast war and displacement as exceptional, the project shows how they have become central to our political imagination in a post-colonial global society.

Project fields:
Arts, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249262-16

Mona Lesley Siegel
California State University, Sacramento Foundation (Sacramento, CA 95819-2605)

Women and the Transnational Promise of 1919

Archival research leading toward completion of a book on feminist activism and peace negotiations at the end of World War I.

Women and the Promise of 1919 will offer the first comprehensive account of feminists’ global efforts to construct a new, gendered political order in the aftermath of World War I. The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 generated unprecedented anticipation, as people demanded their leaders deliver justice and democracy to a war-torn world. Largely excluded from the negotiating table by virtue of their sex, women nevertheless met separately, defined their agendas, and took to the streets. From the international feminist and pan-African conferences held in Paris and Zurich, to the meeting of the International Labour Organization in Washington, D.C., to anti-imperial protests in China and Egypt, feminists publicly asserted women’s right and duty to help shape the postwar world. This study will survey and analyze female political activism worldwide during a single, remarkable year, when the geopolitical map and international institutions that we know today were envisioned for the first time.

Project fields:
Gender Studies; History, General; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2016 – 10/31/2016


FT-249276-16

Joanna Lynn Grossman
Hofstra University (Hempstead, NY 11549-1000)

Parentage Law and Social Change

Research and writing on the development of parentage law in light of the changing legal landscape.

Who is a parent? This is a simple question with no simple answers. The new American family, shaped by the dramatic increase in nonmarital childbearing, reproductive technology, and gay rights, has upended parentage law, the doctrines that determine which adults have rights or obligations to children. This project has two goals: a book on parentage law that would appeal to both scholars and lay readers and a website to aid scholars and inform families of the law governing their choices. Addressing the development of parentage law, social changes leading to new questions, and the growing gap between expectations and legal realities, this project will explore surrogacy, gamete donation, posthumous conception, de facto parentage, adoption, unwed fatherhood, paternity misrepresentation, and parentage by contract. Family is the cornerstone of everyday life. The study of new family life and family law is a quintessentially humanistic endeavor that serves the common good.

Project fields:
Law and Jurisprudence

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249279-16

Daniel Aaron Law
University of Texas, Austin (Austin, TX 78712-0100)

Syntactic Structure and Political Authority in Classic Mayan Texts

Writing two articles and the preparation of a third on the use of complex sentence structures in texts by Maya and later Spanish missionaries.

This project will investigate the use of complex sentence structures in Classic Mayan (hieroglyphic) text, as well as later appropriations of these same linguistic forms in Colonial manuscripts written by, or on behalf of, Spanish missionaries in the Maya area. The overall claim to be examined is that these complex structures were a salient site for expressing social hierarchies, authority, and ritual and cosmological power and their use was adopted by both Classic Maya elites, and Colonial Spanish priests. This approach highlights the interconnectedness of linguistic form with other elements of social practice. The data-gathering component of this project is currently funded with a Humanities Research Award from the University of Texas at Austin. An NEH summer stipend would provide valuable time for analysis of the gathered textual corpus and for the writing of two of the three major articles that are the projected outcome of the project.

Project fields:
Linguistic Anthropology; Linguistics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249280-16

Kathryn Anne Schumaker
University of Oklahoma, Norman (Norman, OK 73019-3003)

Civil Rights at the Schoolhouse Gate: Student Protest and the Struggle for Racial Reform

Archival research in Mississippi, Colorado, and Washington, DC on the struggle for constitutional rights by students during the 1960s and 1970s.
 

"Civil Rights at the Schoolhouse Gate: Student Protest and the Struggle for Racial Reform," examines how young African Americans participated in the emergence of a new regime of public school students' constitutional rights from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s. In the midst of the Black Freedom Struggle, African American students sought reforms at school-- though at their own peril. Until 1969, the US Supreme Court had not recognized public school students as possessing any constitutional rights, putting students who protested at the risk of suspension or expulsion for their actions. Ultimately, student protest and the litigation initiated on students' behalf pushed the courts to recognize that students did have some rights, including due process. At the same time, the courts mainly protected the rights of students who were not disruptive.

Project fields:
African American History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249295-16

Michael Gerard Devine, PhD
SUNY Research Foundation, College at Plattsburgh (Plattsburgh, NY 12901-2637)

Poetry, Film, and the Battle for a National Art, 1895-1930

Research and writing leading to a book-length study of the connections between poetry and cinema in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America.

My book project offers a timely prehistory of writing in an age of new media. It tells the story of poetry’s crisis in the early twentieth century—a machine age not unlike our own—when many considered the humanities doomed to disappear. Poetry, instead, became startlingly visible through films like Vitagraph’s The Battle Hymn of the Republic (1911), which deeply influenced boosters of a modern and American art. Interdisciplinary in scope, my project shows the revitalizing interplay between poetry and film: both poetry’s transformation on the screen and page and the efforts of Walt Whitman’s disciples—poets, but also painters, photographers, and filmmakers—to shape film into a mode of national expression. An archival account of how the humanities reemerged in the cinematic public square a century ago, my project explores what the NEH calls The Common Good—a primer for understanding our current moment when new media technologies promise again to transform the arts.

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies; Film History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-249296-16

Paul Petzschmann, PhD
Carleton College (Northfield, MN 55057-4044)

Student Exchanges Between the United States and Nazi Germany 1933-1941

Archival research on student exchanges between the US and Fascist Germany during the 1930s.

I seek an NEH Summer Stipend to research student exchanges between the United States and Nazi Germany. The existence of such exchanges complicates our understanding of transnational cultural networks as means of escaping from the restrictions of the state. Exchanges between the U.S. and Nazi Germany show that these networks served to support nationalist agendas. To develop this argument, I will work in the hitherto unexplored archives of an organization at the heart of transatlantic exchanges during the 1930s: the Institute of International Education (IIE) based in New York City. My project seeks to explore the workings of transatlantic networks during an isolationist period, to question the assumption that politics (rather than culture or education) determined the relationship between regimes as different as the United States and Nazi Germany, and to assess the implications of this episode.

Project fields:
European History; Political History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249314-16

Omar Youssef Cheta
Bard College (Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-9800)

Empire, Law and Capitalism in the Modern Middle East

Archival work in Istanbul toward a book-length manuscript on law in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire.

My book project, "Empire, Law and Capitalism in the Modern Middle East," is an original study of the legal and economic foundations of the contemporary Middle East. It locates the inception of novel interpretations of modern law and capitalism in the history of the nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire. Through tracing government decision-making processes, intellectual debates and professional practices in Istanbul, the imperial capital, and Cairo, the Empire's largest provincial capital, I show how a common economic and legal culture materialized in the Middle East. The project aims to explicate the genealogy of contemporary economic and legal practices, and ideas, especially in relation to the period preceding formal European colonization. Ultimately, it helps us understand the logic of contemporary legal and economic regimes, and accordingly, how to engage with them in informed and effective ways.

Project fields:
Economic History; Legal History; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249349-16

Elora Shehabuddin
Rice University (Houston, TX 77005-1827)

Feminism, Muslim Women, and Empire

A book-length study about the development of various forms of Muslim feminism from the early modern period to the twenty-first century.

Visions of Progress traces the long history of the construction of Muslim and Euro-American feminist agendas against the backdrop of empire. It brings together recent scholarly research that has sought to complicate familiar tropes about women, gender, and Islam and presents it in an accessible manner for a larger readership, but also intervenes in this very scholarship by charting the specific ways in which Muslim feminisms, particularly in South Asia, and Anglo-American feminisms have developed in tandem rather than in isolation, in the process even helping to construct one another. By historicizing the shared past of the many feminisms in the West and in the Muslim world, by highlighting the relationships between them, this book seeks to confront notions of superiority (in terms of the treatment of women) that persist in the wider Western public as well as the charges of imperialism used by many nationalists and Islamists alike to oppose feminist movements in many Muslim contexts.

Project fields:
Gender Studies; History, General; Political Science, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-249362-16

Jason P. Leddington
Bucknell University (Lewisburg, PA 17837-2005)

The Art of the Impossible: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Aesthetics of Magic

A book-length philosophical analysis of the aesthetics of theatrical magic.
 

The Art of the Impossible is a book project in philosophical aesthetics. It focuses primarily on the art of theatrical magic (think Copperfield, not Potter), which the American Society for Aesthetics recognizes as a “neglected art.” The project builds on my prize-winning essay, “The Experience of Magic,” which is the first philosophical treatment of theatrical magic in the analytic—or, to my knowledge, any—tradition. Yet The Art of the Impossible targets not only academics within and without philosophy, but also popular audiences, for in breaking new theoretical ground it also raises questions of general interest. Despite longstanding academic neglect, magic remains popular on stage, TV, and in film. Arguably, then, it is an important contemporary art form that is badly understood. This project aims to change this, both within and without the academy, and, in the process, to establish a new area of inquiry in aesthetics.

Project fields:
Aesthetics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2016 – 9/30/2016


FT-249364-16

Eileen Mary Kane
Connecticut College (New London, CT 06320-4150)

Muslim Migrants between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, 1800s-1910s

Archival research for a book-length manuscript on Muslim migration between the Russian and Ottoman Empires from the 1880s to the 1910s.

My project is a book, titled Black Sea Crossings: Muslim Migrants and the Worlds They Made. A study of migrations between the Russian and Ottoman empires at a time of rising human mobility (1880s-1910s), this book will reconstruct patterns of Muslim movement between the Black Sea ports of Odessa and Constantinople (Istanbul)—the two largest and most economically vibrant port cities of the Russian and Ottoman empires, respectively—as a way to understand how Muslims navigated new policies toward Islam introduced by the tsarist and Ottoman governments in the decades before World War I, and the collapse of both empires. In telling this story, my aim is to challenge stark and ahistorical divisions between Europe and Islam, and bridge the histories of Russia and the Middle East, regions that have deeply entangled pasts and yet are rarely studied in relation to each another.

Project fields:
Interdisciplinary Studies, Other; Near and Middle Eastern History; Russian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249372-16

Brian Marshall Duvick, PhD
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs (Colorado Springs, CO 80918-3733)

A Translation of Proclus’ 5th-Century Commentary on the Republic

An annotated English translation of Proclus' Commentary on the Republic from the 5th century CE, which discusses Plato’s Republic from the 4th century BCE.

I am working on the first English translation of Proclus' Commentary on the Republic (In Remp). Originally written in the 5th century C.E., the In Remp survived the closing of the Athenian Academy and the Neoplatonic flight to the Middle East, but only one medieval manuscript still exists today. Prior to the Renaissance, this was torn in two by an avaricious man, according to the modern editor, and sold to different collectors. Eventually, one half of the manuscript landed in the Laurentian Library in Florence, the other in the Vatican Library. Here they lay unnoticed for 400 years. My translation is based on Kroll’s modern Greek edition, which contains nearly 200 lacunae. Kroll simply identifies them as illegible. I intend to travel to Italy, fill in as many of the lacunae as possible and otherwise propose likely reconstructions. My translation of Proclus’ Commentary on the Republic will be the standard reference in the field for years to come.

Project fields:
Ancient History; Ancient Languages; History of Philosophy

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249413-16

Rachel Heiman
New School (New York, NY 10011-8871)

Retrofitting the American Dream: An Ethnography of Suburban Re-Design

Research and writing for a book-length study of the future of suburbanization in America.

There is much speculation about the future of the suburban American dream as volatile economic conditions, energy concerns, and climate change make the low-density landscape of single-family homes increasingly unviable. There has been growing literature on design, planning, and policy efforts to reimagine automobile suburbs for a more sustainable and equitable future. Yet there has been little ethnographic research that explores the transformation of sedimented ideals and ways of being as people’s everyday routines and familiar spaces shift amid efforts to retrofit the physical and social landscape of suburbia. I am proposing, as part of a longer-term project aligned with NEH’s new Common Good initiative, two months of fieldwork in Utah at an award-winning suburban community built on reclaimed mining lands with an environmentally friendly, transit-oriented design. This project sheds light on the formation of new subjectivities amid spatial, racial, class, and environmental change.

Project fields:
American Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Urban Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-249415-16

Irene Cheng
California College of the Arts (San Francisco, CA 94107-2247)

The Shape of Utopia: Architecture and Radical Reform in 19th-Century America

A book-length study of geometric ideal plans for cities and buildings that reflect utopian movements in 18th- and 19th-century America.

The Shape of Utopia explores six American “geometric utopias,” plans for ideal cities and buildings published between 1776 and 1880 by reformers affiliated with movements such as anarchism, phrenology, Spiritualism, vegetarianism and land reform. The book asks what led some nineteenth-century Americans to see a link between gridded territories, hexagonal cities, and octagonal houses, on one hand, and a more perfect liberal democracy, on the other. It investigates the political ideologies and visual cultural contexts of the nineteenth-century American utopian imagination.

Project fields:
American Studies; Architecture; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-249421-16

Matthew Willard Butterfield
Franklin and Marshall College (Lancaster, PA 17603-2802)

The Swing Phenomenon: A History of Meaning

Preparation of an article on the term "swing" and African American music, 1890s-1930s.

The mysterious rhythmic quality known as “swing” is taken by many today to be one of the essential characteristics of jazz. However, it has never been entirely clear what exactly the term means: it has been used to designate everything from a particular way of dividing the beat (i.e., swing eighth notes) to a general rhythmic ethos characterized by a sense of forward propulsion. As a manifestation of what was called “hot rhythm,” swing is also inextricably bound up with the modern American discourse of race. This project traces the early genealogy of the term as it was applied to rhythm in black music, specifically Negro spirituals, ragtime, and jazz. It draws on a variety of early jazz history books as well as newspaper and magazine articles published in the first decades of the twentieth century to explore how “swing” came to be understood as the defining essence of jazz rhythm by the late 1930s--an essence that was explicitly racialized as an expression of black identity in music.

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-228336-15

Febe Armanios
Middlebury College (Middlebury, VT 05753-6004)

The Rise of Christian Television in the Middle East

Summer research and writing on Media Studies and Middle Eastern History.

This project explores the rise, expansion, and influence of Christian television in the Middle East, from the early 1980s to the present. Christian broadcasting was initially established by American televangelists who sought to spread their charismatic brand of Christianity. The development of American-sponsored channels, however, challenged Middle Eastern Christians to defend their own voices and pioneer their own religious channels, which captured a local perspective on spirituality, theology, culture, and politics. On the whole, even though some broadcasts have continued to promote American evangelical agendas, television has simultaneously created a new forum for indigenous Christians long excluded from public religious expression in their home countries. For this project, the author has consulted several documentary sources, including memoirs, station annual reports, and pamphlets, and has conducted over 65 field interviews in Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, Cyprus, and the United States.

Project fields:
Media Studies; Near and Middle Eastern History; Religion, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-228625-15

Suzy Kim
Rutgers University, New Brunswick (New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8559)

Women at War: Gender Politics in North Korea during the Cold War

Summer research and writing on Cultural and East Asian History.

This project examines the role of women and the politics of gender in North Korea during the Cold War. Rather than duplicating histories of the Cold War as a masculine battle of political acumen, this research emphasizes the dominance of women and feminine tropes as key to understanding North Korea. Women proved to be the primary cultural icons, and feminine tropes became models for emulation throughout society. If the construction of modern citizenship has always been a gendered process of delineating appropriate masculine and feminine roles in service of the state, this project asks how North Korean women (and men) were mobilized for war throughout the Cold War as sacrificial mothers. While there are parallels of sacrificial women in other contexts, North Korean developments were singular in the ascription of motherhood to men to create a new model of militarized citizenship that was at once masculine and feminine, and that drew on transnational Cold War cultures.

Project fields:
Cultural History; East Asian History; Gender Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-228739-15

Dennis Jordan Frost
Kalamazoo College (Kalamazoo, MI 49006-3295)

The Paralympic Movement, Sports, and Disability in Postwar Japan

Summer research and writing in East Asian History and Studies.

Offering the first comprehensive examination of the history of the Paralympic Movement outside a Euro-American context, this project traces the evolution of discourse and practice related to sports for the disabled in Japan, arguing that such sports have played a critical and overlooked role in shaping Japanese approaches to disability. I frame my analysis around five international sporting events held in Japan for athletes with disabilities. Beginning with Japan's initial encounters with the Paralympic Movement in the 1960s and concluding with Tokyo's current preparations to host the 2020 Paralympic Games, this study demonstrates how such events have affected disability-related policies and perceptions both on and beyond the playing field. By examining the impact of these five events in Japan, my work highlights the historically and culturally contingent nature of disability and explains why sporting events have proven a mixed blessing for individuals with disabilities.

Project fields:
East Asian History; East Asian Studies; Social Sciences, Other

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-228749-15

Kelly Wisecup
University of North Texas (Denton, TX 76203-5017)

Objects of Encounter: Native Americans' Lists, 1600-1848

Summer research and writing in American Literature and Native American Studies.

Objects of Encounter investigates how Native Americans appropriated the form of the list between 1600 and 1840. Natives compiled lists of words, numbers, plants, and trade goods, in order to circulate tribal histories, to repair social and spiritual relationships disrupted by colonialism, and to maintain sovereignty over their languages and epistemologies. While scholars have overlooked lists to focus on narratives, this book shows that lists were a key part of early American cross-cultural exchanges. Natives shaped colonists' lists by controlling their access to objects; they composed their own lists in order to recirculate their peoples' histories. The book offers a new literary history of pre-1900 Native writing, and my proposed research will intervene in the history of science and museum studies by showing that Natives not only worked as assistants for men of science but also appropriated collecting and its textual practices for their own ends.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Literature; Native American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2015 – 6/30/2015


FT-228766-15

Gerry Canavan
Marquette University (Milwaukee, WI 53233-2225)

Science Fiction and the Philosophical Concept of Totality

Summer research and writing on American Literature, and History and Philosophy of Science.

My research focuses on one of the most globally influential genres of the contemporary United States: science fiction. Science fiction offers an increasingly mainstream vocabulary for negotiating the relationship between individuals and their social fabric, as well as for understanding the place of the human species within the larger cosmos. I consequently argue that science fiction is a tremendously useful archive for interdisciplinary work in the humanities in the 21st century academy, both within the space of the classroom and in scholars' attempts to communicate our knowledge practices with the public more broadly. The 20th and 21st centuries have been a time in which, as J.G. Ballard said, "everything is becoming science fiction"; as a result, far from occupying some literary periphery, science fiction plays a pivotal role in contemporary debates over history, identity, empire, justice, and, in our moment of escalating ecological crisis, the prospects for "the future" as such.

Project fields:
American Literature; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2015 – 6/30/2015


FT-228854-15

David Kieran
Washington and Jefferson College (Washington, PA 15301-4812)

The Cultural Politics of Mental Health During the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars

Summer research and writing on American Studies, and Cultural and U.S. History.

The cultural politics of mental health have become central to American, Iraqi, and Afghan efforts to come to terms with the United States' 21st-century wars. Debates about mental health provide spaces in which people within and outside the United States address larger questions about the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, the relationship between the military and society, and questions of identity and social justice in the 21st century.  Signature Wounds (under contract, New York University Press) offers an interdisciplinary history of this crisis, the debates that surround it, and those debates' intersections with larger questions about U.S. militarism and global engagement in the twenty-first century. It examines not only how institutional decision makers--military leaders and legislators--approached these issues but also how they were represented in media and popular culture and how veterans, their families, and activists argued for their interests within these debates.

Project fields:
American Studies; Cultural History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-228914-15

Michelle Voss Roberts
Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, NC 27109-6000)

Re-visioning Theological Conceptions of the Human

Summer research and writing on Comparative and General Religion.

What is a human being? Dualistic body-soul anthropologies have reigned since Plato and Aristotle. Humanities scholars have attempted to repair these schemes and appreciate embodied differences, but they have seldom drawn upon alternative conceptions of the human. This project looks to the Indian philosopher Abhinavagupta, who imagines thirty-six "body parts" ranging from physical elements to the highest unity of consciousness. This exercise in intercultural theory addresses the shortcomings and exclusions of the body-soul paradigm by naming denigrated parts, including the elements, organs of sense and action, and even limitations, as integral to a contemporary view of humanity.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Comparative Religion; Religion, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-228954-15

Richard Ivan Jobs
Pacific University (Forest Grove, OR 97116-1797)

Backpack Ambassadors: How Youth Travel Integrated Western Europe

Summer research and writing on Cultural and European History, and International Relations.

"Backpack Ambassadors" brings together two exceptional phenomena of the postwar period in western European history examined through the cultural practice of travel: the emergence of a transnational youth culture and the process of European integration. This project details the institutional and governmental programs various countries utilized at the end of the Second World War to promote fraternity among their populations via the travel and interaction of the young. Yet it also considers the proliferation of independent 'drifter' youth travel and how this often complicated the official process of integration while still contributing to it via these communities of young travelers. By studying the practice of travel by the young, this investigation emphasizes European integration as a fundamentally social and cultural process in addition to being a political and economic one.

Project fields:
Cultural History; European History; International Relations

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
2/1/2016 – 5/31/2016


FT-229048-15

Barbara Ellen Mann
Jewish Theological Seminary of America (New York, NY 10027-4649)

A Material History of 20th-century Jewish Literature

Summer research and writing on Comparative Literature and Jewish Studies, and History, Criticism and Theory of the Arts.

My project reads 20th-Jewish literature through the lens of material culture, analyzing the material qualities of texts, the depiction of things, and discourse about materiality during a period shaped by migration, the shoah and tremendous social and political upheaval. Examining how transition and rupture have refashioned Jewish textuality as material culture will enrich our sense of literature's complex relation to its physical surroundings. Indeed, writing that emerges from Jewish culture, whose theological tradition has a historically ambivalent engagement with embodied forms such as idols, is an ideal forum for exploring how literature deploys physical objects as emblems of ideas and emotions, and how books themselves function as things. Treating a wide variety of literary genres, my analysis of the materiality of text within the transnational parameters of modern Jewish culture will sharpen our understanding of how secular culture is indebted to traditional religious forms.

Project fields:
Comparative Literature; History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts; Jewish Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229110-15

Christopher Hager
Trinity College, Hartford (Hartford, CT 06106-3100)

The Epistolary Culture of the U.S. Civil War

Summer research and writing on American Literature and Studies, and U.S. History.

This project represents the first major study of Civil War letters, one of the most voluminous outpourings of literary expression in U.S. history. Although historians have consulted Civil War letters as sources of data, literature scholars have yet to understand them as a distinct genre. Though they may seem mundane and sub-literary, these letters constitute more than a historically significant episode of written expression. Rank-and-file soldiers and their families, whom war compelled to read and write more than they ever had, adapted conventions of epistolary communication to a novel context, and they produced letters which document an expansion of literacy and reveal abundant literary invention. My analysis of these letters will produce an affective history of soldiers' and their families' wartime experiences, as well as a novel account of the epistolary genre's transition from aristocratic tradition to popular medium.

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229124-15

Camilo Daniel Trumper
SUNY Research Foundation, Buffalo State College (Buffalo, NY 14222-1004)

The Politics of Public Space and Public Art in Santiago, Chile

Summer research and writing on Latin American and Political History and Urban Studies.

My book project is a study of Chilean politics in democracy and dictatorship. In the first five chapters, I study how Chileans turned urban and visual culture into important forms of political debate in the post-war period until the military coup of September 11, 1973. In the last, I situate the military junta's violent repression within this longer story of post-war democratic urban politics, revealing that the regime's violence was not an aberration but a brutal attempt to censure the very democratic public spheres and practices that urban residents had developed on the capital city's streets and walls. Paying attention to the material and visual culture of democratic politics, then, also allows us to see that clandestine forms of political resistance drew on post-war political practices (including urban protest, street photography and ephemera) that were re-imagined under the dictatorship. The Summer Stipend would fund my research travel to Chile for my final chapter and epilogue.

Project fields:
Latin American History; Political History; Urban Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229127-15

Janette Becerra
University of Puerto Rico, Cayey University College (Cayey, PR 00736-3717)

Poetics and Aesthetics in Pedro Salinas' Letters to Katherine Whitmore

Summer research and writing on History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts, Literary Criticism, and Spanish Literature.

In its "Pedro Salinas Papers" collection, the Houghton Library at Harvard University holds valuable and yet unpublished manuscripts of the celebrated 20th century Spanish poet. In particular, more than half of his letters to Katherine Whitmore???his American mistress and muse of his amatory poetry???remain unpublished. In them, Salinas expresses his views on subjects ranging from a keen literary criticism of his contemporaries to that of his own work; from the aesthetics of the classics to the new technological forms of art that both marveled and worried him; from the intellectual life in the Madrid of the 1930s to the painful consequences of political exile and his positions on the Spanish Civil War and World War II. My project aims to research the collection in order to finish my book "Poetics and Aesthetics in Pedro Salinas??? Letters to Katherine Whitmore", which explores his literary theory in this correspondence and other unpublished textual instances therein contained.

Project fields:
History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts; Literary Criticism; Spanish Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229137-15

Maria del Rosario Hubert
Trinity College, Hartford (Hartford, CT 06106-3100)

Latin American Fictions of East Asia

Summer research and writing on Comparative Literature and East Asian and Latin American Studies.

My book project Disorientations: Latin American Fictions of East Asia explores the relationship between fiction, knowledge and knowing in Latin American discourses of China and Japan. By scrutinizing Brazilian and Hispanic American travel journals, novels, short stories and essays from the nineteenth century to the present, Disorientations engages with the epistemological problems of writing across cultural boundaries. The argument is divided into four chapters that create a constellation of historical and textual problems around a specific form of knowledge (ethnography, philology and fiction) and proposes a novel entryway into the study of East Asia and Latin American through the notions of cultural distance, fictional Sinology and critical exoticism. Disorientation is a rhetoric that not only revisits the hegemonic archive of the Orient from a Latin American point of view, but mostly, explores the literary potential of peripheral epistemologies in general.

Project fields:
Comparative Literature; East Asian Studies; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229150-15

David Michael Alff
SUNY Research Foundation, Buffalo State College (Buffalo, NY 14222-1004)

Projects in British Culture, 1660-1730

Summer research and writing on British History and Literature, and Western Civilization.

My book manuscript investigates the idea of projects, concrete yet incomplete schemes for advancing British society during the 1600 and 1700s. Then, as now, a "project" was a discrete effort to achieve some goal, be it the construction of a bridge, the relief of the poor, or the composition of a poem. The word meant both a unit of human endeavor and a genre of writing for proposing new enterprise through specific literary devices and persuasive strategies. By attending to the rhetorical, material, and performative aspects of a broad range of proposals, my research argues for a more comprehensive British historiography attentive to old plans for futures that could have been.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
British History; British Literature; Western Civilization

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 8/1/2015


FT-229166-15

Jeffrey Glover
Loyola University, Chicago (Chicago, IL 60611-2147)

Righteous Violence: Justifying War in Colonial North America, 1608-1713

Summer research and writing on American Literature and Native American Studies.

My project is an inquiry into the history of just war, or the idea that some wars are morally or legally defensible. I focus on European attempts to justify warfare in colonial North America. Many scholars have portrayed the colonies as a war zone, pointing to violence against Native Americans and wars among European rivals. To this point, however, scholars have paid little attention to the legal rationales for such actions. My project describes how colonists justified their wars. The Spanish, French, and English routinely accused each other of war crimes in the New World. In response, settlers sent home letters, legal briefs, and treatises that justified the killing of other Europeans or Native people. Controversies over just war involved many kinds of theological and legal traditions, including canon laws, papal edicts, Roman codes, and Native American customs. I argue that this cross-cultural discourse about killing played an important role in the birth of international law.

Project fields:
American Literature; Native American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229169-15

Asuka Sango
Carleton College (Northfield, MN 55057-4044)

Buddhist Debate in Medieval Japan

Summer research and writing on Eastern Asian History, and History of Religion.

This project illuminates a largely overlooked dimension of the history of medieval Japan: the role played by Buddhist debate in shaping the intellectual, religious, and cultural contours of Japan from the 11th to 16th centuries. Buddhist debate has received considerable attention among scholars of Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. Less known is its vitality in medieval Japan. Participating in debates on issues of Buddhist doctrine was both indispensable to the education of monks and an official requirement for promotion. Modern scholars tend to dismiss Buddhist debate as a dull show of pedantry, or a mere tool of self-aggrandizement. However, debate skills that monks developed were not only a means of social advancement, but also a dynamic mode of internalizing and producing doctrinal knowledge and contesting its established interpretation. Examining their views and practice of debate then is a key to understanding both the intellectual and social dimensions of medieval Japanese Buddhism.

Project fields:
East Asian History; History of Religion; Nonwestern Religion

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2015 – 9/30/2015


FT-229173-15

Michael Willrich
Brandeis University (Waltham, MA 02453-2700)

War and State Surveillance in Early 20th-Century America

Summer research and writing on Legal and U.S. History.

"The Anarchist's Advocate" is a history of radical dissent, police power, and the struggle for civil liberties in the United States during the early twentieth century, with particular attention to World War I and the ensuing Red Scare. The narrative centers on New York anarchists, their confrontations with the new surveillance state, and their relationship with lawyer Harry Weinberger, who represented them in criminal trials, Ellis Island deportation proceedings, and in two landmark cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. When the United States entered World War I, virtually no one in America--least of all the anarchists themselves--actually believed that the Constitution offered the slimmest protection for alien radicals and their political ideas. Through research in Harry Weinberger's legal papers, the papers of federal officials, government documents, and the writings of Weinberger's radical associates, "The Anarchist's Advocate" tells the story of how and why that began to change.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Legal History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229215-15

Cian T. McMahon
University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Las Vegas, NV 89154-9900)

The Coffin Ship: Irish Migration, Mortality, and Memory in Global Perspective, 1845-1855

Summer research and writing on European, Immigration, and U.S. History.

In Irish America's rogue gallery of oppressive technologies, the "coffin ship" enjoys pride of place. Folklorists and grandmothers alike agree on the basic outline of that "miserable epic" yet few academics have tackled the subject. My goal is to reevaluate this timeworn symbol from a transnational perspective through archival research. Mid-nineteenth-century migrants traveled on a global shipping network designed, built, and operated in the service of modern capitalism. Using the Famine-era Irish as a case study, The Coffin Ship examines the ways in which migrants negotiated, and even shaped, this world system. This project has appeal for scholars and general audiences across the humanities. A critical phase in the history of globalization pivoted on the process of human migration, yet there exists no close study of the instrument that lay at its Irish heart. The Coffin Ship offers a new perspective on the history of mass migration: from the decks of the ships themselves.

Project fields:
European History; Immigration History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2015 – 6/30/2015


FT-229217-15

Rosemarie Stremlau
University of North Carolina, Pembroke (Pembroke, NC 28372-8699)

Barbara Hildebrand Longknife (1828-1903): Southeastern Indian Diaspora in the Age of American Empire

Summer research and writing on Native American Studies and U.S. and Women's History.

Barbara Hildebrand Longknife was an ordinary nineteenth-century Cherokee woman who lived an extraordinary life. As a girl, she survived removal on the Trail of Tears. As a young woman, she went to California with a hope to find gold and return to Indian Territory as a woman of means. Instead, she worked marginal jobs until she left her abusive husband and traveled to Hawaii as a laborer. Throughout her life, Longknife wanted to go home. She never did. Instead, she wrote letters to her family. Some of these letters survive to provide an alternative perspective to those of the people who gained wealth and had power in the American West and Hawaii. Longknife's life was a bridge connecting the Atlantic World and the Pacific World, and my telling of her story will transcend the narrowly focused discussions of gender, labor, and culture in Southeastern American Indian history and connect them to the larger literature on American expansion and the many complex indigenous experiences of it.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Native American Studies; U.S. History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229232-15

David Luis-Brown
Claremont Graduate University (Claremont, CA 91711-5909)

Slave Rebellion and Social Identity in Cuba and the U.S. during the 1840s and 1850s

Summer research and writing on American and Latin American Literature, and American Studies.

Blazing at Midnight analyzes the uses of slave rebellion in constructing social identity and charting blueprints of post-emancipation societies at moments of historical crisis in Cuba and the United States in the 1840s and 1850s. I argue that at times of political impasse, a wide range of social groups--nonslaveholding whites, novelists, Cuban exiles, travel writers, and slaves--recalibrated political ideals and ethical priorities by thinking through the significance of the slave rebel as a model for alternative social arrangements. The figure of the slave rebel galvanized U.S. anti-slavery advocates following the Fugitive Slave Act, rural whites in both countries, and renegade Cuban exiles in New York, who began to rethink their racial politics following Narciso Lopez's failed annexationist expedition to Cuba in 1851. All of the chapters in the book examine how debates over the futures of plantation societies revolved around the question of slave rebellion.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies; Latin American Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229259-15

Stephen Vincent Bittner
Sonoma State University (Rohnert Park, CA 94928-3609)

Vineyard Colonies: Wine and Wine-making in Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union

Summer research and writing on European and Russian History, and History of Science.

"Vineyard Colonies" examines the two centuries of interaction between Russia and the wine economies and cultures of the Black Sea--Bessarabia (Moldova), Crimea, and Georgia. After the Russian Empire annexed these territories in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, wine became an increasingly important part of Russian and Soviet culture--as a luxury item, a mark of refinement, and an object of connoisseurship. Consequently, by the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's fourth largest producer of wine, trailing only Spain, France, and Italy. "Vineyard Colonies" contributes to two of the most active arenas of debate in the historiography of Russia and the Soviet Union: studies of imperialism and consumption. I intend to use an NEH Summer Stipend to complete the archival research for this untold and significant history.

Project fields:
European History; History of Science; Russian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229287-15

Jenny Adams
University of Massachusetts, Amherst (Amherst, MA 01003-9242)

Student Debt and University Life in Medieval Oxford

Summer research and writing on British Literature, and Intellectual and Medieval History.

In "Unlocking St. Frideswide's Chest" I examine the earliest student loan program in the light of medieval and early modern understandings higher education. As I argue, the appearance of academic loans in thirteenth-century Oxford shaped almost every facet of medieval university life, from the curriculum itself to the cultural understandings of student labor. Unlike current student loans, which collateralize future earnings, medieval student loans collateralized real property, so the production of knowledge was not connected anticipated income. Instead, this real property most often took the form of an academic book, which suggests economic pressures on the medieval curriculum that scholars have not yet accounted for. This is the first book to study the impact of student loans on the medieval student experience and to offer a historical context for our current national anxieties about student debt.

Project fields:
British Literature; Intellectual History; Medieval History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229290-15

Jacqueline Stone
Princeton University (Princeton, NJ 08540-5228)

The Faces of Lotus Millennialism: Nichiren and Buddhist Nationalism in Modern Japan

Summer research and writing on East Asian History and Nonwestern Religion.

The Japanese Buddhist figure Nichiren (1222-1282) predicted that faith in the Lotus Sutra would one day spread outward from Japan and transform this world into an ideal Buddha land. From the latter nineteenth century through the immediate post-World War II era, activist clerics and lay leaders in the Nichiren Buddhist tradition appropriated these prophecies as full-blown millennial visions and mapped them onto shifts in Japan's international role. The project traces the emergence and successive transformations of "Lotus millennialism": as a doctrine suited to modernizing and nation-building in Japan's Meiji and Taisho eras (1868-1926); as a vision of Japan-led Buddhist pan-Asianism that legitimated militant imperialism in the 1930s and 40s; and as a blueprint for nuclear disarmament and "world peace" in the period of reconstruction following the Pacific War (1945-60). It examines the complex interplay of Buddhist and national identities and the modern appeal of millennial thinking.

Project fields:
East Asian History; East Asian Studies; Nonwestern Religion

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229294-15

Sonja Drimmer
University of Massachusetts, Amherst (Amherst, MA 01003-9242)

Timeless Texts, Timely Illustrations: Origins and Illumination of the Middle English Literary Canon

Summer research and writing on Art History and Criticism, British Literature and Medieval Studies.

The formation of a native literary canon is one of the milestones in the establishment of a national identity. England's moment came in the fifteenth century, against the background of two defining conflicts with lasting impact: the Hundred Years War (1337-1453) and the Wars of the Roses (1450-1485). At this time, royals and gentry alike commissioned manuscript copies of works by Chaucer, Gower, Lydgate, and Hoccleve, who translated into English and radically revised stories central to Western culture. A seldom recognized fact is that many of these manuscripts contain images, and that these images express patrons' ambitions to co-opt such narratives for their own individual and national designs. As a result, the role of the manuscript illuminator in this history has never been acknowledged. My book will offer the first in-depth study devoted to the emergence of England's first literary canon as a visual as well as a linguistic event.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; British Literature; Medieval Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229307-15

Rachel Lisa Mesch
Yeshiva University (New York, NY 10033-3299)

French Writings on Marriage in the Belle Epoque

Summer research and writing on European History, French Literature and Gender Studies.

By the end of the nineteenth century in France, marriage was seen as a vulnerable institution, due to rapid social shifts and the legalization of divorce in 1884. However, unlike previous scholarship focused on the various threats to marriage during this time, this book argues that some of the most important responses to the perceived crisis took place within conjugal structures themselves, where shifts in gender norms hit directly up against traditional French values. Through a study of four Belle Epoque literary couples and their writings on marriage, this book will offer a series of "conjugal biographies" that bring to life the multivalent nature of the institution at a transitional moment in French history. Belle Epoque marriage emerges as a highly creative forum for experimenting with gender roles and different forms of partnership usually associated with later generations.

Project fields:
European History; French Literature; Gender Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229310-15

Emily Lauren Baum
University of California, Irvine (Irvine, CA 92617-3066)

A History of Madness in Republican China, 1911-1937

Summer research and writing on East Asian History, and History and Philosophy of Science.

My research examines the ways in which everyday men and women came to terms with new psychiatric epistemologies and institutions that were introduced to China in the Republican period (1911-1949). While previous works on Chinese medical history have focused exclusively on the attitudes of intellectuals and reformist political elites, my research shifts the focus onto the types of people who were not immediately concerned with the project to modernize Chinese medicine and Westernize Chinese society. Instead, I explore the more subtle ways in which Chinese healers, patients, and families integrated aspects of neuropsychiatry into their preexistent medical repertoires, appropriated new terms to describe their psychosomatic suffering, and invoked psychiatric concepts to explain the changing shape of twentieth-century Chinese society.

Project fields:
East Asian History; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229329-15

Ellen Rebecca Boucher
Amherst College (Amherst, MA 01002-2372)

Be Prepared: Empire, War, and the Culture of Survival in Modern Britain

Summer research and writing on British History, Cultural and European History.

The destructive potential of war for civilians expanded dramatically in the twentieth century, from the advent of aerial bombing through the nuclear threat. This project offers a new perspective on the history of total war by charting how British popular understandings of survival changed in response to the evolving technologies and practices of modern warfare. Usually viewed only as a matter of state policy or military strategy, the concept of preparedness also dominated civilian responses to war. In revealing how survival became a site of contestation over the responsibilities of government, the nature of individualism, and the conduct of war, this project highlights the vital role played by debates about preparedness in shaping the cultural and political possibilities of the postwar world.

Project fields:
British History; Cultural History; European History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-229347-15

Julia A. Hendon
Gettysburg College (Gettysburg, PA 17325-1483)

Archaeological Studies of Technology as a Social Process

Summer reading and writing on Archaeology, History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine.

How can we understand technology from a humanistic perspective? My book answers this question by focusing on the craftswomen and craftsmen who worked in ancient societies. My previous work on Aztec and Maya weaving traditions and my own experiences as a weaver using the same kinds of looms and tools have brought home to me the importance of looking at crafting from the perspective of the practitioners themselves. Rather than assuming that technology is best defined as the application of scientific principles to practical uses, I employ a definition of technology that is better suited for humanists working in historical and non-Western contexts: technology as a set of relationships among people and between people and the materials with which they work. I illustrate my argument with four case studies, weaving, Roman pottery production, Moche metal-working, and glass-blowing in Israel during the Byzantine era.

Project fields:
Archaeology; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine; History, Other

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229357-15

Vitaly Chernetsky
University of Kansas, Lawrence (Lawrence, KS 66045-7505)

Ukraine's Ongoing Social Transformation and its Literary Representations

Summer reading and writing on Slavic Literature.

Since November 2013, ongoing crisis has placed Ukraine on the front pages of global news media. The mass protests that came to be known as the Euromaidan, the collapse of the Yanukovych government, the Russian annexation of Crimea, and the mixture of a civil war with an escalating Russian intervention in Ukraine's east brought unprecedented global attention to Ukraine. In recent months the country has radically transformed, which has profoundly affected Ukrainians' understanding of their identity and their view of Ukraine's place in the global family of nations. This project examines the role of contemporary Ukrainian writers and other public intellectuals in these events--their documentation of and creative response to the experiences of turmoil, psychological trauma, displacement, and the emerging formation of a new Ukrainian identity, which reaches across preexisting divides caused by differences in language, ethnicity, gender, age, and other factors.

Project fields:
Slavic Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229388-15

Ibtesam Al Atiyat, PhD
St. Olaf College (Northfield, MN 55057-1574)

An Analysis of Public Disputes over the Amendment of Laws Regulating Gender in Modern Jordan

Summer research and writing on Area and Gender Studies, and Sociology.

In Body Politics and Nation Building in Modern Jordan: An Analysis of Public Disputes over the Amendment of Laws Regulating Gender and Sexuality, I analyze recent disputes surrounding the amendment of laws regulating women's bodies, including those of rape and honor killings. I argue that recognizing them as a clash between "modern" and "traditional" values--as many scholars have done--oversimplifies a complex power struggle between multiple actors (Islamists, women's activists, tribal leaders, government officials). These actors do not directly subscribe to their rhetoric's content; but deploy the concept of "values" as a political expedient and means to an end for political power. My book is intended for social scientists, humanists, and general readers, who seek to understand the status of Jordanian women. On site in Jordan, I will interview women's activists, Islamists, tribal leaders, and public officials, and will also examine court trial scripts in cases of rape and honor crimes.

Project fields:
Area Studies; Gender Studies; Sociology

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229420-15

Etienne Helmer
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Rio Piedras, PR 00931-3300)

Ancient Greek Philosophers on Trade, Business and Money

Summer reading and writing on Anthropology and History of Philosophy.

According to many historians of economic theory, the ancient Greeks had no strong and consistent thought on economics for lack of a scientific approach to economics in the modern sense of the word science. But this does not mean they did not have a valuable approach to economic phenomena and institutions. Historians' assertions to the contrary derive from the fact that they fail to seriously take into account that ancient Greek thought on economics rested on a consistent set of philosophical concepts and notions. Presenting an alternative view based on a delimited corpus of texts by ancient Greek philosophers or ancient Greek writers influenced by philosophers, my project is to evidence the existence and value of Greek philosophical theories on trade, business and money. This project aims at completing the first part of a broader project on ancient philosophical approaches to economics. This first part was dealing with Greek philosophical approaches to economics within the oikos.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Anthropology; Classics; History of Philosophy

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229424-15

Juliet Hooker
University of Texas, Austin (Austin, TX 78712-0100)

Race in U.S. African-American and Latin American Political Thought

Summer research and writing on African American and Latin American Studies, and Political Theory.

Hybrid Traditions analyzes the ideas about race of prominent 19th and 20th century U.S. African-American and Latin American thinkers. It's a philosophically grounded account of racial politics across the Americas via three pairings of one Latin American and one African-American thinker who were contemporaries: 1) Frederick Douglass and Domingo Sarmiento, 2) W. E. B. Du Bois and Jose Vasconcelos, and 3) feminist theorist Angela Davis and Afro-Brazilian intellectual Abdias do Nascimento. It argues that both philosophical traditions contain more complicated accounts of racial identity, multiracial democracy, and black freedom than previously understood. This project's transnational approach is critical to conceiving anti-racist politics in post-racial contexts, and is novel because it engages with both African-American and Latin American political thought simultaneously. It contributes to political theory/philosophy and to the fields of Latino, Latin American and African-American Studies.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
African American Studies; Latin American Studies; Political Theory

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229436-15

Cameron Leader-Picone
Kansas State University (Manhattan, KS 66506-0100)

Rearticulating Race in Twenty-First Century African American Literature

Summer research and writing on African American Studies and American Literature.

My book analyzes the meaning of race in African American literature of the twenty-first century through concepts such as post-racialism, post-blackness, and post-soul aesthetics. Considering the work of Colson Whitehead, Alice Randall, Toni Morrison, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, and Jesmyn Ward, I examine the push and pull within that literature between optimism over the gains of the Civil Rights and post-Civil Rights eras and pessimism over the persistence of structural racism and discrimination. While there has been substantial scholarship assessing both the social and economic progress that has been made by African Americans and its limitations, my book's unique focus on the "post" moment in twenty-first century African American literature allows me to address not just the issue of how a rhetoric of progress should be understood, but also its implications for revising and rearticulating racial identities in a new century.

Project fields:
African American Studies; American Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2015 – 9/30/2015


FT-229453-15

Emily Lehua Moore
Colorado State University (Fort Collins, CO 80521-2807)

"For Future Generations": Tlingit, Haida and American Art in Alaska's New Deal Totem Parks

Summer research and writing on Art History and Criticism and Native American Studies.

From 1938 to 1942, as part of a work relief program for Native Americans during the Depression, the U.S. government employed Tlingit and Haida men to repair or replicate more than one hundred nineteenth-century totem poles in Southeast Alaska and to re-erect these poles in "totem parks" for tourists. My book manuscript examines the complex cross-cultural negotiations involved in this New Deal program, considering Tlingit and Haida reasons for participating in this project as well as non-Native reasons for patronizing Native American art in the 1930s and 1940s. As the first book-length study of one of the largest acts of federal patronage for Native American art in the twentieth century, the manuscript offers a rich case study for American humanities scholars, examining the U.S.'s mercurial interest in the nation's Native heritage and Native American agency in adapting a federal program to their needs. An NEH Summer Stipend would enable me to complete this manuscript.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Native American Studies; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229464-15

Andrea Nicole Mansker
University of the South (Sewanee, TN 37383-2000)

Matchmaking and the Marriage Market in Nineteenth-Century France

Summer research and writing on Cultural and European History and Gender Studies.

This project uses the unexplored history of professional marriage brokers and personal ads to track the commercialization of marriage in nineteenth-century France. Though historians have analyzed the ways in which contemporaries redefined the family at pivotal revolutionary moments, they have overlooked how marriage itself was imagined increasingly as a commercial contract inseparable from the atomistic and corrupt marketplace. The matchmaking industry both responded to and helped shape national anxieties regarding fluctuating nuptial rates, a declining birthrate, a sex ratio imbalance, and changing legislation on marriage and divorce. A study of brokers' and individuals' marketing narratives on love along with court cases, legislation, and literature surrounding the business reveals the intimate and socioeconomic pressures of finding a spouse. It also exposes the multiple ways in which individuals used the matrimonial industry to re-imagine family relationships and marriage rituals.

Project fields:
Cultural History; European History; Gender Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 9/30/2015


FT-229470-15

Amy Aisen Kallander
Syracuse University (Syracuse, NY 13244-0001)

Women, Family and the Modern Nation in Postcolonial Tunisia, 1952-2011

Summer research and writing on Gender Studies, and Near and Middle Eastern History.

This project examines the relation between women, family and modernity in postcolonial Tunisia. It engages with scholarly interest in the relation between women, nationalism, and modernity, and debates regarding liberal and Islamic understandings of women's rights. Building upon feminist theorizations of agency, my project challenges the association between legislative recognition of women's equality, women's employment, and liberal individualism with emancipation. Chapters focus on the dissemination of the Tunisian government's "feminist" rhetoric, the image of women, family and modernity in the women's press, the portrayal of rural women by Tunisian social scientists, and how state investments in education and family planning contributed to reforming women into educated wives and mothers. Without claiming to explain the Tunisian Revolution, my research offers insight on Tunisian society and political culture before January 2011 through its attention to women and gender.

Project fields:
Gender Studies; Near and Middle Eastern History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229485-15

Michael Paul Bibler
Louisiana State University (Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4600)

Property, Intimacy, and the Literature of U.S. Slavery

Summer research and writing on American Literature, and Gender and U.S. Regional Studies.

In what would seem a statistical impossibility, the vast historical archive of the slaveholding South is almost completely silent about homoerotic and what we would call homosexual encounters. But this book project demonstrates that the much-neglected literary archive of the antebellum South contains numerous examples of characters, scenes, and storylines that readily depict queer forms of gender and eroticism. Reading pro- and antislavery works together, I show how all erotic relations in this period are deeply intertwined with the property relations of slavery, whereby property not only anchors and defines all forms of intimate attachment but also infuses those bonds with an inescapable eroticism. This NEH support will allow me to complete a key chapter in this project that explains this "possessive intimacy" in William Simms's novels and poems about effete bachelors, mannish wives, master-slave sentimentality, sexual captivity, and companionate marriage.

Project fields:
American Literature; Gender Studies; U.S. Regional Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2015 – 6/30/2015


FT-229487-15

David Scott Witwer
Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg (Middletown, PA 17057-4846)

Cold War America's Encounter With Labor Racketeering

Summer research and writing on Journalism, Labor and U.S. History.

The proposed book project tells the story of how America encountered labor racketeering in the Cold War era. It looks at a range of events and individuals involved with the McClellan Committee hearings, the largest investigation of labor racketeering in U.S. history. The investigation began in 1956, in the wake of a horrific acid attack on the crusading anti-racketeering newspaper columnist, Victor Riesel. Participants in the probe drew on their previous experience investigating the menace of internal communism. A close working relationship between the news media and the committee staff shaped the revelations of the hearings. Both organized labor and its opponents invoked a discourse of anti-racketeering in debates over union power, but the McClellan Committee hearings undercut the public's view of the labor movement's legitimacy. The loss of legitimacy marked a critical turning point in the movement's history.

Project fields:
Journalism; Labor History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229491-15

Jacob A. Howland
University of Tulsa (Tulsa, OK 74104-9700)

Plato's Republic: Socrates, Glaucon, and the Drama of the Soul

Summer research and writing on Ancient History, History of Philosophy and Political Theory.

Plato's dialogues frequently situate historical characters in an imagined past, yet invite readers to interpret their action and argument in the light of actual subsequent events. This "historical irony," I believe, can help unlock the meaning of Plato's masterwork, the Republic--a dialogue saturated in the bloody history of the regime of the Thirty, the Spartan-backed oligarchy that governed Athens in the immediate aftermath of the Peloponnesian War. My book project uses historical and literary evidence to cast fresh light on the Republic's human drama. It is a sustained reflection on the implications of what I argue is the tragic fate of Plato's brother Glaucon, Socrates' main interlocutor in the dialogue. The project highlights the timeless moral relevance of the Republic against the backdrop of its poignant immediacy. It promises to clarify the limits of Socrates' philosophical pedagogy and to enrich our understanding of Plato's complex literary art.

Project fields:
Ancient History; History of Philosophy; Political Theory

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229517-15

Tracy Lucht
Iowa State University (Ames, IA 50011-2000)

Finding Their Voices: Midwestern Women Broadcasters, 1922-1992

Summer research and writing on Journalism and Women's History.

This project explores the historical experiences and cultural contributions of women broadcasters in the Midwest, a region that has been overlooked in the scholarly literature on women and the media. Until now, the history of women in radio and television, arguably the most important sites of American civic discourse in the twentieth century, has been told almost entirely from the perspectives of women working in large coastal cities. Yet the Midwest launched several female "firsts" in broadcasting and sprouted a significant group of women known as the radio homemakers. Based on archival sources, oral histories, press clippings, and broadcast recordings, this project investigates the influence of gender ideology and regional culture on the careers and community voices of these professional pioneers. The result will be a book prospectus that promises to appeal to a range of readers, especially those drawn to Midwestern history and the stories of exceptional women.

Project fields:
Journalism; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229520-15

Andrea Lepage
Washington and Lee University (Lexington, VA 24450-2116)

A Digital Resource for the Great Wall of Los Angeles

Summer research and writing on Art History and Criticism, Ethnic Studies and Latino History.

The Great Wall of Los Angeles (1976-1983) is a half-mile-long community mural located in California produced under the direction of the Chicana artist, Judith Baca. The mural depicts the story of the state, and the scenes highlight the role played by Native Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Jewish Americans in creating California's culture. The aim of this project is to build a digital resource that pairs the mural with primary source material to tell an alternative history of California, emphasizing the voices of traditionally underrepresented minorities. This interdisciplinary project develops a digital tool ("Image Map") that facilitates display of images, identifies areas of interest within images, and links those areas to detailed information related to the artwork. The project will result in a fully searchable Web-based platform that promotes user-driven exploration of the intertextual and multilinear qualities of the Great Wall.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Ethnic Studies; Latino History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229525-15

Richard Kernaghan
University of Florida (Gainesville, FL 32611-0001)

Lands, Territory, and Law in Post-war Peru

Summer research and writing on Cultural Anthropology and Latin American Studies.

This project examines how land, territory, and law have transformed during aftermaths of war in a coca-growing region of Peru. Focusing on transportation histories and everyday material practices of transportation operators (transportistas), it documents changes in rural routes, spatial prohibitions, and land ownership. Because of transportistas' close relationships with features of terrains presently in flux, their experiences offer an excellent means for grasping how prior times of violence resonate today as new patterns of rural mobility emerge. The Topographies of Law project critically extends post-conflict literatures, contributes to theories of space and place in the humanities, and enriches the historical record of Peru's internal war. With a NEH Summer Stipend I will undertake two months of fieldwork to order to collect local accounts and visual materials for a manuscript and a digital archive documenting social and topographic legacies of the Huallaga Valley's wartime past.

Project fields:
Cultural Anthropology; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229536-15

Frank Anthony Palmeri
University of Miami (Coral Gables, FL 33146-2503)

Satire and the Public Sphere: Caricature, Fiction, and Politics in England, 1790-1910

Summer research and writing on Art History and Criticism and British Literature.

The degree to which satire can express political criticism and dissent varies under different regimes of legislated and unlegislated (but often internalized) censorship. After a period of intense satiric activity from 1790-1820, British culture saw a gradual diminution of satire until, from about 1845-1885, strong political satire virtually disappeared. After that date, predominantly satiric works re-emerged in distinctive new forms. This study investigates why this forty-year period of quiescence in political satire in both verbal and visual media occurred. I examine changing technologies of print and graphic reproduction, and the kinds of middle-class audience they addressed and helped shape. In this case as in others, both recent and historical, I suggest that the suppression or absence of political satire indicates a society’s inability to tolerate challenges to its orthodoxies.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; British Literature; Interdisciplinary Studies, Other

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229538-15

Daisuke Miyao
University of California, San Diego (La Jolla, CA 92093-0013)

The Influence of Japanese Art, Culture, and Aesthetics on the Birth of Cinema, 1860-1910

Summer research and writing on East Asian Studies and Film History and Criticism.

This is a new book project that examines the connections between Japonisme and the emergence of cinema. By doing so, the primary goal of this project is to clearly describe the complicated power relations among France, the United States, and Japan in the late nineteenth century to early twentieth century. In this sense, this is a perfect project that responds to NEH's Bridging Cultures initiative. I would argue that Japonisme--the influence of the Japanese art, culture and aesthetics on European and American art, roughly between the 1860s and 1910s--also had a significant impact on the emergence of cinema in Europe, the US, and East Asia. The book, tentatively titled Japonisme and the Birth of Cinema, has three parts with six chapters. I seek support from NEH Summer Stipends to conduct research in Japan for the second and the third parts.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
East Asian Studies; Film History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229546-15

Markus Kohl
University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Knoxville, TN 37996-0001)

Kant on Freedom in Theory and Practice

Summer research and writing on Ethics, and History of Philosophy.

My book project examines Immanuel Kant's attempt to defend our freedom against a scientific worldview that sees our behavior as the inevitable result of natural mechanisms. Critics complain that Kant's view is a purely dogmatic reaffirmation of a 'naîve' practical (i.e., moral) self-image that is conclusively refuted by the natural sciences. However, I show that Kant's doctrine has the potential to curb the pretensions of such an exclusively naturalistic worldview. The key to understanding Kant's view is his argument that we must also presuppose our freedom from the theoretical standpoint of natural science: those who seek a rational, objective understanding of nature must view their beliefs as being free from determination by non-rational mechanisms (such as Hume's associative mental "habits"). Kant argues that since the conviction that we are free is implicit in the standpoint of natural science itself, natural science cannot debunk this conviction as a mere illusion.

Project fields:
Epistemology; Ethics; History of Philosophy

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229565-15

Deborah Ann Starr
Cornell University (Ithaca, NY 14853-2801)

The Films of Togo Mizrahi and Egyptian National Identity in the 1930s and 1940s

Summer research and writing on Film History and Criticism and Jewish Studies.

I seek an NEH Summer Stipend to support research on a book examining the contribution of cinema to debates about national identity in 1930s and 40s Egypt. Members of Egypt's ethno-religious minority communities figured prominently on and off-screen during these formative years of the Egyptian film industry. "Agent of Exchange" focuses on the output of Studio Togo Mizrahi, the era's most prolific studio, founded by an Egyptian-born Jew of Italian nationality. Analyzing films produced by Studio Mizrahi, I interpret the narratives and images Egyptians received about being modern, national subjects. These films use masquerade and exchange to present identity as performative and mutable. I argue that, in contrast to emerging exclusionary discourses of national identity, these films project a Levantine cinematic idiom, characterized by an ethics of coexistence and a visual language of inclusion. This project also contributes insights into the growing role of mass media in this period.

Project fields:
Area Studies; Film History and Criticism; Jewish Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2015 – 9/30/2015


FT-229566-15

Leandra Zarnow
University of Houston (Houston, TX 77204-0001)

Bella Abzug and the Promise and Peril of the American Left (1920-1998)

Summer research and writing on Gender Studies, U.S. and Women's History.

This study evaluates the political life of Representative Bella Abzug, who embodied the nation's ingenuity and discontent as it faced tensions brought on by the Vietnam War, globalization, and the contested visions of a more diverse populace. Although Abzug's congressional career was short (1971-76), she helped forward a substantial and undervalued policy reform wave led by New Politics Democrats that effectively made U.S. democracy more open, responsive, and accountable. Abzug's early student activism, political lawyering, and peace strategist work deeply influenced her leadership style and legislative focus in Congress. More than "women's issues," her broad policy program extended the reach of the law in human rights, privacy, urban renewal, environmentalism, consumer protection, foreign affairs, and executive oversight. Reassessing 1970s policy and its roots, study of Abzug reorients focus around Watergate by recasting this period as one not solely of rising conservatism.

Project fields:
Gender Studies; U.S. History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229574-15

Edward Garvey Miller
Dartmouth College (Hanover, NH 03755-1808)

Landscapes of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Vietnam's Ben Tre Province, 1940-1975

Summer research and writing on East Asian History, Military and U.S. History.

This project challenges existing interpretations of insurgency and counterinsurgency warfare during the Vietnam War. It does so by examining the war in the Mekong Delta province of Ben Tre. Instead of focusing solely on the military theories and strategies employed by U.S. commanders in Ben Tre, this project considers American military operations in the province in conjunction with the actions, decisions, and perspectives of various Vietnamese actors (both communists and non-communists). This project also employs an ecological approach to demonstrate the ways in which Ben Tre's diverse landscapes shaped the wartime activities and experiences of both Americans and Vietnamese. This project will incorporate research in Vietnamese archives and libraries in Ho Chi Minh City, as well as field research in Ben Tre.

Project fields:
East Asian History; Military History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229578-15

Jon K Shelton
University of Wisconsin, Green Bay (Green Bay, WI 54311-7003)

Teacher Strikes and the Decline of Labor-Liberalism in the U.S.A., 1968-81

Summer research and writing on History, and Labor and U.S. History.

This project uses case studies of lengthy and controversial strikes by unionized teachers during the late 1960s and 1970s to help explain the broader political shift in the US from a labor-liberalism built on a commitment to state intervention and unionization to a new politics of austerity and neoliberalism by the early 1980s. I show that when teachers -- as representatives of both the labor movement and the state -- went on strike for lengthy periods of time, it forced many Americans to consider two key, unresolved tensions in postwar labor-liberalism: the rights of public sectors to organize and to strike, and the failure of the state to alleviate structural inequalities in housing, education, and other economic opportunities caused by racially discriminatory New Deal policies. This study, therefore, contributes to a growing field of labor, political, and cultural history of the postwar era that explains the rightward shift in American politics.

Project fields:
History, Other; Labor History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229596-15

Jessica Lorraine Delgado
Princeton University (Princeton, NJ 08540-5228)

Laywomen and the Church in Colonial Mexico,1630-1780

Summer research and writing on History of Religion, Latin American and Women's History.

This book explores how laywomen participated in the making of religious culture in colonial Mexico through their engagement with faith rituals, religious authorities, and church institutions. The Church's broadly defined jurisdiction over marriage and sexuality, together with a long tradition of concern about women's spiritual, physical, mental and emotional capacities, led to an expansive body of pastoral, institutional, and juridical ideas and practices aimed specifically at laywomen. Women of diverse life circumstances engaged with and interpreted these ideas and practices as they tried to solve problems, make meaning, and seek protection. Religious authorities found themselves responding to laywomen's engagements and interpretations in ways that subtly altered institutional and sacramental practice. This dialogic relationship was an important aspect of colonial Catholic culture.

Project fields:
History of Religion; Latin American History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229609-15

Elizabeth Reich
Connecticut College (New London, CT 06320-4150)

Hollywood's Invisible Men: Black Soldiers and the Transformation of American Cinema

Summer research and writing on African American Studies, Film History and Criticism and U.S. History.

"Hollywood's Invisible Men" offers the first book-length study of the cinematic black soldier. The book traces the transformation of racial representation and politics in American cinema over the thirty years of the long Civil Rights Movement, focusing on this iconic figure. Following this filmic figure alongside the shifting political imperatives of the Cold War and civil rights struggles, "Hollywood's Invisible Men" argues that the cinematic black soldier became central to the development of a new practice of film spectatorship, one that changed along with the images and meanings of the soldier itself. Bringing together the black soldier films of three decades and film industries, this book project makes three distinct contributions to scholarship in the fields of cinema studies, African American studies, and history: it identifies and analyzes a new cinematic archive; it offers a new history of American cinema; and it proposes a new theory of spectatorship practices.

Project fields:
African American Studies; Film History and Criticism; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229663-15

Shaul Kelner
Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN 37240-0001)

Jewish Americans and the Movement to Free Soviet Jews: Cold War Culture, Identity Politics and Social Movement Mobilization

Summer research and writing on Cultural History, Jewish Studies and Sociology.

At the peak of détente, a global human rights campaign for Soviet Jews engaged Jewish Americans in what was at once a Cold War-era confrontation and a 1970s-era ethnic pride movement. Activists transformed ancient Passover rituals into moments of anti-Soviet protest and co-opted modern tourism to send Jewish Americans behind the Iron Curtain to contact Soviet Jewish dissidents. My book project on the cultural strategies employed by the Soviet Jewry movement advances 1) the sociology of social movements, by analyzing the contradictions that inhere in efforts to treat culture as a means to political ends; 2) the cultural history of the Cold War, by expanding our understanding of the diversity of American Cold War cultures; and 3) the movement's historiography, by breaking with the focus on policy efforts to highlight its cultural work. The stipend would support research at the American Jewish Historical Society, with materials made newly accessible by an NEH Preservation & Access grant.

Project fields:
Cultural History; Jewish Studies; Sociology

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229664-15

Kristine Megan Trego
Bucknell University (Lewisburg, PA 17837-2005)

The Plainware Pottery and Utilitarian Items from the Tektas Burnu Classical Greek Shipwreck

Summer research and writing on Ancient History, Archaeology and Classics.

This project analyzes and prepares for publication the corpus of crew materials on board the Classical Greek merchant ship that wrecked at Tektas Burnu, Turkey in the late fifth century B.C.E. The corpus includes cooking pots, dining and drinking vessels, fishing equipment, and gaming pieces. In addition to providing evidence on the size of the crew and possible ports of call, the study of these artifacts and their archaeological context on the seabed sheds light on shipboard life and the adaptation of social customs for life at sea. This stipend will support my travel and summer residency in Bodrum, Turkey as I work in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology to measure, photograph, sample, and record some seventy artifacts that are housed and protected at the museum. These artifacts are the last objects to be studied and included in the chapters on plainware pottery and utilitarian objects which I am authoring for the final publication of theTektas Burnu shipwreck excavation.

Project fields:
Ancient History; Archaeology; Classics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229665-15

Zelideth Maria Rivas
Marshall University Research Corporation (Huntington, WV 25701-2218)

Competing Nationalisms of the Japanese Brazilian Diasporic Community

Summer research and writing on East Asian and Latin American Literature and Immigration History.

From the streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil to Hamamatsu, Japan, a large diasporic population of Japanese Brazilians is ever present in media, politics, and the economy as symbols of kinship and citizenship with singular national identities. And yet, these identities move beyond dualistic constructions of Japanese or Brazilian. As an NEH Summer Stipend Fellow, I will investigate these claims in my book, Caught In-Between: Competing Nationalisms of Japanese in Brazil, while completing the final research needed in Japan during the Summer 2015. Here, I examine this population through the literary and identitarian concepts of representation, memory, victimization, adaptation, and freedom. This project contributes to the NEH's Bridging Cultures initiative by examining migratory flows of Japanese to Brazil and Japanese Brazilians to Japan, expanding upon Americans' understanding of nationalism, citizenship, and race specifically in Japan and Brazil, but also in today's globalized society.

Project fields:
East Asian Literature; Immigration History; Latin American Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229688-15

Edward Cohn
Trustees of Grinnell College (Grinnell, IA 50112-2227)

Policing Practices and the KGB's Struggle with Dissent in the Baltic States, 1953-1991

Summer research and writing on Russian History.

From Joseph Stalin's 1953 death to the USSR's 1991 collapse, the KGB subjected hundreds of thousands of minor political offenders to a tactic called profilaktika (prophylaxis), "inviting" them to the KGB's offices for a "chat," intimidating them into confessing, and releasing them when they promised to reform. My project is a book-length study of profilaktika in the USSR's Baltic republics, where opposition to Soviet Communism was strongest. I argue that profilaktika arose in the 1950s as a utopian effort to eliminate the root causes of crime but evolved into a more subtle effort to manage dissent, seeking to limit the influence of discontented citizens via a tactic resembling the US theory of "broken windows policing." My work analyzes how the KGB and its victims defined anti-Soviet activity, highlighting the ways that 20th-century surveillance states sought to prevent crime by collecting information on their citizens, who were forced to adapt to an intrusive and ever-vigilant state.

Project fields:
Russian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229712-15

Elena Conis
Emory University (Atlanta, GA 30322-1018)

The DDT Myths: American Health and Environmentalism Since the Second World War

Summer research and writing on Cultural and U.S. History, and History of Science.

The DDT Myths unearths lost histories of the chemical pesticide DDT and examines the broader cultural, social, and political functions that often-told stories about DDT have served over time. Prevailing DDT narratives persist because they reaffirm parallel narratives about post-war Americans' attitudes toward science and technology, faith in technocracy, environmental turn, and global altruism. But they also hide the fact that DDT's risks and benefits have always been negotiated and interpreted within specific intellectual and cultural frameworks. This project constructs a new narrative of DDT--analyzing DDT's history from its 1940s introduction to the American market to its position at the center of a debate about global health and Western altruism in the 2000s--in order to illuminate the dialectical relationship between health and environmentalism and show why and how a long-banned chemical persists in holding such potent symbolic value in American history.

Project fields:
Cultural History; History of Science; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229716-15

Eugenio Claudio Di Stefano
University of Nebraska, Omaha (Omaha, NE 68182-0001)

Latin American Culture and Theory in the Postdictatorial Era

Summer research and writing on Latin American Literature and Studies and Literary Criticism.

In my book project, The Vanishing Frame: Latin American Culture and Theory in the Postdictatorial Era, I offer a timely intervention on Latin American literary studies by arguing for a reevaluation of aesthetic autonomy in contemporary Latin American literature (1978-present). In particular, I survey literature and theory centering on Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, countries that suffered under lengthy dictatorships in the 1970s and 1980s. In the aftermath of authoritarian rule, Latin American literary studies shifted its focus from aesthetic autonomy toward theorizing the reader's experience when confronted with representations of state-sponsored terror. The Vanishing Frame is the first book to argue for a reconsideration of aesthetic autonomy within the context of postdictatorial literature.

Project fields:
Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies; Literary Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2015 – 8/31/2015


FT-229725-15

Meegan Kennedy Hanson
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)

The Microscope and the Limits of Wonder in Victorian Science

Summer research and writing on British Literature, History and Philosophy of Science, Technology and Medicine.

In Summer 2015 I plan to revise two of six chapters of my book manuscript, which explores Victorians' romance with the microscope: how writers use the language of wonder and the sublime to describe the eye and its technological analogue, the microscope. This visionary discourse, common in natural theology and natural history, also marks professional medical and scientific treatises, even as they warn that vision is inherently flawed. Victorians redirect the language of wonder from religious to secular use, celebrating the microscope's role in science and medicine, education, empire, even mass media; they also condemn it as unreliable, addictive, and sensational. The microscope uniquely concentrates a sublime promise of extraordinary access to other worlds and a harsh reminder of the irreducible individuality and boundedness of the observer's vision. If "a man's reach should exceed his grasp," the microscope provides a site from which Victorians try the limits of the subject.

Project fields:
British Literature; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2015 – 7/31/2015


FT-229733-15

Catriona MacLeod
University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205)

Cutouts, Collages, and Inkblot Poems in German Romanticism

Summer research and writing on Art History and Criticism, German Literature and Interdisciplinary Studies.

Romantic authors and visual artists cut, glue, stain, and recycle paper. They generate papercuts, collages, and inkblot poems in profusion, and combine these in innovative hybrid forms such as the picture books of fairy tale author Hans Christian Andersen. My book project studies the role of fragmentary, shadowy, and ephemeral scraps, which have until now been neglected by comparison with philosophical discussions of the fragment during the first half of the nineteenth century in Germany. I investigate related works such as the paper cutouts of Adele Schopenhauer, Luise Duttenhofer, Hans Christian Andersen, and Philipp Otto Runge; the collage practice and theory of Clemens Brentano; and the inkblot poetry of Justinus Kerner, considered a forerunner of the modern Rorschach test. These works foreshadow, I argue, avant-garde art such as Picasso's collages and Matisse's papercuts, and contemporary, room-size, silhouette installations by US artist Kara Walker.