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218 matches

Program: Summer Stipends*
Date range: 2016-2018
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FT-259640-18

Lauren Meeker
SUNY Research Foundation, College at New Paltz (New Paltz, NY 12561-2407)

Moral Responsibility, Gender, and Social Change in Lineage Ritual in Northern Vietnam

Ethnographic research and completion of a paper on the adaptations to modern social changes in the ritual practices of North Vietnamese rural villages.

This project is an ethnographic study of the gendered dimensions of moral responsibility in northern rural Vietnam, with a focus on lineage ritual. The research examines how village women, who are structural outsiders in their lineages, negotiate what are often overlapping and conflicting moral positions in order to establish themselves as moral persons in the community. In particular, the study considers how this process is affected by changing cultural values and customs. More generally, the study demonstrates how individuals construct moral and social personhood in concert with broader authoritative discourses in times of rapid societal change. It also highlights the diverse ways that local communities address a core humanistic problem: how individuals, each embodying a singular way-of-being in the world, come to live together in a moral community.

Project fields:
Cultural Anthropology

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259641-18

Waitman Wade Beorn, PhD
University of Virginia (Charlottesville, VA 22903-4833)

Between the Wires: The Janowska Camp and the Holocaust in Lviv

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on the Janowska camp in Poland during World War II.

This project seeks support to finish research and begin writing a manuscript on the Janowska camp in Lviv, Ukraine. This concentration camp has received little scholarly study despite the fact that the Nazis murdered at least 80,000 Jews in there. Relying on extensive and varied sources including maps, photographs, artwork, perpetrator and survivor testimony, site surveys, and archival documents, I am writing the first comprehensive history of this important place which served as a “hybrid” camp, functioning as a concentration camp, a transit camp to the extermination camp of Belzec, and a dedicated killing site in its own right. In addition, I am applying an interdisciplinary approach to the project that recognizes spatial aspects of the camp’s history that enrich our understanding of it at the micro, local, and regional scale. This includes the microspaces of the camp and its role as the hub of a network of perpetrators in the region.

Project fields:
European History; History, Other; Jewish Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2019 – 8/31/2019


FT-259642-18

Martine Jean
University of South Carolina, Columbia (Columbia, SC 29208-0001)

Routine Imprisonment, Race, and Citizenship in 19th Century Brazil, 1830–1890

A book length study on the development of prisons in Brazil between 1830 and 1890.

My monograph, "Routine Imprisonment, Race, and Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century Brazil, 1830-1890," investigates the birth of the prison in Brazil with a focus on Rio de Janeiro’s Casa de Correção, the city’s penitentiary, and the Casa de Detenção, a remand prison, from 1830 to 1890. This era spans the post-independence period, the termination of the slave trade in 1850, and the protracted emancipation process that culminated in the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the fall of the Empire (1822-1889). The research highlights the seeming paradox that Brazil’s construction of the Casa de Correção represents in the global history of the penitentiary which is associated with industrializing societies and free wage labor whereas slavery was the basis of the Brazilian economy until 1888.

Project fields:
History, Other; Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259751-18

Denise Eileen McCoskey
Miami University, Oxford (Oxford, OH 45056-1602)

Eugenics and Classical Scholarship in Early 20th-Century America

Research and writing of a scholarly article about the role of eugenics in American classical scholarship prior to World War II.

In this project, I propose to carry out a critical study of the role of eugenic theories in early twentieth-century American classical scholarship. Building on research I conducted for an earlier project, my hypothesis is that the reliance on eugenics was widespread in classical scholarship during the first half of the twentieth century, and I would like to use the NEH Summer Stipend to document and evaluate classicists’ employment of such theories in their interpretations of ancient history, while also weighing the legacy such scholarship continues to have in the field of classics today. The penchant for using Greek and Roman history as a mirror for American life is as old as America itself, and I believe interrogation of the intersections of classical scholarship and eugenics can also provide insight into some of the ways contemporary American debates about race and eugenics were, in turn, bolstered by these interpretations of the ancient world.

Project fields:
Classical History; Classics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259759-18

Erin Claire Cage
University of South Alabama (Mobile, AL 36688-3053)

The Science of Proof: Forensic Medicine in Nineteenth-Century France

Research for a book-length study on the relationship between forensic science and law in 19th-century France.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
European History; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine; History, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259760-18

Virginia Blanton
University of Missouri, Kansas City (Kansas City, MO 64110-2446)

Shaping Monastic Devotional Culture in 14th-Century England

Research for a book-length study of a work by 14th-century chronicler, John of Tynemouth, on the lives of saints in medieval England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.

I seek funding to support the writing of a formative section of a book project, titled Shaping Monastic Devotional Culture in England. This monograph offers the first sustained investigation of a neglected collection of 156 saints’ lives, some of which constitute the only historical evidence of religious women during the Christian conversion of England. John of Tynemouth's legendary became the definitive register of English holiness, one that was read and recopied from c. 1350-1550. Shaping Monastic Devotional Culture in England investigates the scope of John’s legendary, documents the sources for the saints' lives, examines the collective narrative about localized sanctity, and illustrates the centrality of this register in English monastic reading.

Project fields:
Cultural History; History of Religion; Medieval Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259830-18

Sean Michael Farrell
Northern Illinois University (DeKalb, IL 60115-2828)

The Trillick Railway Outrage: Making Sectarianism in Victorian Ireland

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on religious conflict in 19th century Ireland.

This book examines an 1854 assassination attempt in northwestern Ireland. One of the world’s first “train wreckings,” Trillick received widespread newspaper coverage. Commentators assumed this was a sectarian crime, and seven Catholic railway workers were arrested soon after the crash. Despite their best efforts, officials determined there was insufficient evidence to go to trial and released the men, who quickly left the region, disappearing into Ireland’s global diaspora. The first book-length study of this dramatic event, my work highlights the constructed nature of Catholic-Protestant division in nineteenth-century Ireland. I do this by focusing on the ways that Trillick impacted four individuals linked to the crash. This microhistorical approach is designed to detail the ways that sectarian narratives conceal the complexity of human experience. This Irish story has obvious contemporary relevance, given the prevalence of religious violence in divided societies around the world.

Project fields:
Cultural History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2018 – 9/30/2018


FT-259832-18

Rebecca Scharbach Wollenberg
Unknown institution

Beyond the Book: Reimagining the Early Reception History of the Bible

Completion of a book on the use of the Hebrew Bible in Judaism during late antiquity and the early middle ages.

The study of early Jewish religious reading proposed here documents practices in which a cultural elite that is widely acknowledged to sit at the heart of the biblical project seldom opened a Bible and even great religious thinkers maintained an indistinct notion of the contents of the biblical text. This study argues, moreover, that many early rabbinic authorities found that their central canonical text inspired doubts very similar to those expressed by modern skeptics—a form of intellectual dissonance that was tolerable to these late antique thinkers because many early rabbinic authorities cultivated a form of scriptural religiosity that defused doubts regarding the biblical text by embracing the idea of the Bible while simultaneously neglecting the book itself.

Project fields:
History of Religion; Jewish Studies; Religion, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2018 – 6/30/2018


FT-259833-18

Elizabeth Rebecca Wright
University of Georgia (Athens, GA 30602-0001)

Theater and the Slave Trade in 15th- and 16th-Century Spain and Portugal

Research for a book-length study of relationships between the Atlantic Slave Trade and the emergence of professional theater in early modern Spain and Portugal.

“Stages of Servitude in Early Modern Iberia” examines an enduring question about the Atlantic slave trade that first comes into view in Portugal and Spain in the late fifteenth century: why did early awareness of its cruelty and illegality not foment abolitionism? I ask how the thriving theater cultures of Spain and Portugal contributed to the naturalization of demeaning images of sub-Saharan Africans and the institutionalization of the Atlantic slave trade. Yet my book also considers a paradox: black Africans and Afro-descendant Iberians found rare chances for artistic validation and economic advancement in the theater business, working as musicians, actors, stagehands, and writers. My study is organized in five chapters (stages), understood in spatial-temporal terms as the cultural contexts where slave-holding was displayed. The completed book will enhance our understanding of Renaissance theater and empire building.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Renaissance History; Renaissance Studies; Theater History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2018 – 6/30/2018


FT-259846-18

Rachel Gabara
University of Georgia (Athens, GA 30602-0001)

Realism and African Documentary Film, 1905 to the Present

Research and writing leading to publication of a book-length study of documentary films in sub-Saharan Africa, from 1905 to the present.

In my current book project, “Reclaiming Realism: From Documentary Film in Africa to African Documentary Film,” I analyze postcolonial African documentary film in its aesthetic, social, and historical contexts. For over half a century, French colonial documentary claimed to capture the truth about Africa and Africans. In the postcolonial era, African filmmakers have reclaimed the cinema and their cinematic image by experimenting with documentary content, voice, and style. I argue that documentary was of vital importance to French colonialism as well as to a postcolonial reframing of African identities and modes of filmic discourse. My study of documentary, moreover, demonstrates how the inclusion of African films enriches our understanding of global cinema. The NEH Summer Stipend will support a final trip to Paris, France, to update the research for the postcolonial portion of my manuscript.

Project fields:
African Studies; Film History and Criticism; French Language

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259849-18

Patrick M. Erben
University of West Georgia (Carrollton, GA 30118-0001)

German Pietism and American Literature of the Late 18th and 19th Centuries

Research leading to an article and book on the influence of German Pietism on late 18th- and 19th-century American literature.

My current book project investigates the profound yet neglected role of German Pietism in the development of English-language American literature. A 17th and 18th century religious reform movement, Pietism emphasized a personal and emotional relationship between individuals and the Christian redeemer. The transatlantic spread of Pietism by German immigrants such as the Moravians shaped the occupation with sensibility, feeling, and inwardness in the movement from Enlightenment to Romanticism. My project thus endeavors a major scholarly reassessment of canonical and non-canonical authors of late 18th and 19th-century American literature and upends longstanding origin narratives grounded in what Sacvan Bercovitch called The Puritan Origins of the American Self (1975). During the funding period, I would research and write an article titled “The Cult of Zinzendorf in 19th-Century American Literature and Culture,” examining the American popularity of the founder of the Moravian Church.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Literature; History of Religion; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259893-18

Melinda Latour O'Brien
Tufts University (Medford, MA 02155-5818)

Moral Song in Late Renaissance France, 1550-1650

Preparation for publication of a book-length study of moral songs and ethics during the Wars of Religion in late sixteenth-century France.

The Voice of Virtue offers the first book-length study of moral song, a fascinating domain of musical activity that gained traction during the Wars of Religion in late sixteenth-century France. Setting pithy and sometimes profound morsels of vernacular wisdom to simple tunes or elaborate polyphonic compositions, moral song offered a multi-sensory engagement with contemporary ethical thought. Whereas Medieval ethics developed within the boundaries of professional philosophy, the Renaissance saw an explosion of informal expressions of moral philosophy created by and for non-specialists. This will be the first book to illuminate song as one such expression of informal ethics, animating diverse moral principles drawn from ancient sources for a broad community of amateur musicians. Positioned at a rich intersection between cultural and intellectual history, The Voice of Virtue stands to make a significant contribution to music scholarship, ethics, and the reparative turn in the humanities.

Project fields:
Ethics; French Literature; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259859-18

Kevin John Adams
Kent State University (Kent, OH 44242-0001)

Civil Rights and Anti-Chinese Violence in Seattle During the 1880s

Work on a book-length examination of anti-Chinese violence in late-nineteenth-century Seattle and its implications for post-Reconstruction federal civil rights policy.

“American Pogrom: Anti-Chinese Violence and the Challenges of the Long Reconstruction” uses the assertive federal response to 1880’s mob violence against Chinese in the Pacific Northwest to understand federal power after Reconstruction. Two discrete questions guide my inquiry: what tools did the federal government have at its disposal to protect the civil rights of marginalized groups and how effectively did it do so? Relying on both the architecture of civil rights protections enshrined during Reconstruction and the U.S. Army, which effectively projected federal power, the Cleveland administration illustrated the federal government’s continuing ability to protect civil rights, even after Reconstruction, but also the structural impediments to complete success in that endeavor. In the end, fervid support for Chinese exclusion by locals trumped the federal prerogative, but events there set a precedent for civil rights enforcement that would later be expanded upon in the 1950s and 60s.

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259870-18

Julia Quinn Bryan-Wilson
University of California, Berkeley (Berkeley, CA 94704-5940)

The Works of American Sculptor Louise Nevelson (1899–1988)

Preparation of a book about the American sculptor Louise Nevelson (1899-1988).

Louise Nevelson’s Modernisms will be the first scholarly monograph to closely examine the monochromatic sculptures of a well-known but little studied figure within 20th-century American art. Though Nevelson frequently showed alongside Abstract Expressionist artists in her lifetime (1899-1988), I claim that her scavenged wood wall-based grids, which hover between painting and sculpture, continue to resist easy categorization. The book asserts that Nevelson's work challenges and complicates what modernism looks like, and argues that her color choices (in particular her stated allegiance to blackness) as well as her formal interest in carpentry propose political identifications, ones that offer novel ways of conceiving how sculpture constructs multiple selves in relation to race and gender. I define her modernisms as multiple, related to her art’s aesthetic of embellishment and to her understanding of herself as an atypical modern woman.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Gender Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259422-18

Olivia Alton Weisser, PhD
University of Massachusetts, Boston (Boston, MA 02125-3300)

A Cultural History of Venereal Disease and its Treatment in Early Modern England

Research for a book-length history of venereal disease in 18th-century England.

I aim to write a lively, accessible history of venereal disease at the turn of the eighteenth century. The project takes an innovative approach by situating the disease within the texture of pre-modern London life. Rather than focus on institutional records or writing by elite men, the book grounds disease in the gardens, streets, and taverns where patients and healers discussed the disease, swapped remedies, and negotiated cures. In focusing on the words and lives of sufferers, as well as a particularly vocal group of clap-curers who lived and worked in the crowded streets of London, the book is intended to appeal to a broad audience. I use accessible prose and human stories, but without sacrificing the rigor of thoughtful scholarship. More broadly, the project aims to create an interdisciplinary model for studying the history of disease by drawing on the methods of cultural history, as well as the history of the book, gender history, and literary studies.

Project fields:
British History; Gender Studies; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2019 – 8/31/2019


FT-259448-18

Margaret Elizabeth Clinton
Middlebury College (Middlebury, VT 05753-6004)

Power and Petroleum in China and the Western Pacific, 1870-Present

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on the history of petroleum in China and the Western Pacific from 1870.

China’s petroleum history has yet to be written, despite its protracted duration and vast geographical reach. China and the Western Pacific region stretching from Russia’s Far East and Japan through Singapore, the Malacca Straits, and Indonesia, have been no less vital to the global history of oil than the better-known entanglements of Euro-America and the Middle East. My book-length environmental history project analyzes China’s long participation in shifting global networks of oil production alongside the changing meanings of oil consumption in daily life. A Summer Stipend will allow me to research and write the book’s third chapter, addressing the years 1949-1976. This chapter focuses on the everyday life of oil production under Maoism, particularly as lived and debated in the Daqing oil fields discovered in the northeastern region of Manchuria in 1959, and what this now-eclipsed period tells us about the possibilities and limits of fossil fuel-based energy sovereignty.

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259722-18

Mitra J. Sharafi
University of Wisconsin, Madison (Madison, WI 53715-1218)

Fear of the False: Forensic Science in Colonial India, 1856–1947

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on the history of forensic science in colonial India, covering 1856-1947.

Between 1856 and 1947, a web of institutions tailored to the scientific detection of crime in South Asia was created. India’s new experts in toxicology, blood stains, handwriting analysis, and explosives were supposed to cut through the confusion produced by the perjury and forgery of “mendacious natives” to extract objective scientific truth in the service of a neutral vision of justice. In practice, however, the use of the new forensic science in the courtroom invited increasingly complicated and conflicting answers to the questions, "what is truth?" and "what is justice?" This study, which will be the first book-length history of forensic science in colonial India, reveals that a system initially structured along fault lines of racial mistrust expanded into a site for competing conceptions of truth and justice among legal, scientific, and medical professionals, both South Asian and European.

Project fields:
History of Science; Legal History; South Asian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259602-18

Kathleen Elizabeth Newman
University of Iowa (Iowa City, IA 52242-1320)

Argentine Early Sound Film (1933–1935)

Research and writing leading to publication of a book about Argentinian film (1910-1935).

"Argentine Early Sound Film (1933-1935)" is part of the book project, Transnational Modernity: Argentine Cinema and Society, 1910-1935, a study of the relation between silent and early sound film, early feminist movements, and democratization in Argentina. The book examines the competitive roles of (a) Argentine fiction feature films and newsreels and (b) imported, international cinema, mainly from the United States, in shaping a new political imaginary in Argentina in the early twentieth century, first, from the centenary of national independence in 1910 through 1930, the year of the nation's first military coup of the twentieth century, and, second, the dictatorship (1930-1932) and its aftermath (1932-1935). The central research question of this historical and theoretical book project concerns the role of cinema in social transformations of modernity in Argentina, which included a transformation of gender roles and a redefinition of citizenship.

Project fields:
Film History and Criticism; Latin American Studies; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259659-18

Cassio Ferreira de Oliveira
Portland State University (Portland, OR 97207-0751)

Collective and Individual Identity Formation in the Soviet Picaresque Novel, 1921-1938

Research and writing leading to a book on the genre of the picaresque novel under the Soviet regime in the years 1921-1938.

Archival research and completion of book chapter on Soviet picaresque narratives. In my book manuscript, I analyze the role of the picaresque as a locus of individual resistance, ambivalence, and apparent reconciliation vis-à-vis the Soviet regime. The picaresque narrates the adventures of a character in the margins of society and his attempts at social ascension and rehabilitation across the territory of a rapidly changing USSR. As a mode of writing and of literary representation of the Soviet Union’s breakneck development, the picaresque suited writers as a means to come to terms with disparate aspects of life in communism. Much as the classical picaresque at once depicted and undermined the Spanish colonial enterprise in the Age of Discoveries, the Soviet picaresque narratives participated in an empire-building project while questioning the basic tenets of the communist experiment.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Comparative Literature; Media Studies; Slavic Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259620-18

Jose Luis Bermudez
Texas A & M University, College Station (College Station, TX 77843-0001)

The Power of Frames: Rethinking Models of Rational Decision-Making

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on philosophical models of decision-making.

Should values and decisions be influenced by how we frame the outcomes we confront and the choices we have to make? The orthodox view (as found, for example, in psychology and behavioral economics) is that any such influence is fundamentally irrational. The goal of this project is a book, The Power of Frames (under contract to Cambridge University Press) in which I will argue against this orthodox view. Problems with standard ways of thinking about framing emerge when we apply insights from philosophy and related areas of the humanities. The book explores a range of cases illustrating how frame-sensitivity is an integral part of rational decision-making. I draw on examples from Greek and Shakespearean tragedy, ethical dilemmas, group identification, social coordination, and practical psychological problems such as exercising self-control in the face of temptation.

Project fields:
Philosophy, General; Psychology

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259563-18

Emily Callaci
University of Wisconsin, Madison (Madison, WI 53715-1218)

Planning the African Family in the 1960s and 1970s

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on family planning in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s.

The history of contraception, population control and family planning is a story of global unevenness. Historians have characterized this global history as a story of extremes: of reproductive freedom, upward mobility and empowerment in some parts of the world, and of racism, vulnerability, population control or coercive sterilization in others. Yet neither narrative of feminist liberation nor of coercive population control captures the history of Africa’s encounter with the global family planning movement. My book, Planning the African Family, tells the story of how African doctors, nurses, social workers, politicians, and patients in the 1960s and 1970s used the resources of family planning in creative and often unintended ways, improvising in the context of scarcity to deliver health and to build health systems.

Project fields:
African History; Gender Studies; History of Science

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259564-18

Nicole Etcheson
Ball State University (Muncie, IN 47306-1022)

Suffrage in the Post-Civil War United States

A book on disputes over suffrage for women, African Americans, and ex-Confederates in the post-Civil War era.

Before the Civil War, there was no right to vote. Voting was a privilege with each state deciding whether to set racial, gender, education, property, or naturalization requirements for its electorate. The Civil War destabilized this norm. Native-born white men lost the vote in some states because of service or aid to the Confederacy. African American men claimed suffrage based on loyalty, military service, and the need to protect their newly acquired freedom. Woman suffrage advocates hoped to advance their rights by exploiting the re-opened debate over suffrage. In ways previously unrecognized, these movements intersected and played off each other even as the federal government supplanted the states as arbiter of qualifications for what was increasingly defined not as a "privilege" but a "right." Moreover the effects of these Civil War suffrage disputes would linger well into the twentieth century, having ramifications for African American voting rights and women's rights.

Project fields:
U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259565-18

Stephen Hong Sohn
University of California, Riverside (Riverside, CA 92521-0001)

The Korean War (1950–53) in Poetry by Korean Americans

Research leading to an article and book on the impact of the Korean War on the literature of Korean-American poets such as Myung Mi Kim, Don Mee Choi, and Sun Young Shin.

Though publications by American writers of Korean descent now number easily in the hundreds, no monograph exists that considers this extensive and critical body of work. My aim is to address this oversight at least in part by engaging in the production of a chapter length work over the NEH Summer Stipend period. The chapter will explore discourses of technology and militarism, as they arise in Korean American war poetry, especially focusing on the work of Myung Mi Kim and how her collections—including Under Flag, The Bounty, Dura, and Commons—can be placed in comparison to others such as Don Mee Choi’s Hardly War and Sun Yung Shin’s Rough, and Savage. Juxtaposing these poetry collections reveals an intriguing connection between the Korean civilian and American serviceman in the terrain of war: the desire to find legibility and recognition beyond the weapons, bombs, and gunfire that mark their lives as expendable.

Project fields:
American Literature; Military History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259568-18

Elizabeth Bond
Ohio State University (Columbus, OH 43210-1132)

Experiencing the Enlightenment: an Eighteenth-Century Information Network

Preparation for publication of a book-length study of the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and French newspapers from 1770 to 1791.

My book project, 'Experiencing the Enlightenment: an Eighteenth-Century Information Network,' offers new insight into the cardinal question in my field: the link between the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. Drawing upon letters to the editor written by men and women throughout France between 1770 and 1791, I explore how thousands of readers consumed and interpreted the intellectual movements of their day. Representing a wide range of readers, such letters articulated solutions to everyday problems, honing habits of mind focused on knowing the world and changing society. Bringing previously unexamined sources and digital humanities approaches to bear on an enduring question, my work renders a more nuanced understanding of popular cultural responses to intellectual movements.

Project fields:
Cultural History; European History; Intellectual History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259489-18

Emily Suzanne Clark
Gonzaga University (Spokane, WA 99258-1774)

Jesuit Missions and Native Communities in the Northwest, 1840–1940

Research and writing of a chapter in a history of Jesuit missions to Native Americans in the American Northwest and Alaska, 1840-1940.

Using the rich and understudied archive of the Jesuits of the Oregon Province, this book project focuses on the interactions between Jesuit priests and Native communities in the Northwest region of the United States. While many scholars of American religion have studied Christian missions to Native communities in early America and the eastern states, this project shifts the focus westward and later in American history. It also expands our understanding of conversion and colonialism. Even as the Jesuit priests emphasized their dedication to serving native communities, their actions aided the expansion of the U. S. nation-state through processes of Christianizing and "civilizing." Thus, the book continues a turn in the scholarship on missions and Native Christians to think of conversion as a complicated process with no universal definition. The native communities who hosted them accepted, resisted, and adapted the Catholicism and culture brought by the Jesuits.

Project fields:
History of Religion; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259499-18

Cecile Whiting
Regents of the University of California (Irvine, CA 92697-7600)

Global War and the New American Landscape, 1939–48

Research and preparation of a book on U.S. landscape painting during and after World War II.

During World War II, photographs and newsreels documenting death and destruction in theaters of war around the world prompted a change in painted representations of landscape in the United States. As a well-established genre in American art, landscape painting had a long tradition of celebrating the local, both bucolic settings and topographical wonders. The wider geographic scope of World War II challenged the regional focus of American landscape painting, especially as it had been practiced in the 1930s. My book examines the ways in which artists struggled to acknowledge an environment now understood to be global and interconnected, and also felt compelled to address the sheer scale of carnage caused by the war. Together these artists recast the terms of landscape painting, broadening its scope from the local to the international, and from the pastoral to the anti-pastoral.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259726-18

Margarete Myers Feinstein
Loyola Marymount University (Los Angeles, CA 90045-2650)

Holocaust Survivors and Retribution at the End of World War II

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on Jewish revenge after the Holocaust.

This book chapter on Jewish revenge after the Holocaust shines a new light on the myth of Jewish passivity in response to Nazi persecution. It challenges popular perceptions of Holocaust survivors as spontaneous paragons of reconciliation and tolerance, suggesting instead that attitudes of reconciliation came later and with effort. By acknowledging the role of revenge in survivors' transition to post-genocide life, we can gain insights into their gendered responses to trauma and into the processes by which they sought to reclaim control over their lives. The influence of religious traditions and Zionist politics on survivors' decisions about revenge acts is also explored. This study suggests that Jewish responses may not have been so very different from that of other victims of Nazism. Scholars of other genocides can find it useful for comparison to teach us more about what promotes reconciliation and what fosters the desire for vengeance.

Project fields:
European History; Jewish Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259697-18

Sarah A. Curtis
San Francisco State University Foundation Inc. (San Francisco, CA 94132-1722)

The Culture of Childhood in Nineteenth-Century France

Research for a book-length study on the history and culture of childhood in 19th-century France.

This book-length project examines the culture of childhood in France from approximately 1850 until the eve of World War I. In mid- to late-19th-century France, changing attitudes towards children as well as the rise of consumer culture both reflected and shaped a new focus on children as economic actors, social beings, and cultural icons. Through an examination of children's literature, material objects, publicity materials, memoirs, and contemporary criticism, this project will show how a new culture of childhood developed in a society undergoing social, economic, and demographic transformation, political democratization, imperial expansion, and Catholic-anticlerical conflict. It argues that both consumerism and anxiety about the future of the nation shaped children’s cultural experiences as well as adult expectations for them during a period when children were critical to the future of the French nation and republic.

Project fields:
Cultural History; European History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259723-18

Victoria Fortuna
Reed College (Portland, OR 97202-8199)

Concert Dance, Race, and Identity in Argentina

Research leading to a book-length study on race and modern dance in Argentina since during the 20th century.

This project examines the role that concert dance forms—classical ballet, modern dance, and contemporary dance—historically have played in the construction and/or critique of Argentine racial exceptionalism. Racial exceptionalism names the pervasive academic and public discourses that have situated Argentina as exceptionally white and European among Latin American nations. Because of its relationship to Euro-American culture, concert dance offers a privileged site for examining the construction of Argentine whiteness. Argentina’s Centennial (1910) and Bicentennial (2010) celebrations, both critical crossroads in the imagination of national identity, bracket this study. My project joins a growing body of scholarship that centers racial politics in Argentina. Within the dance studies field, it aims to bring Argentine concert dance into dialogue with scholarship that documents how dance articulates histories of race and nation.

Project fields:
Dance History and Criticism; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
10/1/2018 – 11/30/2018


FT-259686-18

Jason H Pearl
Florida International University (Miami, FL 33199-2516)

Balloon Flight and British Literature of the 18th and 19th Centuries

Research and writing for a book on the emerging technology of ballooning in 18th-century England and its impact on literature and the techniques of omniscient narration.

This book project shows how the advent of flight enabled nothing less than new ways of seeing the world. The first hot air balloons, beginning in 1783, gave the bird’s-eye view to human eyes, and writers in various genres, factual and fictional, adopted the perspective of an observer in a balloon basket. These writers described natural and human-built environments from extraordinary angles and distances, portraying the geographies of Britain and beyond at unprecedented scales. They thus put into practice, more literally than ever before, scientific methods such as detached observation and far-reaching empirical induction, as well as the literary technique of omniscient narration.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
British Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259718-18

Sascha Thyme Scott
Syracuse University (Syracuse, NY 13244-0001)

Interpreting Early 20th-Century Paintings by Pueblo Artists of the American Southwest

Research and preparation of a book on paintings by 20th-century Pueblo artists of the southwestern United States.

My book explores how early 20th-century Pueblo painters navigated the simultaneously generative and perilous confluence of modernity and tradition. I build on while challenging scholarship on American Indian art produced in colonial contexts, which is largely focused on the support and interventions of white patrons and on market forces. Instead, my book foregrounds individual Pueblo artists, highlighting their “aesthetic agency,” or how they creatively adopted, resisted, confronted, transformed, and subverted colonial political, economic, and cultural forces. Each chapter is focused on one Pueblo artist, seeking to understand the aesthetics and politics at play in his or her art. The method for doing so is through careful archival research, through dialogue with the artists’ home communities, and by attending to a rich body of theoretical work produced by indigenous thinkers. As such, the book aims to provide a productive model for writing about transcultural indigenous arts.

Project fields:
History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts; Native American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259619-18

Zachary Brittsan
Texas Tech University (Lubbock, TX 79409)

Murder and Justice in Mexico’s Age of Conflict, 1847-1871

Research leading to a book-length study criminal courts in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, 1847-1871.

By examining hundreds of wrongful death investigations and death sentence appeals in nineteenth-century Mexico, Trying Modernity captures how alleged criminals drew from their life experiences, cultural foundations, and legal understandings to defend themselves in the courtroom. Such testimonies give voice to the voiceless and tell us something about how everyday members of civil society understood and asserted their rights. Plotting the trajectory of individual voices across gender, racial, and social lines also reveals the meaning behind the contentious language deployed by judges, investigators, and witnesses. The quiet battle of words in the courtroom, too often overshadowed by the overt violence of military uprisings and civil war playing out at the same time, ultimately shaped a cultural consensus in 1871 that would be foundational for both the authoritarian peace of the Porfirio Díaz dictatorship and notions of citizenship and criminality that extend into the present.

Project fields:
Cultural History; Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259487-18

Benjamin Lee White
Clemson University (Clemson, SC 29634-0001)

The Authorship of the Pauline Epistles: The Promise and Limitations of Computational Methods

Research and preparation of two scholarly articles on the forensic stylometry and authorship of the Epistles of Saint Paul.

This project explores the limitations of forensic stylometry – the detection of an author’s literary fingerprint in the service of exposing forgery. The development of tests, tools, and protocols within computational stylistics has increased confidence in conclusions about authorship, yet tests on the Pauline Epistles in the New Testament over the past 50 years have resulted in divergent findings about which of the 13 texts are authentic. This project seeks to discern why some ancient corpora like the Pauline Epistles have been resistant to consistent authorial categorization. The results will not only help scholars of Christian origins to reassess the relative value of forensic stylometry for their work, but will also serve as a caution for scholars of antiquity more generally who work with short texts in small corpora. Moreover, the project will help forensic stylometrists identify the limitations of their tools in relation to some corpora of great historical interest.

Project fields:
Ancient History; Computational Linguistics; History of Religion

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259521-18

Willeke Sandler, PhD
Loyola University Maryland (Baltimore, MD 21210-2601)

Unofficial Empire: Germans Between Germany and Tanganyika, 1925–1945

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on Germany's former African colony Tanganyika (1925-1945).

Although Germany was stripped of its overseas empire in 1919, from the mid-1920s through the mid-1940s hundreds of Germans immigrated to the former colony of German East Africa (now the British Mandate of Tanganyika). They established tightly-knit communities in the Mandate that received support from the German Foreign Office as well as Nazi organizations. I use the case study of Tanganyika to explore the (re)creation of an expatriate community within the context of a territory that had once been German. This obstinate form of “colonialism without colonies” ignored the reality of Germany’s official position in Africa and helped to establish an unofficial German colony in Tanganyika. A space of overlapping imperial claims, of German pasts and hoped-for futures, and of individual Germans’ economic goals, Tanganyika in the interwar period demonstrates the continued importance of the African continent to the German nation and state after the end of formal empire.

Project fields:
African History; European History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260283-18

Christopher J. Lee
Lafayette College (Easton, PA 18042-7625)

A History of the Nighttime in 19th- and 20th- Century South Africa

Research and preparation of a book on the history of the nighttime in South Africa.

This research project addresses the history of the nighttime in South Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Its significance is that it promises to be the first such study. It aims to advance how we understand the time and place of historical change: how the night as a specific context was (and still is) a complex period of criminal danger and cultural freedom, state control and political activism, modern technology and celestial knowledge in the longue durée. Key questions that motivate this study include: what happens at night, and how have these activities changed over time; what are the uses of the nighttime, and how have perspectives on the nighttime evolved during the past two centuries; and, third, how has the nighttime itself influenced historical change, and how might it reshape South Africa’s historiography. This project argues that the nighttime has been an under-examined, yet vital, factor in the making of South African history.

Project fields:
African History; African Studies; Cultural History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260324-18

Leandro Benmergui
SUNY Research Foundation, College at Purchase (Purchase, NY 10577-1402)

Vila Kennedy: The Social and Political Organization of Public Housing Residents in Argentina and Brazil, 1960-1973

Research for a book-length study of slum eradication programs and public housing construction in Argentina and Brazil between 1960 and 1973.

Project fields:
Area Studies; Latin American History; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
10/1/2018 – 11/30/2018


FT-259916-18

Renata Nicole Keller
University of Nevada, Reno (Reno, NV 89557-0001)

Ground Zero: The Cuban Missile Crisis in Latin America

A book-length study of Latin American reactions to the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962.

Ground Zero is a hemispheric history of the Cuban Missile Crisis. It argues that this event was critical to shaping Latin American history and that, in turn, Latin America was critical to the global history of the crisis. Faced with the threat of nuclear war, Latin American politicians, military officers, and citizens seized active roles in the crisis, and their responses had important results. Few histories of the missile crisis look beyond the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba, and no histories of Latin America analyze the wider impact of the crisis. This project draws on archival sources from across the Americas, the records of international organizations like the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and the cultural productions of diverse Latin Americans to determine the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis on Latin America and uncover the ways that Latin American governments and individuals shaped the outcome of the crisis.

Project fields:
Diplomatic History; Latin American History; Political History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259941-18

J. Cameron Monroe
University of California, Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, CA 95064-1077)

Archaeology at Cana: A West African City of the Atlantic Era, 1600–1894

Completion of an archaeological study and publication of a two-volume monograph on the West African kingdom of Dahomey (1600-1894).

Western perspectives on African cities have long privileged external factors in the rise of cities across the continent. In recent decades, however, archaeologists have revealed the local origins of cities, countering such arguments for the exogenous origins of African civilizations. Yet the global trading networks that engulfed Africa in the second millennium AD had wide-reaching impacts on African urban systems, and we are only beginning to explore how local and global forces articulated. Since 2000, I have explored this question in reference to the kingdom of Dahomey in West Africa, which thrived in the era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In the coming year I plan to complete a two-volume monograph summarizing archaeological, documentary, and oral evidence from this research. The monograph will represent one of only a few detailed archaeological studies of a West Africa urban community in this period, providing comparative data for scholars working across the region.

Project fields:
African History; Archaeology

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-259950-18

Jolene Zigarovich
University of Northern Iowa (Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0001)

Death and Corpses in the 18th-Century British Novel

Research leading to a book on the changing attitudes toward death, funeral practices, and mortality as reflected in 18th-century British novels.

Without a book-length study of death in eighteenth-century Britain, historical facts concerning funerary practices and the culture’s overall relationship with mortality are only beginning to be understood. By incorporating a variety of historical discourses–wills, undertaking histories, medical studies, philosophical treatises and religious tracts–my project illuminates a shift in control over death and the body from religious institutions to the individual, which resulted in secular, aesthetic approaches to death and dying. Preserving Clarissa, and other Morbid Curiosities in the Eighteenth-Century Novel reveals that the body itself—its parts, and its preserved, visual representation—functioned as erotic memento, and it suggests that preserved remains became symbols of individuality and subjectivity. This project thereby forces us to reassess the eighteenth-century response to and representation of the dead and dead-like body, and its fetishized purpose and use in fiction.

Project fields:
British History; British Literature; Cultural History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259957-18

Michael David Dwyer, PhD
Arcadia University (Glenside, PA 19038-3215)

Tinsel and Rust: Hollywood Film and Postindustrial Cities in the United States

Preparation for publication of a book-length study of the relationship between postindustrial cities and film in the United States, from the 1970s to the present.

Since the term entered popular usage in the early 1980s, the “Rust Belt” has gained considerable cultural and political pull in the United States. Not merely a descriptor for a geographical region surrounding the Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley, “the Rust Belt” serves as a potent symbol for America’s past, present, and impending future. Much of the social construction of the idea of the Rust Belt—both then and now–has occurred in popular film. Filmic representations of shuttered auto plants, unemployed laborers, and decaying downtowns have all contributed to narratives of American decline. At the same time, cities like Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit and Pittsburgh have actively attempted to court film and television production in an effort to craft their own stories of American renewal. In my manuscript Tinsel and Rust: Hollywood Film and Postindustrial America, I examine the complicated relationship between postindustrial cities and the creative industries in the United States.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259958-18

Suzanne Sutherland Duchacek
Middle Tennessee State University (Murfreesboro, TN 37132-0001)

War, Diplomacy, and Knowledge in Habsburg Europe (18th and 19th Centuries)

Preparation for publication of a book-length study of 17th-century European military entrepreneurs, warfare, and diplomacy.

This study examines the social, cultural, and political impact of military contracting in the last great age of contracting prior to the modern era. In the seventeenth century, military entrepreneurs used private wealth, credit, and connections to raise and command regiments since war had become pervasive but rulers lacked large-scale standing forces. What forms of power emerge when contractors monopolize violence? How do their activities redefine the state and political allegiances? How did new forms of power influence other dynamic elements of early modern life, including the growth of science? Focusing on Italian military entrepreneurs in Austrian Habsburg service, this book argues that contractors innovated a new kind of expertise, military science. They undermined political allegiances and built new ties across regions. Military men contributed to a dizzying new mobility in Europe that destabilized traditional boundaries and opened up spaces for new ideas and practices.

Project fields:
Military History; Renaissance History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259974-18

Corinna Zeltsman
Georgia Southern University (Statesboro, GA 30458)

Printers and Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Mexico

A book-length study of political printers in Mexico between 1821 and 1910.

My book project examines the political and social struggles surrounding the making and consuming of print in Mexico to offer a new analysis of the emergence of liberalism across the long nineteenth century. It argues that Mexico City printers galvanized and shaped post-independence political discussion and conflict by giving material form to competing ideas and reform projects. The book also demonstrates how Mexico City printers and collaborators from across the social spectrum ushered in a new political culture in which print served as an incendiary element in rollicking and ruthless struggles over the fledgling nation’s future. The project significantly revises our understanding of the role of print in the formation of Mexico’s public sphere, and offers insight into how imprints functioned as key objects that linked intimate urban communities, larger patronage networks, and spurred political action in a post-colonial society with low literacy rates.

Project fields:
Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259994-18

Paula C. Park
Wesleyan University (Middletown, CT 06459-3208)

Latin America in the Philippines: Rethinking Intercoloniality Across the Hispanic Pacific (1898–1964)

Research and writing of a book-length study on literary and cultural connections between the Philippines and Latin America, 1898-1964.

Project fields:
Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies; Spanish Language

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-260009-18

Nathan John Martin
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382)

The Philosophers' Rameau: Music Theory in the Encyclopédie

Research and writing of a book-length study of the music theory of Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) and French Enlightenment debates about human knowledge.

The Philosophers' Rameau investigates how and why the music-theoretical writings of Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) came to be prominently featured in the main publishing organ of the French Enlightenment: Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie. The answer is that the philosophes' found in Rameau's theory of harmony a succinct illustration of their own scientific epistemology. For this reason, the structure of the Encyclopédie's exposition of Rameau comes to mirror that of its account of human knowledge as a whole. The initially veiled and the progressively more overt critique of Rameau that Rousseau developed across his articles on music, and which d'Alembert subsequently appropriated, thus redounded on the Encyclopédie itself and in the end threatened its editors' global project. My book's chief methodological novelty lies in its emphasis on the interpenetration between technical questions of music theory and broader issues of scientific method and philosophical psychology.

Project fields:
History of Philosophy; Intellectual History; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260035-18

Phillip Troutman
George Washington University (Washington, DC 20052-0001)

The Radical Visual Rhetoric of American Abolition in the 1830s

The completion of two chapters of a book on images in abolitionist publications during the 1830s.

My book project, ‘Incendiary Pictures,’ is the first to analyze American abolitionist image-making in the full context of its formative decade, the 1830s, arguing that its visual rhetoric was creative and its ideology radically interracial, with image-makers attending self-consciously to their own motives, methods, messages, and audiences. Scholars focusing on 1840s-1850s images interpret them as patronizing, objectifying, sentimentalizing, and exploitative. By contrast, I show that in the 1830s, abolitionist visual rhetoric asserted African American agency and subjectivity, interracial collaboration and action, and civil rights. By attending closely to each creator’s ideology and by taking cues from W. T. J. Mitchell’s question, “what do pictures want?”—in the double sense of demanding and lacking—I show how abolitionists creatively exploited images’ power to persuade but also self-consciously acknowledged the limits of any image to convey slavery’s full brutality.

Project fields:
African American Studies; American Studies; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260081-18

Nathan Edward Suhr-Sytsma
Emory University (Atlanta, GA 30322-1018)

The Role of Poetry in Contemporary African Literary Communities

Research and preparation of an article on the role of poetry in African literary communities.

What is the future of literature? While the Internet revolution is often thought to call into question the future of literary reading in North America, African writing today suggests that the rise of digital media should not be confused with the decline of the literary. This project examines contemporary African poetry in English and the communities through which it circulates in order to ask in what sense this new poetry serves as a paradigm of the literary and its fortunes in the twenty-first century. In pursuit of a better grasp on literature’s cultural, ethical, and subjective work, the project probes the extent to which a writer’s location still matters in an era of digital publication. Drawing on fieldwork as well as theoretical discussions of lyric poetry and original textual interpretation, it foregrounds diverse African actors’ understanding of why the literary still matters for their current situation and possible futures.

Project fields:
African Literature; African Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260082-18

Zena Hitz
St. John's College, Main Campus (Annapolis, MD 21401-1687)

Intellectual Life: What It Is and Why It Matters

Completion of a book on the importance of intellectual life, addressing historical and contemporary examples of social withdrawal, contemplation, and scientific reflection.

Project fields:
Ethics; Philosophy, General; Western Civilization

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2018 – 6/30/2018


FT-260113-18

Aaron Paul Johnson
Lee University (Cleveland, TN 37311-4475)

Philosophy and Tradition in the Contra Julianumby Cyril of Alexandria (c. 375–444)

Research and preparation of a book on the 5th-century literary attack by Bishop Cyril of Alexandria against the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate (332-363).

This book project is the first monograph in any language to investigate one of the most significant works of Cyril of Alexandria (5th century) since the very recent publication of its extant ten books in a critical edition. The book will focus upon the ways in which the Contra Julianum (a literary attack against a religious polemical work of the emperor Julian over sixty years following his death) participated in key literary and philosophical discourses. The Contra Julianum not only extended earlier Christian apologetic traditions but also appropriated Greek poetic and philosophical texts in unique ways within a late Roman imperial context. Cyril furthermore crafted unique formulations of epistemological, theological-demonological, and legal-philosophical positions that show a creative and incisive engagement with ongoing philosophical discourses in these areas.

Project fields:
Classical Literature; History of Philosophy

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260114-18

Laura Moure Cecchini
Colgate University (Hamilton, NY 13346-1386)

The Lure of the Baroque in Italian Visual Culture, 1898–1945

Preparation of a study on the revival of the 17th-century Baroque style in Italian art and architecture from 1898-1945.

Against dominant narratives about the chief role of the classical tradition in modern Italy, Baroquemania argues that between the country’s unification and the cataclysmic fall of fascism, Italian cultural conversations mostly revolved around the Baroque and its legacy. The Baroque was seen as a period of decline but also as one of the few experiences common to the entire peninsula. Baroquemania combines archival research and close readings of visual and material culture, with critical analyses of the Italian discourse on Baroque aesthetics. The book explores imaginative responses to the style in a variety of artistic mediums, with an eye to the debates in the academy and another to those outside of it: artists, architects, critics, and political ideologues. Intervening in the study of Italian visual culture and of the Baroque revival, Baroquemania re-appraises Italian modern art and sheds new light on the role of style in the cultural politics of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Cultural History; Italian Language

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-259578-18

Sarah E. Gardner
Mercer University (Macon, GA 31207-0001)

Reading During the American Civil War, 1861–1865

Research and writing of a book on reading practices and literary interpretation during the American Civil War, 1861-1865.

This project examines the reading habits, practices, and choices of various interpretive communities during the American Civil War. It demonstrates that wartime readers did not merely respond to the circumstances of the war, occupation, and Union victory. Rather, reading--how and what they read, the meanings they ascribed to what they had read, and the conditions that influenced their reading--shaped their understanding of the world around them. The war's unprecedented carnage, its contingencies, and its destruction shattered romantic modes of understanding. If America's bloodiest conflict profoundly transformed American literary culture, then it surely changed how readers encountered the printed word. Wartime readers were active participants in the process of coming to terms with the nation's defining event. Ultimately, then, this project explores the relationship between lived experiences and the intellectual and imaginative lives of wartime readers.

Project fields:
Cultural History; Intellectual History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260120-18

Traci Lynnea Parker
University of Massachusetts, Amherst (Amherst, MA 01003-9242)

Workers, Consumers, and Civil Rights: The Racial Integration of American Department Stores from the 1950s to 1980s

Research and writing of a monograph on the economic consequences of the integration of American department stores, from the 1950s to the 1980s.

I am seeking the assistance of a NEH Summer Stipend, so that I can complete my first book, Workers, Consumers, and Civil Rights (under contract at the University of North Carolina Press). During the summer of 2018, I will conduct archival research at the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park, Maryland. Here, I will review the records of the Sears, Roebuck, and Company affirmative action cases, the subject of my book’s sixth and final chapter. These cases expose the retail industry’s discriminatory practices against African Americans and women, the industry's ongoing transformations, ones that revolutionized, or rather diminished the status of retail work and consumption, and the challenges and limitations of neoliberalism in the 1970s and 1980s.

Project fields:
African American History; Labor History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-260121-18

Daniel Bernardo Hershenzon
University of Connecticut (Storrs, CT 06269-9000)

Jewish Manuscripts in the Early Modern Mediterranean: Between Piracy, Redemption, and the Spanish Inquisition

Research leading to publication of a book-length study of religious artifacts and piracy in the early modern western Mediterranean.

I am requesting the NEH Summer Stipend to conduct two months of research in the Bodleian Library (GB) and in the AHN and AGS (Spain) on the negotiations over the restitution of 3,000 Hebrew manuscripts, sent from Livorno to Algiers in the 1630’s, intercepted by Spanish pirates, and sent to the Inquisition’s dungeons. The story forms the 3rd chapter of a book project on religious artifacts—Korans, Bibles, prayer shawls, pictures of Christ and the Virgin, and relics—that as a byproduct of piracy and human trafficking circulated in the thousands in the early modern western Mediterranean, crossing religious boundaries. The project argues that during the 17th century such objects—captured, humiliated, redeemed—helped shape relations between Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the context of maritime piracy. Reconstructing their trajectories sheds new light on the experience of captivity and the practice of redemption, of people and objects.

Project fields:
Cultural History; European History; Renaissance History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2018 – 10/31/2018


FT-260154-18

Constance Kassor
Seeley G. Mudd Library, Lawrence University (Appleton, WI 54911-5690)

Translation of "Synopsis of the Middle Way," a Treatise by the 15th-Century Buddhist Philosopher Gorampa Sonam Senge

Research leading to publication of an English translation of the 15th-century Tibetan philosophical text Synopsis of the Middle Way by Gorampa Sonam Senge (1429-89).

I am applying for an NEH Summer Stipend to travel to Kathmandu, Nepal, where I will complete and prepare for publication an English translation of the highly influential and encyclopedic fifteenth-century Tibetan philosophical text, Synopsis of the Middle Way (Dbu ma’i spyi don), by Gorampa Sonam Senge. At the heart of the Synopsis is a question central to the humanities: What constitutes knowledge, and how should a person go about cultivating the right kinds of knowledge? Specifically, this text argues that the highest forms of wisdom build on intellectual, analytical knowledge and develop into embodied and enacted kinds of understanding. By cultivating these higher states of wisdom, one learns how to act ethically in the world. The rigor with which Gorampa addresses these issues and the number of interlocutors that he brings into conversation with his own view have the potential to expand current conversations around these issues in the humanities more broadly.

Project fields:
Nonwestern Religion

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-260155-18

Jason D. BeDuhn
Northern Arizona University (Flagstaff, AZ 86011-0001)

The Influence of the Religion of Manichaeism from about 400 to 430 on Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430)

Research and preparation of a book on the influence of Manichaeism, an important religion in the Middle East in the third century CE, on the thought and writings of Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430).

This book project completes a trilogy contracted by the University of Pennsylvania Press on Augustine of Hippo (d. 430 CE) and his intellectual engagement with Manichaeism. This third book covers the last thirty years of his life, when his views underwent a "darkening" regarding the depravity of human nature. Some of his contemporaries and modern interpreters have attributed these views to Manichaean influence. Through a chronological account of Augustine's encounters with Manichaeans and critics within the Catholic Church, this book explores (1) the problem of evil, (2) the source of human motivation to sin, (3) free will, predestination, and fatalism, and (4) divine and human justice. Through these major issues of the Western intellectual tradition, the reader will be shown how much the Western thought on them owes to a forgotten episode of inter-religious dialogue and debate with a now extinct religion that nonetheless has left its lasting traces.

Project fields:
History of Religion; Intellectual History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2018 – 9/30/2018


FT-260341-18

Peter Thomas L'Official
Bard College (Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-9800)

Urban Legends: The South Bronx in Representation and Ruin

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on post-1960 photographic, literary, and cinematic representations of urban ruin in the South Bronx, New York.

Urban Legends examines how a single place—the New York borough of the Bronx—came to define the concept of urban ruin to Americans and to the global imagination from the 1960s until the present day. For years, the words “South Bronx” were synonymous with civic neglect, urban destruction, and crime, and images of the borough’s ruins were used to proclaim the failures of urbanism. Yet, the same South Bronx also produced one of the most powerful artistic innovations of the past 50 years: hip-hop. Urban Legends excavates the broader cultural history of the Bronx—at once more intertwined, and more outwardly influential, than these two narratives have allowed. My central argument is that cultural representations of urban ruin have shaped not only how modern ideas about race and American built space are constructed, but also how these ideas continue to proliferate. These representations reveal deeper anxieties about the realities of what it means to live—and share—in any urban space.

Project fields:
American Studies; Art History and Criticism; Urban Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260355-18

James Warren Heinzen
Rowan University (Glassboro, NJ 08028-1702)

Underground Entrepreneurs and the Soviet Shadow Economy under Late Socialism, 1950s–1980s

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on the Soviet shadow economy during the Krushchev and Brezhnev eras (1953-1985).

Supported by new archival material and newly located interviews, this book project exploring the social and cultural history of the Soviet black market advances three important and promising fields: everyday life under “mature” Soviet socialism; the vibrant history of crime and corruption (including ethnic networks); and the interplay of ideology and the hyper-centralized planned economy. The project makes connections between four levels of analysis: law and legal history; the social dynamics of entrepreneurial activity under an authoritarian socialist regime; the complexity of ethnic networks in a modern multinational empire; and the peculiar politics of anti-corruption in a corrupt party-state. This project thus lies at the intersection of the political, the criminal, and everyday life in the final decades of the Soviet empire. The aim of this project is to conduct deep archival research to shed light on major themes in Soviet history.

Project fields:
Russian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260211-18

Sarah Elizabeth Igo
Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN 37240-0001)

Nine Digits: a Biography of a Number and a Nation

Research toward writing a history of the Social Security number, examining modern U.S. attitudes toward citizenship, governance, and civic feeling.

This project examines modern U.S. attitudes toward citizenship, governance, and civic feeling from a new and perhaps surprising angle: the history of the Social Security number (SSN). The now-familiar nine digits came to be annexed to most Americans’ lives over the course of the twentieth century. SSNs are generally understood as an incidental part of the larger story of modern state-building and social provision—or today, often as a risk. But I focus squarely on the number in order to offer a material and affective history of how Americans have envisioned the modern federal government and their shifting relationship to it. By considering what has often been seen as a regulatory, administrative, or policy matter as a humanistic one deeply entwined with questions of civic belonging, state obligation, and individual responsibility, a history of the Social Security number gives us new purchase on the dilemmas of American citizenship, past and present.

Project fields:
American Studies; Intellectual History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2018 – 8/31/2018


FT-260214-18

Elaine Y. Yau
Unknown institution

The Paintings of Clementine Hunter (1887–1988), a Folk Artist of Rural Louisiana

Research and preparation for an article on the self-taught Louisiana painter Clementine Hunter (1887-1988).

Clementine Hunter (1887-1988) is celebrated for her paintings of everyday life in rural Louisiana, where she was a sharecropper and domestic servant throughout the early 20th century. In their relationship to the past, these artworks have bolstered Hunter’s reputation as one of America’s great folk artists. In this model, her racial blackness functions as a defining aspect of her marginality that her art overcomes. This project offers a more dynamic history opened up by Hunter’s explorations of African and creole subjects. Neither obvious memory paintings nor simple representations, these abstracted renditions of French creoles of color and Caribbean rituals illuminate Hunter’s engagement with legacies of slavery and racial and cultural mixture. I turn to theories of creolization and diasporic imaginations forged by cultural critics, folklorists, and art historians to examine these paintings; Hunter’s evolving sense of her French, Creole, and African ancestry; and her modernity.

Project fields:
African American Studies; Art History and Criticism; Folklore and Folklife

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2018 – 9/30/2018


FT-260244-18

Matthew Crain
Queens College (Queens, NY 11367-1597)

The Rise of Surveillance Advertising in America, from the 1990s to the 2000s

Research and writing of a book on the history of advertising and the surveillance of consumer activity on the Internet.

Surveillance has become the internet’s de facto business model. Everyday users have a sense that the web is watching, but the details and implications of these practices remain opaque. In particular we lack historical accounts of how and why this seemingly unintelligible system of digital surveillance was constructed. My book project, First Watch: The Rise of Surveillance Advertising, gives internet surveillance a much needed origin story by chronicling the development of its most important historical catalyst: web advertising. Set in the 1990s, the project offers an institutional history of the online advertising system and considers the political-economic and social consequences of the web’s rapid embrace of consumer monitoring. As one of the first book-length historical treatments of web surveillance, this project has the potential to make significant contributions to the field of media studies and to broader public debates about big data, privacy, and politics in the digital age.

Project fields:
Communications; History, Other; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260249-18

Andrey Vyacheslavovich Ivanov
University of Wisconsin, Platteville (Platteville, WI 53818-3001)

A Spiritual Revolution: the Reformation and Enlightenment in Orthodox Russia 1700–1825

Research and preparation of a book on religious reforms in the Russian Orthodox church (1700-1825).

The Reformation and Enlightenment undoubtedly stand out among the most formative events in the emergence of modern civilization. While much is known about the significance of these events in the history of Western societies, there is very little literature about their influences in Eastern Europe, and especially Russia. Among the existing body of knowledge, my monograph will be the first book to place Russia and its Orthodox Church in the context of the European Reformation and the subsequent European Enlightenment. The book will examine how Russia’s liberalizing church hierarchy and monarchs adopted Protestant and later, Enlightenment ideas to engineer radical religious and political reforms that played a fundamental role in the origins of Russia’s empire during the eighteenth century.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
History of Religion; Intellectual History; Russian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260307-18

Heidi Morse
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382)

Black Women and the Classical Traditions of Greece and Rome in 19th-Century America

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on how African American women used classical Greco-Roman traditions of rhetoric and art to promote racial equality in 19th-century America.

Teaching and Testifying asks what the thriving culture of classical Greco-Roman adaptations in nineteenth-century America meant to African Americans, and to popular conceptualizations of race, gender, and citizenship, before and after Emancipation. From schoolrooms to public lectures to art galleries, the classics were omnipresent in early Americans’ everyday lives—even as classical education operated as a social machinery of exclusion that denied access to many African Americans, especially women. This book narrates the hidden history of black classicism as a popular cultural phenomenon. I show how black women speaking in public performed embodied hybridizations of classical rhetoric and black cultural expressions that promoted racial equality and shattered the myth of white classical inheritance.

Project fields:
African American Studies; Classics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260311-18

Anne Elizabeth Dwyer
Pomona College (Claremont, CA 91711-4434)

Literary Theorist Viktor Shklovsky (1893–1984) and the Arts Policies of the Soviet Union

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on the Russian literary theorist Victor Shklovsky (1893-1984).

Viktor Shklovsky (1893-1984) is known as the father of Russian formalism, an intellectual movement associated with the beginnings of modern literary theory. Shklovsky wrote his main theoretical texts in the 1910s and early 1920s; formalism as such ended by the mid 1920s. But Shklovsky kept on writing and publishing prolifically. That he “accommodated himself” to the Soviet regime is a truism. But what insights might this very accommodation give us into larger cultural processes? Arts of Accommodation delves into the specific textual strategies that Shklovsky employed to become—and stay—a Soviet cultural worker who still espoused certain key tenets of his original theory, chief among them ostranenie (defamilarization). Shklovsky’s later work adds up to a latent post-formalist cultural theory, in which ideological and institutional constraints are recast as formal ones, directing attention to the mechanisms of accommodation as a structural phenomenon of Soviet culture.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Cultural History; Film History and Criticism; Russian Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260316-18

Amy K. Anderson
West Chester University (West Chester, PA 19383-0001)

Windows to Heaven: The Rhetorical Legacy of Byzantine Icons

Research and writing of a book on visual rhetoric and the status of icons in the 8th- and 9th-century Eastern Orthodox Church.

During the eighth and ninth centuries, the Byzantine Empire was rocked by an economic, religious, and political conflict known as Byzantine Iconoclasm. At the center of the conflict was the question of whether or not images could convey spiritual teachings in the Eastern Orthodox Christian church. The debate was settled in 843 when images were decreed equal to texts in their ability to convey religious ideas. Byzantine Iconoclasm is unique because, unlike Western Protestant-motivated iconoclasms, iconophile theology went beyond religious arguments and instead theorized the properties of texts and images. Despite Byzantine Iconoclasm’s rich insights into modality, the debate has gone largely unstudied by Western rhetoric scholars. The monograph Windows to Heaven: The Rhetorical Legacy of Byzantine Icons corrects this oversight by reframing the Iconoclasm debate as a discussion about multimodality and asking what Byzantine religious icons reveal about contemporary ways of seeing.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Composition and Rhetoric

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-260379-18

John Patrick Leary
Wayne State University (Detroit, MI 48201-1347)

A Cultural History of the Concept of Innovation, from the 17th Century to the Present

Research and writing leading to publication of a book exploring the cultural history of the concept of innovation.

This project’s primary aim is to unearth the intellectual history of a ubiquitous concept that, in its zeal for the new, seems to have no history at all. When “innovation” was first used as a synonym for false prophecy and radical dissent in the seventeenth century, the salvation it offered was a ruse amplified by the innovator’s art of persuasion. It was not until the turn of the twentieth century that “innovation” began to shed its ties to deceit and conspiracy to become a byword for business dynamism. What was once an act of political and religious heresy became a process of material transformation. As I argue, however, innovation's enduring associations with moral and aesthetic traits like creativity and "vision" are a complex legacy, rather than a simple departure, from its long political history. Ranging from economics to literary and religious history, this project will provide this important concept with the interdisciplinary intellectual history it has thus far lacked.

Project fields:
American Studies; Cultural History; Intellectual History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2018 – 6/30/2018


FT-260387-18

Jennifer Laura Ferriss-Hill
University of Miami (Coral Gables, FL 33146-2503)

The Ancient Roman Poet Horace's "Art of Poetry" and the Art of Living

Research and preparation for a book on the Ars Poetica (Art of Poetry), poem by the ancient Roman poet Horace (65-8 BCE).

Horace’s Art of Poetry and the Art of Living approaches Horace’s Ars Poetica (Art of Poetry) as a work of literature in its own right, and one that occupies a key place in the poet’s oeuvre. This 476-line poem has stood for two millennia alongside Aristotle’s Poetics as a canonical work of literary theory, taken largely as what it professes itself to be: a handbook, written under commission, for how to write drama. I argue that it should rather be read in the context of Horace’s other hexameter writings, and in particular as a companion and counterpart to his Satires. Just as throughout the Satires, his earliest poems, Horace encodes literary prescriptions into his advice on how to live well, so I contend that the Ars Poetica, thought to be his final work, may be read as a manual for how to live that masquerades as a treatise on poetics.

Project fields:
Classical Languages; Classical Literature; Literary Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2018 – 7/31/2018


FT-254532-17

Jose Amador
Miami University, Oxford (Oxford, OH 45056-1602)

A History of Healthcare Rights and Brazilian Politics, 1964-2007

A book-length study about the politics of healthcare rights in Brazil, 1964-2007.

My book project examines how the institutions of medicine, media, and the state came to constitute “trans” as a flexible and politically useful category of identification. At first glance this might seem like a narrow historical topic, but the emergence of this category as an epistemic formation and a culturally-situated practice is central to the formation of Brazilian modernity. To reconstruct this history, the project traces the development of trans activism in Brazil from the mid-twentieth century to 2007, when the public health care system began providing free sex reassignment surgeries and hormone treatment. It follows the evidence trail left by trans persons, health activists, and cultural producers to reveal the struggles that led to state-subsidized transition therapies. Lastly, it offers new critical insights into the contingencies of deploying nonnormative categories by recovering the voices and actions of trans people who lived in rapidly changing political circumstances.

Project fields:
Gender Studies; Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-254602-17

Urmila Shree Seshagiri
University of Tennessee, Knoxville (Knoxville, TN 37996-0001)

A Scholarly Edition of Virginia Woolf's "A Sketch of the Past"

Preparation of a scholarly edition of British writer Virginia Woolf’s (1882-1941) memoir, A Sketch of the Past.

I seek an NEH Summer Stipend to prepare the first scholarly edition of Virginia Woolf’s "A Sketch of the Past." Composed between 1939-1940 but undiscovered until 1976, "A Sketch" is at once a vibrant archive of English literary culture; a record of historical change following Queen Victoria's death; a complex treatise on life-writing; and, above all, a self-portrait of artistic growth. Updated to reflect a detailed, historically rich understanding of Woolf’s literary and professional achievements, a scholarly edition of "A Sketch of the Past" would shine crucial new light on the author’s conception of “the whole world as a work of art.” I will work with Woolf’s original manuscripts and typescripts in the British Library and the University of Sussex, producing an new textual edition of this memoir, the sole piece of autobiographical writing Woolf intended for publication.  My critical introduction will demonstrate scholarly advancements made in the 40 years since the book's original publication.

Project fields:
British Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254607-17

Daniel Aaron Weiskopf
Georgia State University Research Foundation, Inc. (Atlanta, GA 30302-3999)

The Philosophical Inquiry into the Nature of Concepts, Vehicles of Thought

Writing two chapters toward completion of a book on the nature of concepts.

Concepts are the building blocks of higher thought, particularly the sorts of thought that are involved in categorization, reasoning and inference, judgment and decision making, planning, and similar processes. This project defends a theory of concepts that portrays them as cognitive tools, biologically and culturally shaped to serve an array of practical and theoretical ends. The crucial fact about concepts is that they display striking adaptive fluidity, which enables human cognition to adjust itself to a wide range of domains, tasks, and contexts. While currently dominant approaches to concepts largely neglect or marginalize this phenomenon, exploring the origin, scope, and limits of this adaptive fluidity leads to a theory that has greater empirical adequacy and theoretical depth. This work will inform research in the philosophy of mind, psychology, and other fields, such as anthropology and the history of science, that study the processes by which humans categorize the world.

Project fields:
Philosophy of Science; Psychology

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254626-17

Andrew A. Latham
Macalester College (St. Paul, MN 55105-1899)

Ideas of Sovereignty in the Later Middle Ages

A book-length study on the medieval origins of the concept of sovereignty.

The conventional wisdom in the field of International Relations (IR) is that "sovereignty" is an unambiguously modern political concept invented by decidedly modern political thinkers like Jean Bodin. The major contribution of this study is to challenge this conventional wisdom by demonstrating the existence of a robust discourse on sovereignty during the high and late Middle Ages. In so doing, this study will call into question the radical “Otherness” of the medieval era that is so central to the identity of the field of IR. It will also complement a body of work within the field of Medieval Political Thought that addresses issues of political authority, but that neither adequately theorizes the idea of sovereignty nor provides a unified account of its evolution during the later Middle Ages.

Project fields:
International Relations; Medieval History; Political History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-254643-17

Thomas John Keeline, Jr
Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, MO 63130-4899)

Latin Textual Scholarship in the Digital Age: An Open-Access Critical Edition of Ovid's Ibis

Preparation of an online critical edition of Ibis by the Roman poet Ovid for the Digital Latin Library.

I propose to prepare an open-access critical edition of the Ibis, a poem by the Latin poet Ovid. The edition will be submitted to the Digital Latin Library, a new cooperative venture established to provide a home for innovative Latin textual scholarship in digital form and to make that scholarship accessible to the world. The Ibis itself, although written by one of ancient Rome’s best-known poets, has long been neglected, in large part because of the lack of a suitable edition. My research has shown that the standard text, issued some 60 years ago, can be improved in a number of ways. I have laid the groundwork for my project in a lengthy study of the manuscript tradition and text of the poem, which has been published in a leading Classics journal, as well as in publications and conference presentations on textual criticism in the digital age. My project will both make a contribution to scholarship on Ovid and serve as a pilot project for digital critical editions of Latin texts.

Project fields:
Classical Languages; Classical Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254697-17

Mary I. Unger
Ripon College (Ripon, WI 54971-1465)

Cultures of Reading in the Black Chicago Renaissance

A book-length study on reading communities and audience reception during the Chicago Renaissance.

This book recovers forgotten African American reading communities on Chicago’s South Side that helped create the Black Chicago Renaissance, a flourishing of African American literary expression from the 1930s through the 1950s. In Bronzeville, Chicago’s predominantly black neighborhood, writers such as Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks discovered lively reading communities that responded to and shaped their work. Through extensive archival research, I analyze how--in public forums, book clubs, the black press, and local businesses--Bronzeville readers served as agents of critique and reception who proved central to the work of Wright, Brooks, and other black writers of the era. My project thus demonstrates how local readers--rather than the white literary establishment--dictated the norms and tastes of African American literature in the mid twentieth century. In this way, my book uncovers the impact of Chicago’s South Side on the development of American life and letters.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
African American Studies; American Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254705-17

Allison Lange
Wentworth Institute of Technology (Boston, MA 02115-5901)

The Visual Politics of the Woman Suffrage Movement from American Independence through the Nineteenth Amendment

A book-length study about the strategic use of images in the woman suffrage movement from the 1780s through 1920.

Images of Change will be the first book to demonstrate the centrality of visual politics—the strategic use of images to promote a cause or candidate—to US woman’s rights campaigns from the late 18th century through 1920, when the 19th Amendment granted women suffrage. Reformers used images to contest women’s relationships with the state, while opponents used them to reinforce existing ones. In response to pictures satirizing political women as masculine threats to society, suffragists changed their public image with visual campaigns that laid the foundations for modern ones. I analyze the visual and historical contexts of popular public images, ranging from engraved cartoons and photographic portraits to the earliest newspaper halftones and colorful propaganda posters. My work expands on recent studies of race, pictures, and politics by focusing on gender. This book and exhibition will promote a better understanding of the gendered political images that still spark public debates.

Project fields:
Political History; U.S. History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-254708-17

Jonathan Marc Gribetz
Princeton University (Princeton, NJ 08540-5228)

Reading Herzl in Beirut: The PLO's Research on Judaism and Israel

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on Palestinian research into Zionism and the role of that research in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

In mid-September 1982, just as they invaded West Beirut, Israeli forces raided a high-rise in the Lebanese capital. Though the building belonged to the Palestine Liberation Organization, the targets inside were neither militants nor weapons. The Israeli soldiers were there to capture a library—a library that was filled with books about Jews, Zionism, and Israel. Reading Herzl in Beirut, the monograph I am writing, is a book about that library, the institution that collected it (the PLO Research Center), the researchers who used it, the scholarship they produced in it, and, ultimately, the impact of the knowledge produced there on the course of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. How did learning about the enemy inform Palestinian politics and the acceptance of a two-state solution? With an NEH Summer Stipend, I will travel to Beirut and Jerusalem to gain access to archives, libraries, and the many scholars of the PLO, Palestinian intellectual history, and the conflict based there.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Area Studies; Jewish Studies; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254744-17

Eduardo D. Elena
University of Miami (Coral Gables, FL 33146-2503)

Argentina and the Emergence of Modern Transportation and Communication Systems, 1860-1910

A book-length study about the emergence of modern transportation and communication systems in Argentina between 1860 and 1910.

Conquering Distance: Argentina and the Fortunes of Steam-Age Globalization, 1860-1910 considers how historical actors engaged with the opportunities and dilemmas of a shrinking world. It investigates changing understandings of distance in a time when steam-age systems like the railways enabled movement on a scale and speed never before seen. The study profiles the individuals and institutions that competed to profit from new spatial connections: central among them, financiers, transporters, and state officials based in Argentina and Western Europe. Yet rather than presenting steam-age globalization as a story of inexorable contraction—in which the world becomes ever smaller, seamless, and “flat”—the study accounts for the uneven impact of connecting mechanisms on different places and peoples. Accordingly, it sheds light on the women and men who confronted the perils of a more tightly-linked world and the commentators who assessed the shortcomings of steam-age advances.

Project fields:
Latin American History; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254689-17

Tara Fickle
University of Oregon (Eugene, OR 97403-5219)

A Digital Edition and Reconsideration of a Foundational Anthology of Asian American Literature

Creation of a digital edition of Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Asian-American Writers (1974), a formative text in the development of Asian American Studies.

“Behind Aiiieeeee!” is a digital humanities project that examines the genesis of Asian American literature and its political and aesthetic role in contemporary America. It undertakes the first comprehensive archival analysis of Aiiieeeee!, a foundational Asian American literary anthology from the 1970s formed in the crucible of national post-civil rights struggles and global “Third World Movements” in Asia. These unpublished materials will be showcased through a series of online interactive learning modules, including an annotated hypertext version of the original edition and a visual map of the inter-ethnic and transnational networks involved. It will provide educators and students with the resources to appreciate a number of unfamiliar but seminal Asian American texts, while contributing to a scholarly understanding of how literary fiction became a powerful vehicle for synthesizing the political and aesthetic aspirations of the first generation of self-proclaimed Asian Americans.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Literature; Asian American Studies; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 9/30/2017


FT-254686-17

Jennifer Grant Germann
Ithaca College (Ithaca, NY 14850-7002)

A Study of the Portrait of Dido Elizabeth Belle and Lady Elizabeth Murray, an 18th-century British Artwork

Preparation of two scholarly articles related to the double portrait of Dido Elizabeth Belle and Lady Elizabeth Murray, a British painting from the late 18th century at Scone Palace, Scotland.

The investigation into the Portrait of Dido Elizabeth Belle and Lady Elizabeth Murray engages questions about identity construction in portraiture in Georgian Britain. This anonymous portrait presents them as cousins and subjects, but it uses imagery that denied subjectivity to black figures in art. It presents them together at Kenwood, the family villa, where it was displayed. My interdisciplinary project examines the contradictory imagery by situating the portrait and their lives within the circuits of global exchange, colonialism, and slavery, as well as within the structures of gender, race, and social rank in Great Britain and its empire. I propose to do research for two journal articles that will examine this portrait, attendant portraits in general, and eighteenth-century identity construction in visual representations. This project will contribute to the essential widening of art history’s scope to include new subjects who have been historically marginalized in the field.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2017 – 9/30/2017


FT-254700-17

Allie Terry-Fritsch
Bowling Green State University (Bowling Green, OH 43403-0001)

Cosimo de’Medici, Fra Angelico, and the Public Library of San Marco

Preparation of a book-length study on the patronage of Cosimo de'Medici in the fifteenth century and the fresco paintings by Beato Angelico in the monastery of San Marco, Florence.

This research project reconstructs the original fifteenth-century audience for Beato Angelico’s frescoes at the monastery of San Marco in Florence to challenge traditional art-historical assumptions regarding both the reception of the artist’s work and the motivations for its patronage by the Renaissance statesman and merchant, Cosimo de’Medici. Based on art-historical and archival evidence of an elite group of humanist scholars who gathered at the site’s library under the auspices of Cosimo, the project takes into account the coexistence of religious and secular viewers during the fifteenth century and thus opens up the analysis of Fra Angelico’s imagery for the first time to a larger social body that had political motivations. The reception of the paintings by these secular viewers extends the political and social significance of Cosimo’s patronage to the larger Florentine public outside the monastery's walls.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Renaissance History; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254773-17

Simon Balto
Ball State University (Muncie, IN 47306-1022)

A History of Race, Policing, and the Urban Experience in 20th-century Chicago

A book-length history of police administration, crime, and citizen activism in Chicago from 1919 through the 1970s.

This book manuscript explores how policing systems shaped black experiences, black politics, and the urban fabric in Chicago and cities like it during the twentieth century. It documents how, between the late 1910s and the early 1970s, Chicago built an intricate, powerful carceral machinery whose most noticeable feature was an extreme racial selectivity. Within that machinery’s cogs, black communities increasingly articulated themselves as being both “overpatrolled” and “underprotected.” They highlighted escalating harassment and violence and worsening neglect from the police department, and the intransigence of the city’s power structure to address the problem. Deeply aligned with the NEH mission of using the humanities to understand the conditions of American life, this book speaks directly to modern crises in policing and conflicts in police-community relations, as well as to the steep racialization of what is popularly known as “mass incarceration.”

Project fields:
African American History; African American Studies; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-254758-17

Mark van Roojen
University of Nebraska, Board of Regents (Lincoln, NE 68588-0007)

Moral Rationalism: Making Sense of the Reasons that Justify and Explain Morally Right Action

Writing two chapters in a book on a new theory of justification.

Moral rationalism identifies the norms of morality with norms of practical reasoning, explaining why we have reason to act rightly. Most contemporary rationalists adopt ideal advisor accounts of rationality—you have most reason to do what your ideal all-knowing advisor tells you. This has costs. It prevents reasons from playing certain explanatory and justificatory roles and obscures how we know what reasons and morality require. I work with an example model—an agent has most reason to do what a rational agent would do in her shoes. I build from there to the objective reasons captured in the advisor model by adding in information and more. But I do not need to leave the agent’s perspective to talk about advisors distinct from the agent. The resulting view unifies objective and subjective reasons, and makes sense of what we should do when we lack full information or certain abilities. It captures the idea that reasons motivate rational agents in an ordinary sense.

Project fields:
Ethics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-254841-17

James Arthur Schafer, Jr
University of Houston (Houston, TX 77204-0001)

The American Medical Profession, Militarization, and the State in the First World War

Research and writing of a book on the professional and social impact of the mobilization of physicians during World War I.

As the U.S. prepared for the First World War, editorials warned that thousands of civilian doctors would be needed to voluntarily enlist in the Army and Navy Medical Corps to support the war effort. These predictions proved accurate; in the nineteen months from declaration of war in April 1917 to Armistice in November 1918, roughly 32,000 American doctors enlisted as medical officers — what amounted to twenty-two percent of all licensed doctors nationwide. In my book project, “Mobilizing Doctors: The American Medical Profession, Militarization, and the State in the First World War,” I argue that this sudden, unprecedented mobilization of doctors transformed American medicine in the short- and long-term. Based in the medical humanities, my research uses archival sources to examine the wartime experiences of doctors, the rhetoric of medical leaders, and the evolution of medical careers and institutions. “Mobilizing Doctors” thereby demonstrates the lasting effects of war on American society.

Project fields:
History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine; Military History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254856-17

Megan Sarah Nutzman
Old Dominion University (Norfolk, VA 23529-0001)

Ritual Cures Among Christians, Jews, and Pagans in Roman and Late-Antique Palestine

Preparation of a book-length study on healing rituals practiced in Roman and late antique Palestine.

My project is the first book-length study to synthesize evidence for the full range of healing rituals practiced in Roman and late antique Palestine. Using literary and archaeological evidence, I identify four sources of ritual power believed to transmit divine cures: holy men, sacred places, performative acts, and amulets. Close cultural contacts enabled pagans, Jews, and Christians to borrow each other's rituals, altering them to fit new cultic frameworks. This project's aggregate nature enables me to challenge the common inclination among historians of Greco-Roman religions to compartmentalize the study of ritual healing according to a putative divide between "magical" and "religious" cures or by focusing on a single cultural or linguistic group. Ultimately, I contribute to two ongoing debates on religious identity by reevaluating the role that ritual healing played in conversion experiences and by using it as a lens to assess the "parting of the ways" between Jews and Christians.

Project fields:
Ancient History; Jewish Studies; Religion, Other

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254859-17

Matthew J. Christensen
University of Texas Rio Grande Valley (Edinburg, TX 78539-2909)

The State and the Individual Subject in African Detective Fiction

Research leading to publication of a book on the role of detective novels in social and political debate in twentieth-century Africa.

Unsovereign Bodies: The State and the Individual Subject in African Detective Fiction traces the history of the detective genre as a mode of critique in Anglophone African writing. By playing on narrative codes that promise full disclosure of criminal deception and justice for hardworking, innocent individuals, Anglophone African writers, I argue, have transformed the detective novel’s ideological preoccupation with liberal capitalism and its discontents into a broader critical engagement with the collectivist ideals of decolonization, the valences of vulnerability, and the untenable governmentalities available to the postcolony. For their local readerships, the novels consequently ask how do individuals and communities manage risk and resources given the radical instability of the sovereignty of the state and rights-bearing citizen?

Project fields:
African Literature; African Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254873-17

Jefferson Decker
Rutgers University, New Brunswick (New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8559)

The Stock Market and the Politics of Financial Security, 1974-2000

A book-length study of the late 20th-century stock market and its impact on public policy and on the public's understanding of the national economy.

Bull: The Stock Market and the Politics of Financial Security, 1974-2000 describes an era of “good times” that helped to transform social institutions and reshape public policy, namely the 1982-2000 bull market in U.S. stocks. During that nearly two-decade stretch, the S&P 500 index of major U.S. stocks increased in value thirteen times over, generating annual returns nearly twice their historical average. And what happened in the market itself was not nearly as interesting as its impact on U.S. politics and intellectual life. The long bull market became the prism though which many Americans understood changes in the national economy and passed judgment on public policies. It weighed on policymakers as they discussed how to reform pensions, manage budget deficits, regulate Wall Street, or plan for the future of Social Security. It was a period in U.S. financial history that was also a period in U.S. political history.

Project fields:
American Studies; Political History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254891-17

Anne G. Hanley
Northern Illinois University (DeKalb, IL 60115-2828)

An Institutional History of the 1872 Brazilian Census and Adoption of the Metric System

An article-length study about the economic history of Brazil focusing on the introduction of the metric system and the conduct of the first national census in the 1870s.

My research looks at two major events that took place in Brazil in 1872: the first national census and the adoption of the metric system of weights and measures. These events are important to Brazil's history because of their potential to integrate the domestic economy. Prior to the adoption of the metric system Brazilians used regional weights and measures of differing values, making long-distance exchange difficult. Prior to the national census, Brazilian planners lacked much beyond a general understanding of the demographics of the internal market. Both innovations brought Brazilians into closer contact with state officials whose policies had powerful effects on their livelihoods This project opens an investigation into the history of Brazil's domestic economy, where most Brazilians lived and worked and where government initiatives had the greatest potential to affect their quality of life and standard of living.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Economic History; Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254897-17

Clare Holloway Croft
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1382)

A Biography of American Dance Critic Jill Johnston (1929-2010)

A book-length cultural biography of American dance critic and feminist Jill Johnston (1929-2010).

This project undertakes research on important American arts critic and activist, Jill Johnston, as a window into examining the role of embodiment in American histories of arts and activism in the 1960s and 1970s.

Project fields:
Dance History and Criticism; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-254899-17

Sun-Young Park
George Mason University (Fairfax, VA 22030-4444)

A History of French Disability Architecture and Design, 1750-1975

A book-length study on the architecture of disability accommodations in France, 1750-1975.

This project will explore how architectural and urban developments in France accommodated, and at times failed to accommodate, the disabled subject between 1750 and 1975. It will analyze the evolving design of pedagogical institutions for the deaf and the blind, as well as urban reform measures that gradually made cities more legible and navigable, alongside changing medical and cultural constructions of the different kinds of sensory disabilities. In the era when conceptions of disability were shifting from moral to scientific terms, material and spatial interfaces played increasingly formative roles in programs of education, therapy, and integration. By recovering the ways in which the modern built environment shaped, and was shaped by, non-normative human experiences, this project situates disability studies at the heart of humanistic inquiry into the forces—whether cultural, environmental, or political—mediating the relationship between individuals and society.

Project fields:
European History; Interdisciplinary Studies, Other; Urban History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254970-17

Gesa E. Kirsch
Bentley University (Waltham, MA 02452-4705)

Legacies of Thought and Action: The Professional Networks of 19th-century Women Physicians

Research and writing of a book on the professional networks and intellectual leadership of women physicians in the late 19th century.

This book investigates the rhetorical strategies, professional networks, and intellectual leadership of a group of late 19th century American women physicians. Drawing on several case studies and the rarely examined Woman’s Medical Journal, I argue that we can better understand the rhetorical practices and professional performances of early women physicians by attending to how they shared resources, knowledge and ideas, using both formal and informal ways to educate and mentor one another. This project illuminates the scope, range, and contours of professional networks that enabled women to collaborate, communicate across generations and geographical boundaries, and advocate for social change. This research has important implications for today: it highlights the powerful impact of professional networks for women and other underrepresented groups, whether they work in the medical professions, STEM fields, the social sciences or humanistic fields.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Composition and Rhetoric; Gender Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254971-17

K. Martin Camper
Loyola University Maryland (Baltimore, MD 21210-2601)

The Role of Rhetoric and Argumentation in Doctrinal Shifts since the Reformation

Completion of a book on the rhetorical strategies employed in religious debates from the Reformation to the present.

Since the 16th century, various segments of the Christian church have reversed their official stances on a number of biblical issues, including usury, heliocentricity, racial equality, women’s preaching, and homosexuality. In each case, the Bible was interpreted as first supporting one position and then the opposite one. While scholars have explored the social, cultural, political, theological, and economic motivations for these reversals, less well understood is how these changes in biblical meaning were accomplished through argument. This project examines the dynamic, dialogic, rhetorical nature of these five ecclesiastic debates and charts the argumentative steps that led to changes in official denominational positions. This analysis will yield patterns in how the church’s biblically grounded positions have changed through argument, and these patterns will help scholars of religious and non-religious texts better understand the nature of other past and contemporary textual disputes.

Project fields:
Composition and Rhetoric; History of Religion

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254972-17

Samantha Nicole Pinto
Georgetown University (Washington, DC 20057-0001)

Cultural Representations of the 1810 British Trial of Saartjie Baartman

The research and writing of a book chapter on representations of the trial of Saartjie Baartman, known as "The Venus Hottentot."

This proposed project will examine ongoing cultural representations of the 1810 British trial involving African performer Saartjie Baartman, known as "The Venus Hottentot." Her managers were brought up on charges of false imprisonment by abolitionists appealing to the state on behalf of Baartman, whom they argued could not consent to an employment contract without extreme coercion or force. The trial amplified Baartman's fame and held the attention of both 19th century London and many future generations of those looking at cultural representations for signs of racial, sexual, and gendered difference. This proposed book chapter interrogates the specific connection between those cultural representations of Baartman and the legal discourses surrounding race, gender, contract, and labor that they touch upon throughout the 200 years of fascination with Baartman's body and performance.

Project fields:
African American Studies; African Studies; Gender Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254930-17

Katherine M. Boivin
Bard College (Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-9800)

The Medieval City and the Politics of Pilgrimage

Preparation of a chapter for a book on medieval art and civic identity in the German city of Rothenburg and the sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider.

My current book, "The Medieval Urban Complex and the Politics of Pilgrimage," investigates the dynamic interactions among artworks created in a variety of media across the space of the late medieval city. Through an integrated study of administrative structures, urban planning, and visual culture, I examine the spatiality of artistic programming and its role in processes of civic-identity construction. While recent scholarship has begun to look at resonances among works created in different media within the space of a single church, the originality of my project lies in its exploration of the deliberate, though aggregated, programming of art spread throughout the late medieval city. An NEH Summer Stipends Award would allow me to complete "Chapter 5: Geographies of the Altarpiece," which proposes a new approach for studying the work of early modern artists by considering the landscape of pieces by Tilman Riemenschneider that once formed a network across the city of Rothenburg, Germany.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Medieval History; Medieval Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-255008-17

John F. Lopez, PhD
Skidmore College (Saratoga Springs, NY 12866-1698)

The Aquatic Metropolis: Mapping Water and Urban Form at Viceregal Mexico City

A book-length study about the drainage of lakes in Mexico City during the 16th and 17th centuries based on maps, city plans, paintings, diagrams, and other visual material.

The Aquatic Metropolis examines the centuries-old efforts by the Aztec and Spanish to combat catastrophic inundation in Mexico City via urban planning, water management, and environmental change. Unlike the Aztec who built a city of causeways to mitigate flooding, the Spanish undertook drainage, transforming the city from an island in 1524 to a mainland settlement by 1700. Analysis of Western and non-Western images demonstrates the differing epistemes undergirding Spanish and Aztec conceptions of nature, thus revealing the underlying objective of drainage: to dehistoricize Mexico City from its pre-Hispanic form, freeing it from the hydro-spatial practices of Aztec Tenochtitlan by eliminating its most iconic feature: water. In scrutinizing a Spanish response to flooding, this book sheds light on how a shift from causeways to drainage speaks to a new epistemological orientation to nature that had transformative urban implications.

Project fields:
Architecture; History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts; Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2018 – 9/30/2018


FT-255030-17

Jennifer A. Glancy
Le Moyne College (Syracuse, NY 13214-1301)

The Ancient Christian Understanding of Slavery and Contemporary Discourse on the Meaning of Being Human

Writing of a book connecting ancient Christian understandings of slavery and contemporary scholarship on the meaning of being human.

I am applying for a 2017 NEH Summer Stipend to support work on a monograph on ancient Christian slavery and contemporary discourses about the human. Modern scholars of slavery have often stressed the humanity of slaves and the inhumanity of slavery, but typically without examining assumptions about what is understood by humanity. Situating Christian sources from the first to third centuries in the wider currents of Jewish, Greek, and Roman thought to which they contribute, my project revisits the nexus of slavery and humanity in antiquity. I argue that twenty-first century discourses on the human have the potential to reframe discussions of ancient slavery. At the same time, attention to the place of slavery in ancient discourses has the potential to illuminate vexed questions in contemporary discussions of humanities and even to expose some limitations of those discourses.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Classics; Religion, Other

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-255049-17

Erin Kathleen Rowe
Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD 21218-2625)

Devotion to African Saints in Early Modern Global Catholicism

Research for a book on the development of devotion to African saints in Europe and the Americas during the early modern period. 

My project explores the global circulation of devotion to black saints, examining the intertwined histories of race and religion on local, national, and global scales. I argue that the promotion of black saints led the clergy to develop complex and ambivalent ideas about the spiritual meaning of blackness, which could resist the emerging discourses of early modern embodied racism while reinforcing the brutal regimes of slavery. It centers the role played by African diasporic communities in creating cults to black saints in ways that had a lasting impact on devotional practice. One of the key sources for the circulation of cults to black saints can be found in baroque polychrome sculpture that survive on the altars of former black confraternities (lay religious organizations) throughout the Catholic world. By bringing together visual and textual evidence, my project transforms our understanding of the role of religious ritual, the evolution of global devotion, and Atlantic identities.

Project fields:
European History; History of Religion; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-255079-17

Monica W. Varsanyi
CUNY Research Foundation, John Jay College (New York, NY 10019-1007)

The Contentious Evolution of Hispanic Identity during the Chicano Movement in New Mexico, 1962-1974

Research and writing of an article and book on the relations between Latino communities in twentieth-century New Mexico.

New Mexico has the largest Hispanic population in the United States, mainly native-born Hispanos who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the 1600s. And it is currently one of the most pro-immigrant states in the nation. One might assume a direct connection between demography and the state’s contemporary pro-immigrant stance, but the reality is more complicated. Hispanos have long had a fraught relationship with Mexico and more recent Mexican immigrants, making New Mexico’s current pro-immigrant stance far from assured. This project traces the evolving relationship between Hispanos and Mexican immigrants during the Chicano Movement in New Mexico between 1962 and 1974. This historical period in the state has received little scholarly attention, yet it offers an excellent window into understanding the evolution of pan-ethnic relations, given tensions between the Chicano Movement’s focus on ethnic solidarity, and strained relations between Hispanos and Mexican immigrants.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Latino History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-255083-17

John Bezis-Selfa
Wheaton College (Norton, MA 02766-2322)

A History of Latino Voting Rights, 1840-1980

A book-length historical study of Latinos' ability to exercise the right to vote.

This book project, “A Latino Right to Vote," explores and seeks to explain how Latino struggles to preserve, gain, regain, and exercise the right to vote shaped how Latinos and Anglos have conceived of and defined citizenship and Latinos' place within the United States. Through this project, for which I seek a wide audience, I aim to bring Latinos, who most Americans and most historians have long considered marginal to our nation’s past, to its center and to make them central to questions that have long animated study of that past. Who has been able to participate directly in our democracy and on what terms? What has it meant to be a citizen?

Project fields:
Latino History; Political History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-255089-17

Teresa Raczek
Kennesaw State University Research and Service Foundation (Kennesaw, GA 30144-5588)

Indus Valley Civilization in the Context of South Asian Societies in the Third Millennium BCE

Writing three chapters for book on the relationships between the Harappan civilization and surrounding Indian cultures.

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilization, or Harappan society, has been embraced in the US as a standard part of a World Civilization historical canon, alongside ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China. Rooted in culture history, many traditional treatments of this ancient society emphasize its uniqueness compared to other contemporaneous societies in South Asia. However, recent field research on the “Ahar Culture,” one of the Indus’ nearest neighbors in the Mewar Plain of northwest India, suggests that many of the daily practices of the inhabitants resembled those of the greater Indus region. The proposed monograph, Indus Imagined presents an analysis that integrates these ancient societies, highlighting the broader South Asian context. Indus Imagined challenges commonly accepted notions of the “Indus Valley Civilization” and presents an alternative vision that emphasizes the fluid nature of communities across a wide range of rural and urban areas.

Project fields:
Archaeology; South Asian Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-255104-17

Lofton Leon Durham
Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5200)

Jacques Milet's Destruction of Troy and the Making of the French Nation

Preparation of a book-length study on the 15th-century French play, The Destruction of Troy, by Jacques Milet.

My book project, Medieval Theatre at the Center: Jacques Milet’s Destruction of Troy and the Making of a Nation, looks at how theatre, both live and in its documentary afterlife, shaped and reflected widely-held beliefs about the emergent French nation from the fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries. Milet's 1452 play embodied the movement happening in many quarters to connect the ancient royal family of Troy and the people of France. But Milet also saw the errors of France’s past rulers reflected in the fall of Troy’s leaders, and sought to use the play to advise and educate France’s current rulers and her people alike. Milet’s works, designed for circulation in performance, manuscript, image, and finally in print, engaged these ideas through the early 17th century. The 2017 Summer Stipend will support two separate activities: the revision of part one of the manuscript; and translations of all extant performance records and the critical edition of the play’s Letter of Epilogue.

Project fields:
Theater History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-255121-17

Molly T. Blasing
University of Kentucky Research Foundation (Lexington, KY 40506-0004)

The Influence of Photography on Modern Russian Poetry

Completion of a book-length study on the influence of photography on modern Russian poetry.

This book considers how photography’s pervasiveness in 20th-c. culture has intervened in and shaped modern poetic thinking and writing. While much has been written on the impact of photography on realist fiction and autobiography, this project’s explicit focus on poetry illuminates a form of cultural production that speaks to both long-standing and present-day anxieties about the threat visual culture poses to verbal culture. I offer case studies of five major 20th-c. Russian poets to argue that poets who engage photography in their writing are drawn to certain affinities and tensions that exist between the lyric and the snapshot. The advent of photography gave poetry a new lexicon, new ways of conceiving vision, memory and loss, and opportunities to construct metaphors around photochemical processes. Yet at the core of each poet’s approach to “writing the photograph” is an urge to ultimately demonstrate the superior ability of poetic language to capture and convey human experience.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts; Interdisciplinary Studies, General; Russian Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-255126-17

Honor Sachs
Western Carolina University (Cullowhee, NC 28723)

The Life of Bartholomew Fenton: A Story of Revolution, Transformation, and Violence in Early America

A book-length study about the rags-to-riches story of Bartholomew Fenton, whose life encompassed many of the complications of the American Revolution and early republican era.

This project follows the life of a man named Bartholomew Fenton in his passage through the Atlantic World during the Age of Revolution. Fenton was exiled from London in 1770 as a convict servant and transported to colonial Virginia on the eve of the American Revolution. When war broke out, he took up arms against the empire that banished him and made his way to Kentucky. There he forged new status fighting Indians in the frontier militia. He acquired land and slaves, and in 1792, Fenton was arrested a second time for brutally beating a female slave to death. Arrested and tried for murder, Fenton was acquitted on all charges. This book reconstructs Fenton's journey from London to colonial Virginia to early national Kentucky and traces the complex ways that violence, race, and status were historically contingent in the vast Atlantic upheavals of the late eighteenth century.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
British History; Cultural History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-255128-17

Michael R. Ebner
Syracuse University (Syracuse, NY 13244-0001)

Mussolini's Empire: How the Fascists Ruled in Africa

A monograph on Italy’s empire in Africa (1922-1943).

'Mussolini’s Empire,’ a newly begun book-length project, examines Fascist rule in Italy’s African colonies (Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia) between 1922 and 1943. Building upon new research on violence and atrocity within European empires, the book will analyze Italy’s conquest of African territories through the lens of violence. Arguing that Mussolini’s quest for 'spazio vitale' (vital space) constituted the culmination of Fascist Italy’s political and social project, ‘Mussolini’s Empire’ will make the case that, for Fascists, the violence of empire building constituted the means and end for creating both a new Italian (the new “Fascist man”) and the newly fashioned, “inferior” colonial subjects over whom the Italians would rule. The book will also interpret Italian Fascist imperialism as a coherent, distinct system of rule that featured elements of both nineteenth-century (French, British) and twentieth-century totalitarian imperialisms (German, Japanese).

Project fields:
African History; European History; History, Other

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2017 – 9/30/2017


FT-255150-17

Christina Maria Bueno
Northeastern Illinois University (Chicago, IL 60625-4699)

Archaeology in Revolutionary Mexico, 1920-1940

A book-length study about the connections between archeology and nation-building during the first two decades after the Mexican Revolution.

“Excavating Identity: Archaeology in Revolutionary Mexico, 1920-1940” examines the making of archaeological patrimony and an official Indian past during the first two decades of Mexico's revolutionary regime. The manuscript also looks at how the government's archaeological projects impacted native peoples at the ruins. With the NEH Summer Stipend, I will explore this formative stage in Mexican archaeology through research in Mexico City archives. My goal is to spend two consecutive months analyzing documents in two Mexico City archives that are essential to the completion of my manuscript: the Historical Archive of the National Museum of Anthropology (AHMNA) and the National Library of Anthropology and History (BNAH).

Project fields:
Latin American History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-255157-17

Marie-Stéphanie Delamaire
Winterthur Museum (Winterthur, DE 19735-1819)

Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopedia and the Color Printing Revolution: A Translation and Critical Study

Preparation of a critical study and translation into English of articles on print-making in Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, 1751-1772.

This project is a critical study and English translation of the three most important articles on printmaking published in Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie between 1755 and 1758. The articles were collaboratively written by several scholars, practitioners, and amateurs of printed images: Claude-Henri Watelet (1718-1786), Antoine Gautier de Montdorge (1701-1768), Jean-Michel Papillon (1698-1776), and Louis de Jaucourt (1704-1779). They formulated, for the first time, the aesthetic and epistemological consequences of the eighteenth-century color printing revolution: the emergence of a modern concept of art reproduction, and the notion that a printed image taught not only through its representation but also through its own material production. The translated articles will be part of the Encyclopedia of Diderot & d’Alembert Collaborative Translation Project, a free, collaborative digital humanities endeavor hosted by the University of Michigan Library.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Cultural History; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-255197-17

James S. Leve
Northern Arizona University (Flagstaff, AZ 86011-0001)

Sounds, Sights, and Silences: Disability in Musical Theater

Preparation of a book-length study about the representation and impact of disability on American musical theater.

I request an NEH Summer Stipend to write two chapters of my book, "Sounds, Sights, and Silences: Disability in Musical Theater,” the first major study of disability as it is constructed and experienced in musical theater. The funding will support on-site visits to Theater by the Blind and Deaf West in Los Angeles. I will observe how the staff of these organizations interacts with and prepares the disabled performers. Following these visits, I will incorporate this material into the relevant chapters of my book. My study approaches disability in musical theater from three distinct perspectives: the narrative structure, the composition, and accommodation for performers and audience members. It also explores the impact of the ADA on the repertory. My book speaks to a diverse audience of scholars in the humanities by enlarging the scope of disability studies to include musical theater.

Project fields:
Music History and Criticism; Theater History and Criticism; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-255252-17

Aeron Hunt
Boston College (Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3858)

Representations of Veterans in the Victorian Literature and Culture

A book-length study on the representation of veterans in 19th-century British literature and culture.

“Discharged Honorable: Veterans in the Victorian Social Imagination” examines the nearly ubiquitous but often unremarked figure of the veteran in Victorian literature and culture. I argue that the Victorian veteran was a profoundly social figure more than an emblem of psychological trauma, representing a complex transitional role, in which subjects were poised between economic and social activities oriented toward larger collectives—especially, in this case, the nation, the state, and the military itself—and others oriented toward the capitalist marketplace or the individual family. By analyzing how writers engaged and shaped the characters, plots, and genres through which veterans’ stories emerged or were muted, my book generates new perspectives on Victorian concepts of service and labor, social responsibility and welfare, and gender and identity, and suggests that the social imagination of Victorian veterans holds lessons for reimagining citizenship and care in our own moment.

Project fields:
British History; British Literature

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-255259-17

Jared Manasek
Pace University, Pleasantville (Pleasantville, NY 10570-2700)

Humanitarianism and Refugees at the End of Empire, 1848-1918

A book-length study on refugees and humanitarianism in the Ottoman Empire from 1848-1918.

My book manuscript, “The Politics of Caring: Humanitarianism and Refugees at the End of Empire, 1848-1918,” examines the evolution of humanitarian discourse and action in international politics and civil society over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Using the local and international responses to the human catastrophe of the Near Eastern Crisis of 1875-1878 as a centerpiece for investigating the deep roots of modern humanitarianism and refugee aid and protection, “The Politics of Caring” finds the roots of modern humanitarianism in nineteenth century Europe and the Middle East. With the help of an NEH summer stipend, I intend to complete Chapter One of the manuscript and begin revisions to the introduction.

Project fields:
Diplomatic History; European History; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254263-17

José Luis Venegas
Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, NC 27109-6000)

Modern Conceptions of Medieval Muslim Spain

A book-length project on modern political, religious, and cultural conceptions of medieval Muslim Spain and Spanish national identity.

Inventing modern Spain in the twentieth century meant Europeanizing, but also revising and at times discarding Orientalist images of its southern region, Andalusia, the fabled land of Carmen the Gypsy cigar-maker, the Alhambra Palace, and the Muslim civilization of Al-Andalus. My project, an interdisciplinary analysis of visual art, literary texts, music, and architecture from the late 1800s until the present, will be the first systematic account of how Spanish artists and intellectuals represent Andalusia as a space of encounter between Spain’s modernizing aspirations and its Moorish past. Neither identical nor antithetical to the Arab world, Andalusia challenges ethnocentric notions of Spanish culture while disrupting such oppositions as Oriental vs European and primitive vs modern. In tracing the development of this ambivalent image, the project demonstrates its overlooked yet pivotal role in formulations of national identity in modern Spain.

Project fields:
Cultural History; Interdisciplinary Studies, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254264-17

Cristina Stanciu
Virginia Commonwealth University (Richmond, VA 23284-9066)

The Makings and Unmakings of Americans: Indians and Immigrants in American Literature and Culture, 1879-1924

Research and writing of a book comparing how Native Americans and immigrant communities understood Americanization at the beginning of the twentieth century.

This NEH summer stipend will be essential to completing and submitting this first book-length study of how Native American and New Immigrant writers and public intellectuals intervened in the debates over Americanization at the beginning of the twentieth century. The book, under contract with Yale University Press, illuminates in fundamental ways the debates over what it meant to be an American at the turn of the twentieth century, debates which continue to resonate in contemporary discourses over national identity. The book builds on previously unexamined or under-examined archives of Indigenous and New Immigrant materials ranging from manuscripts and publications of the Carlisle Indian School to the Society of American Indian papers, from Yiddish newspapers to the Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey. The book charts the intersecting visions of the campaigns to assimilate Native Americans (1879-1924) and to Americanize the New Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe (1883-1924).

Project fields:
American Literature; Ethnic Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254227-17

Emily Bruderle Baran
Middle Tennessee State University (Murfreesboro, TN 37132-0001)

The "Siberian Seven" and the Global Campaign for Religious Freedom

Preparation of a monograph on international Christian human rights during the Cold War.

My project explores the intersection of religious activism and human rights through the first scholarly examination of the Siberian Seven incident. In 1978 seven Pentecostals from Siberia entered the American Embassy in Moscow. They had endured decades of persecution, and refused to leave the embassy, ultimately winning emigration after five years in residence. My project uses this incident to chart the global human rights campaign on behalf of Soviet Christians in the late Cold War. It examines the dialogue between Soviet citizens and western activists, and their difficult relationship with their governments and society at large. The Siberian Seven demonstrate the need to understand the interplay, exchange, and conflict between Christians on both sides of the Iron Curtain. I am requesting NEH support to fund critical research in the Russian state archives. This will allow me to produce a compelling monograph that reaches a broad audience of scholars, students, and the general public.

Project fields:
Russian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254202-17

Matthew Simonton
Arizona State University, West Campus (Glendale, AZ 85306-4900)

Demagogues and Popular Culture in Ancient Greece

Preparation of a book-length study on the popular political leaders of ancient Greece known as demagogues.

My book project, “Watchdogs of the People: Demagogues and Popular Culture in Ancient Greece,” represents the first comprehensive history of the demagogue ("leader of the people") in antiquity. Along with tracing the development and practice of demagoguery, it will utilize a popular culture-based approach to illuminate the concerns of everyday people as reflected in the rhetorical appeals of the demagogues. The book will ask timely questions concerned with the common good, such as when and why polarizing political figures arise, by what cultural appeals they attract a significant following, and how democratic societies can produce responsible leadership while remaining in touch with the concerns of average citizens.

Project fields:
Classical History; Classical Languages; Classics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254220-17

Melissa J. Homestead
University of Nebraska, Board of Regents (Lincoln, NE 68588-0007)

The Creative Partnership of American Novelist Willa Cather and Editor Edith Lewis

A book-length study of the collaboration between Willa Cather and Edith Lewis.

I propose to spend summer 2017 working on two chapters of my book “The Creative Partnership of Willa Cather and Edith Lewis,” which reconstructs and analyzes the relationship between Cather, an American novelist, and Lewis, a magazine editor and advertising writer with whom Cather shared a home in New York City for nearly four decades. The book, which will consist of an introduction and seven chapters, is under contract with Oxford University Press with a final delivery date of 1 September 2019. By May 2017, I anticipate having produced complete drafts of the introduction and three chapters. During the fellowship term, I propose to write two more chapters, one on Cather and Lewis’s shared Southwestern travels and Cather’s two novels drawing on those experiences, and another on Lewis’s career as an advertising copywriter and Cather’s engagements with commercial and celebrity culture in the 1920s.

Project fields:
American Literature; U.S. History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254401-17

Lisa Rebekah Arnold
North Dakota State University, Main Campus (Fargo, ND 58102-1843)

Rhetoric and Identity at Syrian Protestant College, 1866-1920

Completion of a book on the history of writing and language teaching at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut, Lebanon, from 1866 to 1920. 

This project examines the history of writing policies and practices at Syrian Protestant College (SPC), located in Beirut, Lebanon, in order to reveal how rhetorical negotiations among faculty, students, administrators, and the local community around the turn of the twentieth century produced an unsettled, and sometimes unsettling, vision of “America.” The example of SPC demonstrates how “America” was imagined rhetorically through educational practices and policies prior to the nation’s direct political involvement in the Middle East-North Africa region. As American models of schooling traveled across national borders, so too did the ideology of an “ideal American identity” travel through the promotion of literacy abroad. Rhetorical negotiations at SPC illuminate the high stakes and implicit promises of the global spread of American-style institutions of higher education, particularly in relation to questions of American identity, culture, and citizenship.

Project fields:
American Studies; Composition and Rhetoric

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254415-17

Katherine Turk
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, NC 27599-1350)

A History of the National Organization for Women

A book-length history of the National Organization for Women, 1966-2016

In 1966, a diverse group of activists created the National Organization for Women (NOW) to build “a civil rights movement to speak for women.” Claiming NOW will yield the first comprehensive account of the largest and most significant feminist membership organization in American history. Over the decades, NOW’s leaders and hundreds of local chapters built undeniable momentum that made feminism mainstream. But NOW’s mass appeal and open-ended blueprint also produced new adversaries as it fought to “desexigrate” American citizenship and destabilized the very category of “woman.” By foregrounding NOW in the past half-century of American history, Claiming NOW reveals how centrist feminism transformed as it took shape, intersecting with conservative forces to produce our own social and political landscape.

Project fields:
Gender Studies; U.S. History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254416-17

Kristina Killgrove
University of West Florida (Pensacola, FL 32514-5750)

Death Comes to Oplontis: Recording and Analyzing Skeletons of Victims of Mt. Vesuvius (79 AD)

Analysis and digital preservation of 54 skeletons from the Roman town, Oplontis, destroyed by Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D., leading to the creation of digital models, datasets, a project website, and an interpretive article.

Numerous urban centers in the Bay of Naples were completely destroyed by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 AD. Pompeii and Herculaneum are the most famous of these, primarily because of the extent of excavation and the creation of plaster casts of dozens of dead bodies. Other areas were equally affected but are less understood, even today, because of their location underneath modern development. The villa complex of Oplontis is one of these. The 54 skeletons from Oplontis have been partially excavated, but they have never been conserved or analyzed. This project therefore has two goals: 1) to digitally preserve this cultural heritage through 3D scanning and photogrammetry; and 2) to create and publish a comparative database of key information from the skeletons themselves. This proposed research connects the dots between archaeological context, historical records, and physical bodies and invites the public to interact with this little-known Vesuvian site.

[Grant products][Media coverage]

Project fields:
Archaeology; Biological Anthropology; Classics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254429-17

Kate Bredeson
Reed College (Portland, OR 97202-8199)

An Edition of The Diaries of American Actress, Writer, and Director Judith Malina, 1947-2015

Research and digital preservation of documents leading to the publication of a scholarly edition of the diaries and papers of Judith Malina (1926-2015), co-founder and director of The Living Theater.

My book is an edited collection of Living Theatre co-founder and director Judith Malina’s diaries, accompanied by my critical introduction that situates Malina in theater history. This book provides an in depth historical account of Malina’s over sixty years as a director, performer, manager, radical activist, and woman. Because it is the aspect of her life least touched by scholars, my book focuses on revealing Malina’s work as a director—her approach with her actors, artistic vision, and rehearsal techniques. While two versions (1947-57 and 1968-69) of Malina’s diaries have been published to great acclaim, the rest of her papers remain unpublished. In her writings, Malina’s wit, passion, and vivacious observations about her life’s work and her political and social milieux are made abundantly clear. This book appeals to theater scholars, artists, students, and cultural historians. I apply for NEH support to work with the 2008-2015 diaries, which are in a storage locker in NYC.

Project fields:
Theater History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254230-17

Evan Haefeli
Texas A & M University, College Station (College Station, TX 77843-0001)

Religious Toleration in America, 1660-1714

A book-length study about the development of transatlantic religious pluralism in the British colonies between 1660 and 1714.

Researching, in English archives, a book-length study of the growth of religious pluralism in colonial America. Treating toleration as a practice as much as an idea, it sets the creation and growth of colonies like New York and Pennsylvania within the religious and political context of the British Isles and other parts of the empire, from Jamaica to India, to determine just how exceptional or pragmatic the toleration in America was. Emphasizing the role of imperial politics in opening up new possibilities for toleration, the research also shows local efforts in America to restrict pluralism. In this crucial phase of the creation of American pluralism, religious toleration was far from universally accepted. It was contested in some areas, very limited in others, existing in different ways from one colony to another. By examining American developments within the context of the whole empire, this book shows that what we think of as distinctly American was actually an imperial product.

Project fields:
British History; History of Religion; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254241-17

Andrew Joseph Hogan
Creighton University (Omaha, NE 68178-0133)

Changing Understandings among Physicians of Developmental Disabilities, 1950-1980

Research and writing of a book on medical understandings of developmental disabilities in the second half of the 20th century. 

After 1950, the understanding and management of developmental disabilities were impacted by two countervailing trends. As public support for the unique needs and experiences of affected individuals increased, physicians began to link developmental disabilities to genetic causes. Genetic associations led to new identities and resources, but also reified disability as a pathological target for medical intervention. Scholars have extensively explored increasing postwar social support for disability. Less has been done to examine how evolving societal views of disability influenced the medical community. This project draws on archives, published literature, and interviews to examine evolving clinical narratives of developmental disabilities. The PI examines how and why new narratives of developmental disabilities entered the medical community, how clinicians responded to alternative viewpoints, positively and negatively, and the role of some professionals in promoting broader adoption.

Project fields:
History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine; History of Science

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 6/30/2017


FT-254303-17

Abigail L. Swingen
Texas Tech University (Lubbock, TX 79409)

The Financial Revolution and the British Empire during the 17th and 18th Centuries

A book-length study on the financial revolution in the British Empire during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Britain’s Financial Revolution was key to the origins of capitalism in the early modern period. The Financial Revolution is usually associated with the creation of the national debt on the part of the British government to help pay for increasingly expensive military endeavors at turn of the eighteenth century. The widespread use of credit was not new, but the move away from using limited, personalized credit mechanisms toward more impersonal, state-supported instruments of public debt and credit fundamentally transformed British society by creating new investment opportunities for a variety of people throughout Britain and the empire. My book, The Financial Revolution and the British Empire, will place the Financial Revolution properly within the history of capitalism and take into consideration how and why imperial expansion played a role in developing many of the financial institutions and mechanisms associated with the Financial Revolution.

Project fields:
British History; Economic History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254451-17

Anne Ayer Verplanck
Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg (Middletown, PA 17057-4846)

The Business of Art: Transforming the Graphic Arts in an Age of Mechanical Reproduction

Preparation of a book-length study on the history of business and graphic arts in 19th-century Philadelphia.

The book analyzes how the art world functioned amid changing business structures, technological innovations, and rapid urban development. Using Philadelphia as its locus, the book positions the city in both national and international contexts, asking how the interplay of place, economics, and social relations affected the creation and use of art, individual businesses, and the ascent and decline of high-caliber graphic arts in Philadelphia. At its core, the book analyzes why seemingly contradictory innovative and retardataire practices and mindsets in the city enabled the infrastructure surrounding the graphic arts to expand during the antebellum period, yet ultimately cede prominence as the nation’s artistic center to New York City. The project analyzes the financial underpinnings and creative output of artists, printers, publishers, and others in the art world to provide new perspectives on artistic patronage, production, and distribution; urban development; and business practices.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Studies; Art History and Criticism; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254468-17

Wayne A. Wiegand
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)

The American Public School Library: A History

Preparation of a monograph about the American public school library and its history.

As of this writing, more than 94,000 school library/media centers exist in the United States, 80,000 of which are public school libraries. For the 20th century alone the American public school library can boast a rich history of service to tens of thousands of schoolteachers and administrators and millions of K-12 users of both sexes, all creeds, races, sexual orientations, ethnicities, and social classes. Despite the fact that the American public school library is ubiquitous, however, no one from the education or the library and information science (LIS) research communities has yet written a comprehensive history of the institution to help identify and deepen understanding of its multiple roles, and to provide perspective to leaders now creating policy, planning its future, and fighting for its funding. I intend to write a 300-page history of the American public school library.

Participating institutions:
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL) - Applicant/Grantee
Unaffiliated Independent Scholar () - Participating institution

Project fields:
American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254269-17

David Fedman
University of California, Irvine (Irvine, CA 92617-3066)

Forestry and the Politics of Conservation in Colonial Korea, 1910-1945

Research and writing leading to publication of a book on conservationism and forest management in colonial Korea, 1910-1945.

This project examines Japanese efforts to rehabilitate, exploit, and showcase Korea’s forests during the period of colonial rule (1910-1945). Building on previous studies of the tangled roots of empire and conservationism, I argue that the forestry enterprise in colonial Korea was as concerned with the seed as it was with the saw: it placed reforestation at the very heart of its efforts to modernize the Korean landscape and the ecological sensibilities of its inhabitants. But forest reclamation in Korea was far from benevolent: it siphoned off forests to Japanese corporations, cut off communities from resources that had long sustained them, and placed vast stands of timber under state control. Afforestation, in other words, was a process rife with conflict and fraught with contradiction. By chronicling this intensive, contested, and largely forgotten forestry project, this book offers a path-breaking case study in the promise and perils of natural resource management in Japan’s empire.

Project fields:
East Asian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
8/1/2017 – 10/30/2017


FT-254470-17

Edward Cahill
Fordham University (Bronx, NY 10458-9993)

Benjamin Franklin and Upward Mobility in British America

Research and writing of a study of class mobility in colonial America and other British colonies, with the life of Benjamin Franklin as a case study.

This project explores the cultural history of upward mobility in colonial British America by examining the ideas of striving and rising that Benjamin Franklin inherited and the ways in which he and others adapted and revised them. Long considered an avatar of the ‘American Dream,’ Franklin was in fact indebted to a 17th-century English tradition that understood mobility as appealing but dangerous, as well as a colonial one that often satirized radical mobility while limiting prosperity to elites. Such tensions persisted throughout the 18th century, even as American opportunity widened and moral scruples about ambition grew more flexible. After achieving wealth and status himself, Franklin demanded the virtuous moderation of his ambitious contemporaries and ridiculed hasty striving. But he also affirmed the legitimacy of mobility, extended its intellectual and social means to a broader audience, and revolutionized the formal literary means by which its stories could be told.

Project fields:
American Literature; American Studies; Cultural History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254487-17

Catherine P. Batza, PhD
University of Kansas, Lawrence (Lawrence, KS 66045-7505)

Local and Regional Responses to AIDS in the American Heartland during the 1980s and 1990s

A book-length historical study of local and regional responses to AIDS in Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri in the 1980s and 1990s.

In the early AIDS crisis, the Heartland became a cultural and political battleground over sexuality, morality, and citizenship. The disease inspired the sick, their families, and LGBTQ people to fight AIDS and the homophobia it fueled; without this tragic impetus, many would have stayed closeted, remained apathetic, or left the region. Most LGBTQ historical scholarship depicts the Heartland as inspiring an LGBTQ exodus, a foil to coastal cities, or a backdrop to sexual secrecy. As the first in-depth historical study of AIDS in the Heartland, this work recasts the region as an important site in national AIDS history. An NEH Summer Stipend would fund research and the writing of chapter 2, which unearths local responses to early AIDS and serves as the bedrock for the argument that the respectability politics most resonant and effective in the politically and religiously conservative Heartland deeply shaped the initial AIDS response and the national LGBTQ political agenda for a generation.

Project fields:
Gender Studies; U.S. History; U.S. Regional Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254546-17

Michael Joseph McVicar
Florida State University (Tallahassee, FL 32306-0001)

A History of Religious Activism and Intelligence Gathering in the U.S. after the Civil War

Writing of a book on the surveillance of political and religious opponents by American Christian organizations between the Civil War and the early 21st century.

“God’s Watchers” seeks to rethink the history of religion in the United States by focusing on the problem of surveillance in American culture. Unlike recent works in American religious history that focus on the problems of secularism and the legal boundaries of church and state, this project concentrates on techniques of surveillance to argue that historians have paid far too much attention to problems of belief, theology, and legal precedent while paying far too little attention to the mechanisms of social regulation and policing that have characterized American religious organizations. The resulting narrative offers a complex story of overlapping alliances between religious activists and law enforcement agents, violent conflict between business interests and the forces of organized labor, and the mixing and melding of the agents of church, state, and voluntary associations into a dense tangle of political intrigue and social upheaval.

Project fields:
African History; American Studies; History of Religion

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254548-17

Caroline E. Shaw
Bates College (Lewiston, ME 04240-6028)

A History of the Legal Concepts of Reputation and Defamation in the British Court System

A book-length study on the history of reputation and defamation laws in Britain.

Freedom of expression has become a right. Yet, it is qualified by the responsibility to respect the reputation of others. The “right” to reputation fits somewhat uncomfortably in the canon of liberal rights, however. Rights to property or the right to vote, for example, seem like individual possessions to be safeguarded by the state. Reputation, by contrast, exists within the minds of others in a particular community. In the modern era, worldly individuals were supposed to be indifferent to frivolous gossip. Nevertheless, defenses of reputation have remained peculiarly robust in British legal culture. This project offers the first historical account of reputation and British law over the last two centuries. It examines the intellectual debates and the social contexts in which laws of libel and slander were remade in the modern era. It asks why Britain is an outlier and asks us to think more deeply about the role of community in the constellation of individual, liberal rights.

Project fields:
British History; Cultural History; Legal History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254559-17

Michael David McNally
Carleton College (Northfield, MN 55057-4044)

Native American Religious Freedom beyond the First Amendment

Writing a book on the role of Native American religious traditions in legal debates over religious freedom.

The category of "religion" as it has come to be defined in the law has had mixed results for Native American communities who have strategically appealed to the legal/political discourse of "religious freedom" to protect sacred places, practices, knowledge, objects, and ancestral remains that are not easily assimilated into modern Western senses of "religion." In turn, those communities have articulated such arguably "religious" claims in other legal and political discourses: cultural property, historic preservation and environmental law, treaty-based federal Indian law, and indigenous rights in international human rights law. The book to be completed under the grant, Native American Religious Freedom Beyond the First Amendment, explores these Native American claims, and the various legal discourses of their articulation, to inform contemporary discussions about religious freedom, the cultural history of the category of religion, and the vitality of indigenous religions in today's world.

Project fields:
History of Religion; Law and Jurisprudence; Native American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254572-17

Rachel Teukolsky
Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN 37240-0001)

The Aesthetic Life of Images in Britain's Machine Age

A book-length study on new media technology in Victorian England and its influence on literature and aesthetics.

“New media” today conjures cyberspace, hypertext, and other digital innovations. Yet media invention itself is not new, and every epoch has had to confront the disruptive and transformative effects of new communications technologies. This project looks back to the new visual media of Britain’s nineteenth century, to demonstrate their centrality to Victorian ideas about aesthetics, politics, and visual value. Each of the book’s chapters considers a different kind of emergent visual media object, including pictorial newspapers, stereoscopic views, illustrated bibles, advertising posters, and early film. The book shows how these mass-produced visual objects, usually considered disposable ephemera, in fact offer access to some of the Victorian era’s foundational aesthetic concepts, keywords such as character, illustration, realism, sensation, and the picturesque.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; British Literature; Media Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254581-17

Kelly Shannon
Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton, FL 33431-6424)

U.S.-Iranian Relations, 1905-1953

A book-length study of U.S.-Iranian relations, 1905-1953.

This book-length project will offer a critical and comprehensive examination of US-Iran relations during the period between Iran’s first revolution and the 1953 US coup against Iran’s prime minister. Based on extensive multi-national, multi-lingual archival research in government, non-government, and cultural sources, this book will provide a deep understanding of the roots and drivers of early US-Iran engagement. By writing a history of the broad array of interactions between Americans and Iranians--official diplomacy, geopolitics, military matters, missionary activities, business and financial relationships, oil, travelers and tourism, women and gender, human rights and humanitarianism, and culture--I will argue that Americans had an indelible impact on Iranian nationalism and understanding of the West, while Iran served as an ally for US attempts to upend the European-dominated global system, a lens for understanding the Islamic world, and a site for the exercise of growing US power.

Project fields:
Diplomatic History; Near and Middle Eastern History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254443-17

Travis Michael Timmerman
Seton Hall University (South Orange, NJ 07079-2697)

Accounting for Moral Responsibility in an Agent's Free Actions

Writing two papers to present at academic conferences in preparation for writing a book on moral responsibility.

Virtually all normative ethical theories hold that whether an action is morally right depends upon the alternative acts available to the agent. But what exactly are the relevant alternative acts available to an agent? The answer to this question is far from obvious once we consider facts about how an agent would freely act in various situations. Actualists say that the relevant acts are determined by how agents would act in any situation. Possibilists deny this. Hybridists posit an actualist and a possibilist ought. The actualism/possibilism debate has important, heretofore, overlooked implications for the philosophical debate about the nature of moral responsibility. I will write two papers which collectively demonstrate that (a) actualism cannot accommodate an essential desideratum for any plausible account of blameworthiness, yet which (b) hybridism can easily be developed to accommodate. Consequently, I will identify another reason to accept hybridism and reject actualism.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Ethics

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254502-17

Sharon Ann Murphy
Providence College (Providence, RI 02918-7000)

Banking and Slavery in the Antebellum South

A book-length study of the financial links between southern banks and the institution of slavery in the United States during the nineteenth century.

Despite the rich literature on the history of slavery, the scholarship on bank financing of slavery is quite slim. My research demonstrates that commercial banks were willing to accept slaves as collateral for loans and as a part of loans assigned over to them from a third party. Many helped underwrite the sale of slaves, using them as collateral. They were willing to sell slaves as part of foreclosure proceedings on anyone who failed to fulfill a debt contract. Commercial bank involvement with slave property occurred throughout the antebellum period and across the South. Some of the most prominent southern banks, as well as the Second Bank of the United States, directly issued loans using slaves as collateral. This places southern banking institutions at the heart of the buying and selling of slave property, one of the most reviled aspects of the slave system. This project will result in the first major monograph on the relationship between banking and slavery in the antebellum South.

Project fields:
African American History; Economic History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254515-17

Kristen M. Turner
North Carolina State University (Raleigh, NC 27695-7003)

Opera on the American Popular Stage, 1890-1915

A book-length study of the impact of European opera on the American popular stage, 1890-1915.

My proposed book, Opera on the American Popular Stage, 1890–1915, examines the use of opera in vaudeville, early musical comedies, and American comic operas written and performed by African American and white musicians. Opera contributed a rich palette of music, plot lines, and cultural stereotypes that nourished new productions. The genre had a widespread presence on the popular stage and took on a range of meanings that sometimes were contradictory and, depending upon the context, often race-specific. During the era when Jim Crow laws were being passed, blacks and whites viewed opera through the lens of race, class, and gender, coming to different conclusions as to its social and cultural meanings. Each chapter of the book will focus on a particular manifestation of opera drawing upon methodologies from gender, African American, theater, and American studies using examples from all three types of entertainments.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
American Studies; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254197-17

Stephen James Shoemaker
University of Oregon (Eugene, OR 97403-5219)

A Translation of the First Christian Hymnal: The Songs of the Ancient Jerusalem Church

Preparation for publication of an annotated translation of the earliest known Christian hymnal, created in Jerusalem in the early 5th century.

I will produce the first English language translation of the earliest known Christian hymnal. This collection of ancient Christian hymns was compiled in Jerusalem during the later 4th or early 5th century. It offers an unmatched resource for understanding the development of early Christian worship and piety, as well as the transmission of Christian doctrine to the unlettered. Nevertheless, this invaluable collection has been almost completely ignored by scholars of early Christianity. Such neglect is almost certainly a consequence of the fact that this collection of theological poetry survives only in an Old Georgian translation, a language known by very few scholars of early Christianity. Compounding this problem is the inaccessibility and complexity of its critical edition. The resulting book will be of interest not only to scholars and students of early Christianity, but to members of the general public interested in sacred music as well.

Project fields:
History of Religion; Medieval Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-254173-17

Laura Morowitz
Wagner College (Staten Island, NY 10301-4495)

Art Exhibitions in Vienna, Austria, during the Nazi Occupation

Preparation of two chapters of a book on art exhibitions in Vienna under Nazi rule between 1939 and 1945.

From 1938 to 1945 Austria was annexed into the German Reich and placed under Nazi rule; an independent Austria ceased to exist and it became the Ostmark, or Eastern-most region of the German nation. As in all other realms of culture, art exhibitions and art history were enlisted in reshaping the public memory and the identity of Ostmark. In the city of Vienna, one of the most important cultural capitals of the world, art exhibitions took on a special charge. This book examines three exhibits held at the Vienna Künstlerhaus between 1939 and 1945, focusing on the way in which art was used to replace a contested image of Vienna—a city with a particularly rich, complex relation to the arts, including tremendous contributions from Jewish artists and patrons—with an invented Ostmark. The motivations and functions of the exhibits under study, as well as the art historical interpretations and texts connected with them reveal a great deal about the fate of Austrian identity and Nazi ideology.

[Grant products]

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; European History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/30/2017


FT-254240-17

Joseph Eugene Hower
Southwestern University (Georgetown, TX 78626)

Jerry Wurf (1919-1981) and the Rise of Public Sector Unions in Postwar America

A book-length study of public sector unionism in the post-WWII United States, focusing on Jerry Wurf (1919-1981), a leader in the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) union.

My book explores the significance of public sector labor unions to broader transformations in American politics and society during the second half of the twentieth century through a social biography of Jerry Wurf (1919-1981). Building on recent work that looks to the 1970s as the “critical decade” in the postwar era, I show how the growing size, power, and visibility of public sector unions bolstered the ranks of a stagnating labor movement while transforming popular perceptions of organized labor; it created new and powerful constituencies for government programs while forever altering the politics of taxes and public services; it provided an effective vehicle for African Americans and women to secure dignity and equity at the public workplace while undermining the status and security of public employment; and it lent crucial support to a liberalism shaken by Vietnam and the fiscal crisis while inadvertently facilitating the success of Reagan-era conservatism.

Project fields:
Labor History; U.S. History; Urban History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 7/31/2017


FT-254248-17

Leif Weatherby
New York University (New York, NY 10012-1019)

Early Digital Humanities: German Idealism and the Development of Cybernetics in the mid 20th Century

Research and writing leading to a book-length study of mid-20th century philosophers of German Idealism who theorized cybernetics and digital technology.

The book project tells the story of a small group of thinkers I call the "cybernetic metaphysicians," who developed the first metaphysics for the digital. They shared the conviction that information theory and German Idealism (especially the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel) would have to be combined to reinvent the humanities in the age of the computer. Warren McCulloch, Jacques Lacan, Max Bense, and Gotthard Günther came to share this conviction through a series of glancing contacts that I reveal from the archive for the first time. They never formed a movement, but their thought, once reconstructed together, shows us a very different kind of "digital humanities."

Project fields:
Comparative Literature; History and Philosophy of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
10/1/2017 – 11/30/2017


FT-248668-16

Jeffrey Forret
Lamar University (Beaumont, TX 77705-5748)

Williams' Gang: A Slave Trader, His Cargo, and Justice in the Old South

To support a book-length study of slave trader William H. Williams and the legal questions related to slave trading.

In 1840, Washington, D.C., slave trader William H. Williams purchased twenty-seven convicted slaves out of the Virginia State Penitentiary in Richmond, agreeing to sell them per state law outside the United States. He then allegedly attempted to dispose of his human cargo unlawfully in New Orleans, prompting a series of court cases that culminated before the U.S. Supreme Court in 1869, four years after emancipation, eleven years after Williams' death, and almost thirty years after the original incident. The burgeoning scholarly literature on the internal slave trade in the Old South has overlooked the water-borne transport of slaves within the United States as well as the complex legal questions raised by professional slave trading. My project examines the criminal pasts of the slaves whom Williams purchased as well as his own history of encounters with the law, offering an unprecedented look at the legal issues surrounding the coastwise domestic slave trade in the American South.

Project fields:
African American History; Legal History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-248676-16

Stefan Fiol
University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH 45220-2872)

Dialects of Dhol-Damaun: Drumming as Historiography in the Uttarakhand Himalayas

Research leading to the publication of a book with accompanying maps and musical notation documenting the role of ceremonial drumming in preserving the social and religious history of the central Himalayas.

This study investigates drumming as the performance of history in the central Himalayas of North India. Although drummers do not often think of themselves as historians, their rhythmic patterns carry information about the historical movements of populations and their cultural and religious practices. This research foregrounds the role of marginalized, lower-caste hereditary drummers in shaping local histories through the embodied processes of learning, remembering, organizing, transmitting, and adapting diverse sets of rhythmic patterns. By applying theoretical and methodological insights from music cognition, socio-linguistics, human geography, and collective memory studies, this study charts an innovative approach to historiography through the analysis and comparison of drumming patterns.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
Ethnomusicology; South Asian Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
9/1/2016 – 10/31/2016


FT-248681-16

Tamara Chaplin
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (Urbana, IL 61801-3620)

Postwar French Media, and the Struggle for Gay Rights

A book-length study of the history of French lesbian activism since World War II.

In 2013, France legalized gay marriage. Desiring Women: Lesbians, Media, and the Struggle for Gay Rights in Postwar France argues that lesbian engagement with the media helped liberalize French attitudes towards sexual difference in the postwar era. My book insists that we look at lesbians both because they achieved this end by using new forms of social media, and because wider French support for gay rights only surfaced in the 1990s after alternative and mainstream media reframed "deviant" homosexual desire as maternal and familial. Drawing on text, radio, TV, the Internet, and extensive filmed interviews, Desiring Women offers a rich rendering of a previously undocumented French lesbian past. In so doing, it provides the first postwar history of an understudied French sexual minority, shows how lesbians challenged the republican model of French citizenship, and prefigures the ways in which oppressed groups use social media (e.g., the Arab Spring) to drive political change.

Project fields:
European History; Gender Studies; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/30/2016


FT-248688-16

Peter Christensen, PhD
University of Rochester (Rochester, NY 14627-0001)

Architecture and the German Construction of the Ottoman Railway Network in the 19th Century

A book-length manuscript on the construction of the Ottoman railway network in the 19th century.

The Ottoman railway network, considered the pride of that empire’s modernizing impulses, was actually engineered by Germans. While it employed local builders and craftsmen, it also accelerated German influence in the region, and set the stage for an ambiguous form of colonialism. No one has yet examined the relationship of the built environment to political agendas in this ambiguously colonial environment. An NEH Summer Stipend will support completion of my book, which uses train stations, settlements, maps, bridges, monuments, and an archaeological canon as its evidence. I examine the goals of the agents involved in the railways’ realization from political, geographic, topographic, archaeological, constructional, architectural, and urban perspectives. I argue that the early internationalization of infrastructure construction bore some of the trademarks of imperialism while also syncretizing cultural difference in a new visual idiom that represented emergent nationalisms.

Project fields:
Architecture; European History; History, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248690-16

April Oettinger, PhD
Goucher College (Baltimore, MD 21204-2780)

Lorenzo Lotto and the Sublime Turn in Venetian Landscape Art

A book-length study on the landscape paintings by the Venetian Renaissance master Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480-1557).

My project addresses the genesis and cultural dimensions of the sublime landscape in early 16th-century northern Italian landscape painting and the role of landscape expression in shaping not only landscape practice and theory, but also literary descriptions of the land. Through a close consideration of the landscape ornaments of Lorenzo Lotto, my project elucidates the ways in which Lotto and his peers invoked and assimilated a range of landscape imagery to heighten the rhetorical affect of their devotional paintings, portraiture, and mythological subjects, effecting a “sublime turn” in landscape practice that not only shaped discussions of landscape in 16th-century theories of painting, but also informed the more dramatic landscapes described in 16th-century poetry and accounts of the land in the writings of early modern natural philosophers.

Project fields:
Art History and Criticism; Italian Literature; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248702-16

Amy Lynn Wlodarski
Dickinson College (Carlisle, PA 17013-2896)

The Postwar Humanism of American Composer George Rochberg (1918-2005)

Preparation of a book about the music of American composer George Rochberg (1918-2005).

My book project considers Rochberg's musical works and writings within their postwar contexts. I explore how he experienced and responded aesthetically to the tragedies of the twentieth century while also revealing how those events ultimately influenced his theory of musical borrowing: ars combinatorial. During the summer of 2016, I propose to research at various domestic archives (PA, MD, NY, DC) that contain materials pertaining to Rochberg's service with the 281st Army Infantry and at his personal archive (Basel, Switzerland), which contains unpublished materials (journals, correspondence, essays, sketchbooks) that provide insight into his postwar political views and his political and aesthetic assessment of mid-century composers. I will complete a draft of the book introduction and the first chapter, which set the political and aesthetic foundation for the larger study.

Project fields:
Aesthetics; Jewish Studies; Music History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
7/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248726-16

Jason Cameron White
Appalachian State University (Boone, NC 28608-0001)

The Levant Company Between the English State and the Muslim World, 1581-1688

Preparation of a monograph on the English Levant Company, a trading company which had a monopoly on all English trade with the Ottomon Empire until 1754.

During the seventeenth century, the English Levant Company operated between two worlds. In England, it had to negotiate the many political tumults of the century, which included civil war, regicide, restoration, and revolution, as well as many calls to revoke its monopoly on all trade between England and the Ottoman Empire. On the other end of its trading network, the Company had to negotiate the complexities of the empire's administrative and legal apparatus, navigate Ottoman political turmoil, which included the murders of two Sultans, and establish working relationships with Turkish, Greek, Armenian, and Jewish merchants, factors, growers, and traders. This project will analyze how the Company bridged these two worlds in order to better understand the origins of globalization, capitalism, the British Empire, and the historical relationship between the west and the Muslim world.

Project fields:
British History; Economic History; Literary Criticism; Near and Middle Eastern History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
5/1/2016 – 6/30/2016


FT-248733-16

Jyotsna G. Singh
Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI 48824-3407)

Muslim and Christian Identities in the Early Modern World

A study of Christian-Muslim encounters in the early modern period.

This is an interdisciplinary study that looks afresh at the expanding early modern European world with an emphasis on Christian-Muslim cross-cultural encounters. Recent scholarship has often focused on Europeans casting their gaze on the Islamic domains, especially on Anglo-Ottoman (Turkish) interactions. Transcultural Islam pluralizes that gaze by identifying distinct yet often overlapping processes of identity formation in both the Muslim and Christian worlds, with a particular emphasis on Mughal India from the mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth centuries. Developing five case studies on the shifting and diverse constructions of Islam within inter-cultural and intra-cultural contexts, this book draws on varied works, ranging from Anglican travel narratives, Western discourses on the Qur'an, and Mughal biographies and paintings, among others. In doing so, it charts historical struggles over the meaning of "religion" within Christian and Islamic histories and cultures.

Project fields:
Comparative Religion; Renaissance Studies; South Asian Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248749-16

Jennifer Adair
Fairfield University (Fairfield, CT 06824-5195)

The Politics of Human Rights and Argentina's Transition to Democracy in the 1980's

A history of Argentina's transition to democracy in the 1980s.

In Search of the Lost Decade is the first in-depth history of Argentina's transition to democracy following years of military rule and fiscal crisis. Through a focus on state programs to alleviate hunger and to fortify the foundations of a faltering welfare state, the book traces how citizens and government leaders forged an everyday politics of human rights that defined basic necessities and food security as the litmus tests of constitutional return. The study draws on unpublished sources and oral histories that illuminate the less commonly known actors and events that established the meanings of a just, democratic society. While grounded in an investigation of the daily contests that shaped post-dictatorship Argentina in the 1980s, the book reveals the social logics that justified the rise of neoliberalism at the end of the twentieth century, and offers a critical reinterpretation of the aftermath of Cold War authoritarian regimes and Latin America’s so-called "lost decade."

Project fields:
Latin American History; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248750-16

Michael Woods
Marshall University Research Corporation (Huntington, WV 25701-2218)

Arguing until Doomsday: Stephen Douglas, Jefferson Davis, and the Struggle for American Democracy

A book-length study of the disagreements between Senators Stephen Douglas and Jefferson Davis that led to pre-Civil War division in the Democratic Party.

I propose to use a Summer Stipend to complete the archival research for my third book, Arguing until Doomsday: Stephen Douglas, Jefferson Davis, and the Struggle for American Democracy. I use the rivalry between Democratic Senators Stephen Douglas of Illinois and Jefferson Davis of Mississippi to reinterpret the breakup of the Democratic Party prior to the Civil War. By 1860, the division between northern and southern Democrats facilitated the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln, which triggered secession. By tracing the struggle between northern and southern Democrats back to the 1840s, this book uncovers the deep roots of the party's dramatic rupture. The incompatibility of Davis and Douglas’s views on democracy, property rights, and territorial expansion meant that their shared racism and anti-abolitionism could not prevent a disastrous political estrangement. My book’s dual-biographical format will also enhance its appeal to specialists and lay readers alike.

Project fields:
Political History; U.S. History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248759-16

Barry Lam
Vassar College (Poughkeepsie, NY 12604-0001)

Soldier Philosophers: The Ethics of War from Soldiers who Served

A digital one-hour audio podcast on soldier-philosophers.

For the first time in a generation, people are entering academic philosophy after having served as soldiers in protracted oversees wars. These Soldier Philosophers are using their war experiences to re-evaluate the philosophy of war. Armies and navies are no longer the only combatants, and on the battlefield, the line between combatant and noncombatant seems to shift almost by the minute, requiring a change in conception of the proper targets of wartime killing. The military experiences of Solider Philosophers and their philosophical reflections build a timely bridge between advanced philosophical research in the ethics of war and public interest in the humanities. From their stories, reflections and interviews, I raise new questions about the ethics of war and relate them to daily life and public policy, culminating in an entertaining, accessible pilot episode of a digital audio miniseries aimed at the general public.

Project fields:
Ethics; Philosophy, General

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248802-16

John Tofik Karam
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (Urbana, IL 61801-3620)

Arabs at a South American Border Remaking the Hemisphere

A book-length study of Arab immigrants in the border region of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina.

I am applying for a NEH Summer Stipend to complete my book, "Manifold Destiny: Arabs at a South American Border Remaking the Hemisphere." It asks "How did Arabs at the "tríplice fronteira" (tri-border) between Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina transform these Americas?" Arab traders and activists built a plural hemisphere and brought an end to the U.S. dominance enshrined in the doctrine of "manifest destiny." In the 1950s, Lebanese and Palestinians began settling on the Brazilian and Paraguayan sides of the tri-border. Starting in the 1970s, their economic and political networks consolidated Brazil’s clout over the once Argentine-dominated Paraguay. Since the 1990s, they leveraged this new sphere of influence in relation to Mercosul and U.S. impositions. Arabs served as transformative agents of this hemisphere whereby no single authority rules, collaborating and competing in the many-sided struggles among Brazilian, Paraguayan, Argentine, U.S., and other powers.

Project fields:
Latin American History; Latin American Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248806-16

Allison Hobgood
Willamette University (Salem, OR 97301-3922)

Disability in English Renaissance Literature

Completion of a book-length study of disability in English Renaissance literature.

My project excavates an archive of literary and other cultural texts to explore disability in Renaissance England. I argue that the drive to establish forms of physical and mental difference was a key shaping force in this period, and I give readers tools for grappling with mental and physical variation before the advent of "norms" as we know them. I read English Renaissance poetry and drama to uncover “early modern ideologies of ability”: to illuminate the “commonsense,” pervasive privileging of ablebodiedness in early modernity that energized a range of approaches to science, art, religion, and politics. I demonstrate how linguistic, spiritual, and intellectual capacities often aligned with Renaissance humanism and the Protestant Reformation were in fact reliant upon powerful fictions of ability. I reveal not only the diverse logics of ability operating in early modernity but illustrate the surprising ways these ableist norms were generative material for Renaissance writers.

Project fields:
British Literature; Literary Criticism; Renaissance Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2017 – 8/31/2017


FT-248812-16

Jeffrey Scott Ahlman
Smith College (Northampton, MA 01063-6304)

History, Culture, and the Power of Postcolonial Afterlives of Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972), Leader of Ghana

Two months of field-work and archival research in Ghana for an ethnographic study on the legacy of Kwame Nkrumah (1909-1972), Ghana's first prime minister and president.

In death, few African politicians feature as prominently in their country’s and the continent’s political imaginings as Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah. Viewed as an icon of African liberation, Nkrumah not only led Ghana to its 1957 independence, but, more importantly, linked Ghana’s fortunes to Africa’s at large. This project focuses on the decades following the Ghanaian president’s 1966 overthrow and 1972 death as it interrogates competing secular and spiritual worldviews that center a deceased, yet active Nkrumah in broader Ghanaian debates over the “spirit” and integrity of the postcolonial nation. In doing so, the project presents an ancestral Nkrumah as a vehicle for reflecting on Ghanaians’ changing relationships to a postcolonial reality marked by the passing of decolonization’s promises.

Project fields:
African History; African Studies

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
10/1/2016 – 11/30/2016


FT-248818-16

John Ott
James Madison University (Harrisonburg, VA 22807-0001)

The Visual Culture of Racial Integration, 1931-1954

Research toward a book-length study on African-American art in the 1930s and 40s.

This project investigates black and white artists' efforts towards racial integration, both in terms of imagery and within art institutions, during the decades just before the Civil Rights movement: from the infamous 1931 trial of the Scottsboro Boys until Brown v. Board's desegregation of public schools in 1954. Individual chapters address images of racial solidarity produced within the arts programs of the New Deal, graphics commissioned by multiracial labor unions, Jacob Lawrence’s paintings of the desegregation of the military in the late 1940s, the "enlightened capitalist” vision of integration in mass-market magazines like Life, Fortune, Ebony, and Sepia, and efforts by black modernists like Romare Bearden, Norman Lewis, and Hale Woodruff to claim abstraction as an integrationist visual style.

Project fields:
African American Studies; American Studies; Art History and Criticism

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248819-16

Neeti Nair
University of Virginia (Charlottesville, VA 22903-4833)

A History of Blasphemy Laws in South Asia

Research and writing of a book-length study of the history of laws regulating relations between religious communities in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

The proposed book project will trace the trajectory of a set of criminal and penal codes that were instituted over the course of a century in South Asia. A consequence of the British tendency to view each major religious community as imbued with characteristics that were presumed to be mutually antagonistic, these laws seeking to regulate relations between religious communities have had contradictory afterlives in the postcolonial successor states of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. This history will unravel the specific, contingent circumstances that produced these laws, draw out their relationship with religiously informed politics, and account for whether, as many others claim, the laws themselves are responsible for the increasing targeting of religious minorities across South Asia.

Project fields:
Legal History; South Asian History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 8/31/2016


FT-248791-16

Amy Rebecca Gansell, PhD
St. John's University, New York (Queens, NY 11439-9000)

Feminine Beauty in the Neo-Assyrian Royal Court at Nimrud, c. 883-612 BCE

A book-length study of the depiction of women in the art and artifacts at the Assyrian Northwest Palace at Nimrud.

My book invites readers inside the first-millennium BCE Neo-Assyrian Northwest Palace at Nimrud, an ancient Iraqi site that can never again be physically accessed. In March 2015, terrorists obliterated Nimrud’s excavated remains. It is therefore more imperative than ever that we interpret and publish the site’s rich history. With a narrative that aims to reconstruct the ancient human experience at Nimrud, I illuminate the bedecked bodies, images, artifacts, and identities of the queens who once lived and were buried here. As emblems of empire and fecundity, I propose that adorned queens and female imagery complemented the king’s potency and played a vital role in ideological conceptions of the empire and cosmos. Putting a story of people back into the palace at Nimrud, I hope that my book will inspire researchers, faculty, students, and interested members of the public around the globe to cherish and protect our world heritage of human history.

[Media coverage]

Project fields:
Archaeology; Art History and Criticism; History, Criticism, and Theory of the Arts

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248792-16

Julia Osman
Mississippi State University (Mississippi State, MS 39762-6156)

Warfare and the Changing Relations Between French Soldiers and Civilians, 1600-1789

A book-length project on warfare and the changing relationship between French soldiers and civilians, 1600 to 1789.

My book project, “Disciplining War and the Civilian Imagination in France, 1600-1789” traces the relationship between soldiers and civilians over this two-hundred-year period in order to prove that attempts to distance civilians from war only makes them more susceptible to it in the long run. I will argue that war and military violence went from an everyday reality for people in the seventeenth century, to something experienced only in the imaginations of those living in the eighteenth century, when soldiers were isolated from the rest of the populace. The “imagined reality” of war, experienced through reading juicy, sensationalized, literature, may have paved the way towards mass citizen armies and “total wars” by the French Revolution of 1789. My project speaks to the NEH initiative ‘Standing Together: Humanities and the Experience of War’ and uses the humanities to help better understand the fluctuations and complications of soldiers’ relationships with the people they fight for.

Project fields:
Cultural History; European History; Military History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period:
6/1/2016 – 7/31/2016


FT-248808-16

Patricia Ann Tilburg
Davidson College (Davidson, NC 28036-9405)

The Parisian Workingwoman, 1880-1936

A book-length study of French women garment workers in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

From the late eighteenth-century, France has been a center of fashion and luxury craft production. At around that same time, the Parisian garment trade worker held a special place in French popular culture. In the 1830s and 40s, these women became common cultural currency with the creation of indelible fictional creations like the grisettes of romantic literature. My book manuscript assesses the legacy and cultural meaning of this type, particularly in its early twentieth-century incarnations, when the working Parisienne became an especially weighted icon and a meeting point of concerns about women’s work, labor reform, and national taste. This book brings together the lived experience of Parisian workingwomen—gleaned through letters, contemporary interviews, and other archival materials—with the deeply romantic and deeply gendered cultural screen through which they were understood in this period.

Project fields:
European History; Labor History; Women's History

Program:
Summer Stipends

Division:
Research Programs

Total amounts:
$6,000 (approved)
$6,000 (awarded)

Grant period: