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Products for grant RZ-255645-17

RZ-255645-17
Indigenous Borderlands of the Chesapeake: The Lower Rappahannock Valley Landscape, 200-1850 CE
Julia King, St. Mary's College of Maryland

Grant details: https://securegrants.neh.gov/publicquery/main.aspx?f=1&gn=RZ-255645-17

Colonial Encounters (Web Resources)
Title: Colonial Encounters
Author: Julia King
Abstract: Colonial Encounters The Lower Potomac River Valley at Contact, 1500-1720 AD A collaborative data source for scholars and students... Alternately cast as the frontier, the edge of empire, or a node in the interrelated web of the Atlantic World, the Chesapeake region was home to diverse people whose experiences form a rich and complex story
Year: 2017
Primary URL: http://colonialencounters.org

Rappahannock Indians in the Colonial Period (Public Lecture or Presentation)
Title: Rappahannock Indians in the Colonial Period
Abstract: This presentation describes the history of the Rappahannock Indians in the first two centuries following the invasion of their homeland.
Author: Julia A King
Date: 11/11/2020
Location: Via Zoom, Sponsored by the James Monroe Museum, University of Mary Washington
Primary URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtEsc10lz8Y&feature=youtu.be
Primary URL Description: The YouTube channel of the James Monroe Museum.

Tracing Rappahannock Indian History on the Ground (Public Lecture or Presentation)
Title: Tracing Rappahannock Indian History on the Ground
Abstract: This presentation describes some of the exciting findings archaeologists and members of the Rappahannock Indian Tribe are making using the methods of archaeology, tribal oral histories, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Rappahannock Indians have been here for thousands of years and are still here. This is a story you won't want to miss. Feel free to bring your own artifacts for identification.
Author: Julia A King
Date: 5/30/2019
Location: Westmoreland Berry Farm, Colonial Beach, Virginia

On Native Displacement in the Lower Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: On Native Displacement in the Lower Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: For most of the 17th century, the middle Rappahannock River valley (Virginia) served as a refuge for Native communities displaced from neighboring river drainages by an aggressive and expanding English settlement. A limited documentary record suggests that these relocated communities interacted in ways that reshaped Native tribal identities in the face of this settler colonialism. In 1608, as many as eight polities made their home in the lower Rappahannock valley. By the end of the century, documents refer to only two: the Nanzatico and the Rappahannock. But what does the archaeological evidence suggest about these interactions and these reconstituting communities and identities? This paper compares types and distributions of selected materials recovered from a number of 17th- and early 18th-century Native settlements in the middle Rappahannock, finding considerable variability among assemblages. This variability is an important key to understanding Native responses in an occupied homeland.
Date: 11/8/2019
Conference Name: Southeastern Archaeological Conference

Ceremonial Landscapes in the Middle Chesapeake (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Ceremonial Landscapes in the Middle Chesapeake
Author: Scott M Strickland
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: The spatial turn in the humanities is sending archaeologists and their Native colleagues back into the documentary, oral history, and archaeological records to tease out elements of the indigenous cultural landscape – in the deep past, in the colonial past, and in the present. Ceremonial landscapes are an important part of the indigenous landscape: they are mentioned in documents and have been reported archaeologically, typically as ossuary or other mortuary contexts. Increasing the scale at which these places are considered reveals relationships not immediately evident at the site level. This presentation describes these examples, shows how Geographical Information Systems can be used to build a greater context for their interpretation, and suggests how GIS is forging new directions in the study of the indigenous cultural landscape.
Date: 1/12/2019
Conference Name: Society for Historical Archaeology

The Leedstown (Virginia) Bead Cache: A Contextual Approach (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The Leedstown (Virginia) Bead Cache: A Contextual Approach
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: This paper examines glass beads recovered from a cache along the Rappahannock River valley in eastern Virginia and compares the beads with similar beads recovered from Native sites from Florida to Pennsylvania. The beads, which are rarely found at colonial sites, reveal important social connections between the Chesapeake Tidewater and the interior southeast.
Date: 1/11/2020
Conference Name: Society for Historical Archaeology

Soil Stratigraphy as a Source of Data in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Soil Stratigraphy as a Source of Data in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Rachel Bissett
Abstract: The color, texture, chemical properties, and depth of soil – what archaeologists call stratigraphy – have the potential to reveal information about past human activity at a site. If recorded carefully and systematically, stratigraphic descriptions can reveal how long a site was occupied, the presence or absence of features, suitability for farming, landscape modification, and how the people who lived there used the ground around them. Analysis of soil descriptions recorded for shovel test pits excavated at the Baylor Site (44EX0005), a post-Contact Portobago/Rappahannock hamlet, provides insight on both historic and contemporary landscape and land use.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Mobility, Interaction Networks, and Artifacts from the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Mobility, Interaction Networks, and Artifacts from the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: The archaeological study of migration and human mobility is enjoying a bit of a revival. Once used to identify so-called archaeological cultures to explain cultural change and then later altogether ignored, migration and other forms of human mobility have always played an important part in the construction of social life. The Rappahannock River Valley provides a microcosm of the movements taking place in the Middle Atlantic from late prehistory through colonization by Europeans. This paper uses artifacts recovered from new fieldwork and existing collections to explore mobility, interaction networks, and practices of craft production in the lower Rappahannock valley in an effort to represent the social and geographical dynamism of this region.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Lithic Toolmaking Traditions and Distribution in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Lithic Toolmaking Traditions and Distribution in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Maxwell Sickler
Abstract: Lithic materials have long been traditionally examined artifactual categories that archaeologists have used in the reconstruction of North American indigenous lifeways. This article paper examines the lithic artifact assemblages from two Early to Middle Woodland sites of in the Rappahannock River Valley of northern Virginia; Port Micou and Westmoreland Berry Farm. Each site contains a wide variety of diagnostic lithic tools and stone types which potentially suggest the presence of Indigenous migrants and inter-regional trade routes within the Rappahannock River Valley. Non-local stone types including Metarhyolite, Carolina Slate Belt rhyolite, Greenstone, and Orthoquartzite are all found in abundance within these two sites and suggest the Rappahannock valley’s prominent position within the Middle Atlantic’s lithic exchange system. Additionally, this article will examine the spatial distribution and temporal distribution of lithic projectile points and debitage at Port Micou and Westmoreland Berry Farm.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Archaeology and Political Complexity in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Archaeology and Political Complexity in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Matthew Borden
Abstract: The Late Woodland and Protohistoric Periods witnessed the rise of politically complex native societies in the Chesapeake region. Powhatan’s regime is the most famous and studied example, while peripheral areas like the Rappahannock River have attracted less attention. This paper specifically explores the nature of societal organization in the Rappahannock River Valley using archaeological evidence from the Rappahannock River Valley Survey and earlier investigations. Assemblages analyzed include ceramics, oyster shell, lithics, and prestige goods from sites along the river. By comparing temporal and spatial distributions within sites and across sites, this paper documents the population distribution, exchange networks, and social stratification of the indigenous societies along the Rappahannock River in an effort to understand their political organization.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Native Pipe Making and Use in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Native Pipe Making and Use in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Lauren McMillan
Abstract: Recent archaeological surveys and cataloging of curated collections recovered along the Rappahannock River by the research team at St. Mary’s College of Maryland have led to new interpretations and understandings of the Indigenous Cultural Landscapes of the river valley. One such new finding is focused on the long term and intensive use of Native-made tobacco pipes into the last quarter of the 17th century. The continued production and consumption of such pipes so late into the colonial period is striking in comparison to other river valleys in the Chesapeake region. In this paper, I will discuss archaeological and historical sources of evidence for Native pipe making in the region, examine specific motifs and decorations of tobacco pipes recovered along the Rappahannock River, and discuss these phenomena in relation to the unique historical-cultural context of the 17th-century Rappahannock River Valley.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Reconstructing the Neighborhood of Indian Neck, Virginia (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Reconstructing the Neighborhood of Indian Neck, Virginia
Author: Scott M Strickland
Abstract: Indian Neck, the ridge of land that defines the boundary between present-day Essex and King and Queen counties, is the center of modern Rappahannock tribal life. “The Neck,” as it is known, was also the location of a Rappahannock reservation after they were dispossessed of their pre-invasion homelands along the Rappahannock River circa 1667. While much is written about the 17th- to early 18th-century Rappahannock indigenous landscape, equivalent documentary records and accounts are scarce throughout the 19th century. It is by using oral histories of the Rappahannock people in conjunction with census, land, and tax records that the dynamics of the Indian Neck neighborhood are explored.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Colonoware Workshop (Conference/Institute/Seminar)
Title: Colonoware Workshop
Author: Scott M Strickland
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: This one-day workshop focused on colonoware, a hand-built ceramic produced in European forms. Several hundred fragments of colonoware have been recovered during this project. The workshop brought together archaeologists from across the Chesapeake region to discuss regional variation and meaning in this enigmatic ceramic type. Approximately 50 participants.
Date Range: 4/5/2019
Location: Rappahannock Tribal Center, Indian Neck, Virginia

Reflections on a Century-Old Interpretation: Rethinking Rappahannock Indian History in the 17th-Century (Public Lecture or Presentation)
Title: Reflections on a Century-Old Interpretation: Rethinking Rappahannock Indian History in the 17th-Century
Abstract: This presentation examines the age-old notion that the Rappahannock Indians were under Powhatan control, Using historical, environmental, archaeological. and oral history data along with GIS technology, our research is revealing something quite different, provoking the question: have we missed the real Rappahannock Indians and their contributions to Virginia history?
Author: Julia A King
Date: 11/19/2019
Location: Via Zoom, COL Howard MacCord Chapter, Archaeological Society of Virginia

Using GIS to Decolonize Narratives of Indigenous History: The Distribution of Rappahannock River Indian Towns on the 1608 Smith Map (Article)
Title: Using GIS to Decolonize Narratives of Indigenous History: The Distribution of Rappahannock River Indian Towns on the 1608 Smith Map
Author: Scott M Strickland
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: Although developed in the Western cartographic tradition, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has the potential to decolonize western interpretations of Native spaces. GIS technology is used to challenge a long-standing interpretation of Native political authority in the Chesapeake Tidewater region of North America. The almost exclusive distribution of Native towns along the Rappahannock River’s north bank found on a 1608/1612 English map has, for more than a century, been used to argue for the ambitious, conquering reach of the Powhatans living south of the river. GIS analysis indicates the distribution of towns is grounded in environmental and ecological reasons, not political ones, more closely matching contemporary Rappahannock tribal traditions. The discovery calls into question current understandings of Indigenous social and political life in the region on the eve of invasion.
Year: 2021
Access Model: Subscription / Submitted March 8, 2021
Format: Journal
Periodical Title: Historical Archaeology
Publisher: Springer

Bridging the Divide: A Study of Fourteenth–Eighteenth-Century Native Settlements in the Middle Chesapeake (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Bridging the Divide: A Study of Fourteenth–Eighteenth-Century Native Settlements in the Middle Chesapeake
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: Archaeologists (including the author) investigating seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Native sites in the Chesapeake point out how materially different these assemblages are from those recovered from contemporary colonial sites. Characterized by materials almost wholly produced by Native hands with some objects of European manufacture, they are indeed different and have been used to argue that Native people in a colonized land resisted colonial control in part through the maintenance of Native practices. These assemblages, however, are rarely examined vis-à-vis assemblages from earlier Native sites or from contemporary Native sites, resulting in a not-so-subtle reinforcement of the deep history/colonial divide along with the assumption that the template (the “norm”) for this period is the European colonial site.
Date: 04/17/2021
Conference Name: Society for American Archaeology

New Research in the Potomac and Rappahannock River Valleys: Introduction (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: New Research in the Potomac and Rappahannock River Valleys: Introduction
Author: Julia King
Abstract: The storied Potomac and the relatively under-studied Rappahannock river valleys were both important sites in the longue durée of American history. How, then, does a growing body of evidence deriving from new and old fieldwork and private collections serve to shape and reshape the stories told about these important places? How do digital technologies move the ball forward? Perhaps most importantly, what happens when a new generation brings their skills and creativity to the study of these two important river valleys? This paper provides the context for the papers in this session, including a brief history of archaeology in the two river valleys and the methods and theories shaping that earlier work.
Date: 3/14/2021
Primary URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3vvpF3UvZg&list=PLDL-f8Fvhui1IjefGri4GlXcYrk4JsDjb&index=3
Primary URL Description: Video prepared for the virtual MAAC meeting.
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Archaeological Investigations at a c. 1690-1710 Domestic Site on the Rappahannock Frontier (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Archaeological Investigations at a c. 1690-1710 Domestic Site on the Rappahannock Frontier
Author: Travis Hanson
Abstract: The Hastings Site, a c. 1690-1710 English colonial site located in King George County, Virginia. was tested in the summers of 2018 and 2019 by archaeologists from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. A combination of shovel testing, test unit excavation, and remote sensing surveys were used to investigate the site. The artifacts and features recovered from the site include Native American and Colonial ceramics, tobacco pipes, and a series of circular anomalies, one of which was revealed to be a barrel ring. The combination of both Native and early colonial artifacts in the recovered assemblage suggest some level of interaction with Native communities just downriver. The archaeological investigations sought to clarify who was living at the site. This paper presents the preliminary findings from this research and provides insight into how the site fits into the history of the Rappahannock River Valley during this period.
Date: 3/14/2021
Primary URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_zEzKexQK0&list=PLDL-f8Fvhui1IjefGri4GlXcYrk4JsDjb&index=7&t=2s
Primary URL Description: Video prepared for the virtual MAAC meeting.
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Post-Contact Hand-Built Local Ceramics, or What Was Once Called Colonoware: Assemblages from the Potomac and Rappahannock Valleys (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Post-Contact Hand-Built Local Ceramics, or What Was Once Called Colonoware: Assemblages from the Potomac and Rappahannock Valleys
Author: Katherine P. Gill
Abstract: Colonoware is a hand-built, unglazed, low-fired ceramic produced in European forms usually by Native Americans or Africans/African Americans. Colonoware fragments from Maryland and Virginia were examined to determine temper, surface treatment, and form. Chemical analysis using x-ray fluorescence was further performed on samples from seven sites in the Rappahannock River Valley. The sites included in the study represent each of the groups that have been associated with colonoware. including Native American, enslaved African American, and colonial households. This paper reports the results of this study including the distributions of colonoware attributes in an effort to link these distributions to various learning communities.
Date: 3/14/2021
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Native Mobility in the Rappahannock Valley: A Lithic Analysis (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Native Mobility in the Rappahannock Valley: A Lithic Analysis
Author: Rachel Bissett
Abstract: The study of lithic artifacts is essential for understanding Native American lifeways throughout history, including mobility and migration, trade and exchange, site function, and settlement practices. This paper presents an analysis of lithic artifacts from the Rappahannock River Valley in Virginia. Using lithic data collected from over 30 sites dating from 7000 BC to 200 AD, information on mobility, migration, and trade between groups along the Rappahannock is revealed. This paper discusses how Native Americans along the Rappahannock moved west to east during the Archaic period. Additionally, the paper discusses how Native Americans procured their raw materials and how that changed through time.
Date: 3/14/2021
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

The Rappahannock River Valley Survey (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The Rappahannock River Valley Survey
Author: Julia A. King
Abstract: This paper introduces the Rappahannock River valley survey, a project focused on assembling archaeological evidence through field and collections-based research as well as documentary and oral history in an effort to trace Native history in the river valley from ca. 200-1980 CE. With funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Park Service, the project is affirming oral histories, assessing earlier archaeological findings, and generating an extraordinary database for addressing new questions about the Rappahannock Indians and their history in the deep and recent past.
Date: 10/12/2018
Conference Name: Archaeological Society of Virginia

Preliminary Findings from the Baylor Site (44EX0005) (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Preliminary Findings from the Baylor Site (44EX0005)
Author: Catherine Dye
Abstract: The Baylor site (44EX0005) is a late 17th-century Native site located on the south side of the Rappahannock River along Portobago Bay in Essex County. This summer, shovel test pits and test units were excavated at the site as a part of the ongoing Rappahannock Indigenous Cultural Landscape project. This presentation discusses preliminary findings from the work.
Date: 10/12/2018
Conference Name: Archaeological Society of Virginia

The Tobacco Pipe Trade in the 17th-century Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The Tobacco Pipe Trade in the 17th-century Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Lauren McMillan
Abstract: The Rappahannock is the least archaeologically studied of the major river valleys in the Chesapeake region; a concern recently addressed through the NEH funded research project, Indigenous Borderlands of the Chesapeake: The Lower Rappahannock Valley Landscape: 200-1850 CE. In this paper, I will examine local, regional, and trans-Atlantic trade networks within the Rappahannock River Valley through the analysis of locally-made and imported clay tobacco pipes recently excavated. Additionally, these pipe assemblages from the Rappahannock sites will be compared to networks revealed through previous studies of the James and Potomac River Valleys. Both historic Native Virginia and Maryland and English Colonial sites will be considered in this analysis to understand differential trade access and consumer choice in the 17th century.
Date: 10/12/2018
Conference Name: Archaeological Society of Virginia

Landscapes and Communication in the Rappahannock (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Landscapes and Communication in the Rappahannock
Author: Scott M. Strickland
Abstract: Early colonial accounts of the Rappahannock River and its people detail events in which the landscape was efficiently utilized to respond to perceived threats from English invaders. Captain John Smith recounts two events in which the Rappahannock used the landscape to mount two assaults and maintain a strategic advantage. This paper explores the potential methods in which the people of the Rappahannock effectively made use of the landscape to communicate and protect their communities. The role of settlement placement and location of monuments are also discussed for their roles in everyday communication throughout the river valley.
Date: 10/12/2018
Conference Name: Archaeological Society of Virginia

The Importance of Traditional Stories and Oral Histories (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The Importance of Traditional Stories and Oral Histories
Author: Chief G. Anne Richardson
Abstract: I hope to speak to you on the importance of traditional stories and oral histories. These stories have laid the foundation for documentary and archaeological research by Dr. Ed Ragan and now St. Mary’s College, with all three merging together and validating the importance of oral histories. Early on in my work in the Tribe, however, we would tell scholars our stories, but they often dismissed them. After many years of experiencing this rejection of what we knew to be true, we stopped telling our stories to outsiders. But keeping this information closed to the outside world and not speaking about it also caused harm, as we began to question what we had been taught from the elders. Yet every story I have relayed from my elders to Dr. Ed Ragan and St. Mary’s has been validated. Please don’t discount traditional stories and oral histories because it does much more than just keep truth from being written; it destroys truth in the minds of tribal people and removes the confidence we are taught to have in the knowledge of our elders.
Date: 10/12/2018
Conference Name: Archaeological Society of Virginia

Archaeological Collections from the Rappahannock Indigenous Borderlands Project (Acquisitions/Materials Collection)
Name: Archaeological Collections from the Rappahannock Indigenous Borderlands Project
Abstract: The field work portion of the NEH-funded project generated thousands of artifacts from more than a dozen archaeological sites. These materials were processed according to State of Virginia standards and the majority are in the process of being transferred to the Virginia Department of Historic Resources along with all field and laboratory records (some landowners retained physical collections but field and lab records were transferred to DHR). As a result, these materials will be available in perpetuity for other researchers to study. A copy of all records will also be retained by St. Mary's College.
Director: Laura Galke, Curator, VDHR
Year: 2021
Address: Virginia Department of Historic Resources 2801 Kensington Avenue Richmond, VA 23221


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