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Products for grant RZ-255645-17

RZ-255645-17
Indigenous Borderlands of the Chesapeake: The Lower Rappahannock Valley Landscape, 200-1850 CE
Julia King, St. Mary's College of Maryland

Grant details: https://securegrants.neh.gov/publicquery/main.aspx?f=1&gn=RZ-255645-17

Colonial Encounters (Web Resources)
Title: Colonial Encounters
Author: Julia King
Abstract: Colonial Encounters The Lower Potomac River Valley at Contact, 1500-1720 AD A collaborative data source for scholars and students... Alternately cast as the frontier, the edge of empire, or a node in the interrelated web of the Atlantic World, the Chesapeake region was home to diverse people whose experiences form a rich and complex story
Year: 2017
Primary URL: http://colonialencounters.org

Rappahannock Indians in the Colonial Period (Public Lecture or Presentation)
Title: Rappahannock Indians in the Colonial Period
Abstract: This presentation describes the history of the Rappahannock Indians in the first two centuries following the invasion of their homeland.
Author: Julia A King
Date: 11/11/2020
Location: Via Zoom, Sponsored by the James Monroe Museum, University of Mary Washington
Primary URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtEsc10lz8Y&feature=youtu.be
Primary URL Description: The YouTube channel of the James Monroe Museum.

Tracing Rappahannock Indian History on the Ground (Public Lecture or Presentation)
Title: Tracing Rappahannock Indian History on the Ground
Abstract: This presentation describes some of the exciting findings archaeologists and members of the Rappahannock Indian Tribe are making using the methods of archaeology, tribal oral histories, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Rappahannock Indians have been here for thousands of years and are still here. This is a story you won't want to miss. Feel free to bring your own artifacts for identification.
Author: Julia A King
Date: 5/30/2019
Location: Westmoreland Berry Farm, Colonial Beach, Virginia

On Native Displacement in the Lower Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: On Native Displacement in the Lower Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: For most of the 17th century, the middle Rappahannock River valley (Virginia) served as a refuge for Native communities displaced from neighboring river drainages by an aggressive and expanding English settlement. A limited documentary record suggests that these relocated communities interacted in ways that reshaped Native tribal identities in the face of this settler colonialism. In 1608, as many as eight polities made their home in the lower Rappahannock valley. By the end of the century, documents refer to only two: the Nanzatico and the Rappahannock. But what does the archaeological evidence suggest about these interactions and these reconstituting communities and identities? This paper compares types and distributions of selected materials recovered from a number of 17th- and early 18th-century Native settlements in the middle Rappahannock, finding considerable variability among assemblages. This variability is an important key to understanding Native responses in an occupied homeland.
Date: 11/8/2019
Conference Name: Southeastern Archaeological Conference

Ceremonial Landscapes in the Middle Chesapeake (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Ceremonial Landscapes in the Middle Chesapeake
Author: Scott M Strickland
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: The spatial turn in the humanities is sending archaeologists and their Native colleagues back into the documentary, oral history, and archaeological records to tease out elements of the indigenous cultural landscape – in the deep past, in the colonial past, and in the present. Ceremonial landscapes are an important part of the indigenous landscape: they are mentioned in documents and have been reported archaeologically, typically as ossuary or other mortuary contexts. Increasing the scale at which these places are considered reveals relationships not immediately evident at the site level. This presentation describes these examples, shows how Geographical Information Systems can be used to build a greater context for their interpretation, and suggests how GIS is forging new directions in the study of the indigenous cultural landscape.
Date: 1/12/2019
Conference Name: Society for Historical Archaeology

The Leedstown (Virginia) Bead Cache: A Contextual Approach (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The Leedstown (Virginia) Bead Cache: A Contextual Approach
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: This paper examines glass beads recovered from a cache along the Rappahannock River valley in eastern Virginia and compares the beads with similar beads recovered from Native sites from Florida to Pennsylvania. The beads, which are rarely found at colonial sites, reveal important social connections between the Chesapeake Tidewater and the interior southeast.
Date: 1/11/2020
Conference Name: Society for Historical Archaeology

Soil Stratigraphy as a Source of Data in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Soil Stratigraphy as a Source of Data in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Rachel Bissett
Abstract: The color, texture, chemical properties, and depth of soil – what archaeologists call stratigraphy – have the potential to reveal information about past human activity at a site. If recorded carefully and systematically, stratigraphic descriptions can reveal how long a site was occupied, the presence or absence of features, suitability for farming, landscape modification, and how the people who lived there used the ground around them. Analysis of soil descriptions recorded for shovel test pits excavated at the Baylor Site (44EX0005), a post-Contact Portobago/Rappahannock hamlet, provides insight on both historic and contemporary landscape and land use.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Mobility, Interaction Networks, and Artifacts from the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Mobility, Interaction Networks, and Artifacts from the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: The archaeological study of migration and human mobility is enjoying a bit of a revival. Once used to identify so-called archaeological cultures to explain cultural change and then later altogether ignored, migration and other forms of human mobility have always played an important part in the construction of social life. The Rappahannock River Valley provides a microcosm of the movements taking place in the Middle Atlantic from late prehistory through colonization by Europeans. This paper uses artifacts recovered from new fieldwork and existing collections to explore mobility, interaction networks, and practices of craft production in the lower Rappahannock valley in an effort to represent the social and geographical dynamism of this region.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Lithic Toolmaking Traditions and Distribution in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Lithic Toolmaking Traditions and Distribution in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Maxwell Sickler
Abstract: Lithic materials have long been traditionally examined artifactual categories that archaeologists have used in the reconstruction of North American indigenous lifeways. This article paper examines the lithic artifact assemblages from two Early to Middle Woodland sites of in the Rappahannock River Valley of northern Virginia; Port Micou and Westmoreland Berry Farm. Each site contains a wide variety of diagnostic lithic tools and stone types which potentially suggest the presence of Indigenous migrants and inter-regional trade routes within the Rappahannock River Valley. Non-local stone types including Metarhyolite, Carolina Slate Belt rhyolite, Greenstone, and Orthoquartzite are all found in abundance within these two sites and suggest the Rappahannock valley’s prominent position within the Middle Atlantic’s lithic exchange system. Additionally, this article will examine the spatial distribution and temporal distribution of lithic projectile points and debitage at Port Micou and Westmoreland Berry Farm.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Archaeology and Political Complexity in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Archaeology and Political Complexity in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Matthew Borden
Abstract: The Late Woodland and Protohistoric Periods witnessed the rise of politically complex native societies in the Chesapeake region. Powhatan’s regime is the most famous and studied example, while peripheral areas like the Rappahannock River have attracted less attention. This paper specifically explores the nature of societal organization in the Rappahannock River Valley using archaeological evidence from the Rappahannock River Valley Survey and earlier investigations. Assemblages analyzed include ceramics, oyster shell, lithics, and prestige goods from sites along the river. By comparing temporal and spatial distributions within sites and across sites, this paper documents the population distribution, exchange networks, and social stratification of the indigenous societies along the Rappahannock River in an effort to understand their political organization.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Native Pipe Making and Use in the Rappahannock River Valley (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Native Pipe Making and Use in the Rappahannock River Valley
Author: Lauren McMillan
Abstract: Recent archaeological surveys and cataloging of curated collections recovered along the Rappahannock River by the research team at St. Mary’s College of Maryland have led to new interpretations and understandings of the Indigenous Cultural Landscapes of the river valley. One such new finding is focused on the long term and intensive use of Native-made tobacco pipes into the last quarter of the 17th century. The continued production and consumption of such pipes so late into the colonial period is striking in comparison to other river valleys in the Chesapeake region. In this paper, I will discuss archaeological and historical sources of evidence for Native pipe making in the region, examine specific motifs and decorations of tobacco pipes recovered along the Rappahannock River, and discuss these phenomena in relation to the unique historical-cultural context of the 17th-century Rappahannock River Valley.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Reconstructing the Neighborhood of Indian Neck, Virginia (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Reconstructing the Neighborhood of Indian Neck, Virginia
Author: Scott M Strickland
Abstract: Indian Neck, the ridge of land that defines the boundary between present-day Essex and King and Queen counties, is the center of modern Rappahannock tribal life. “The Neck,” as it is known, was also the location of a Rappahannock reservation after they were dispossessed of their pre-invasion homelands along the Rappahannock River circa 1667. While much is written about the 17th- to early 18th-century Rappahannock indigenous landscape, equivalent documentary records and accounts are scarce throughout the 19th century. It is by using oral histories of the Rappahannock people in conjunction with census, land, and tax records that the dynamics of the Indian Neck neighborhood are explored.
Date: 3/23/2019
Conference Name: Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference

Colonoware Workshop (Conference/Institute/Seminar)
Title: Colonoware Workshop
Author: Scott M Strickland
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: This one-day workshop focused on colonoware, a hand-built ceramic produced in European forms. Several hundred fragments of colonoware have been recovered during this project. The workshop brought together archaeologists from across the Chesapeake region to discuss regional variation and meaning in this enigmatic ceramic type. Approximately 50 participants.
Date Range: 4/5/2019
Location: Rappahannock Tribal Center, Indian Neck, Virginia

Reflections on a Century-Old Interpretation: Rethinking Rappahannock Indian History in the 17th-Century (Public Lecture or Presentation)
Title: Reflections on a Century-Old Interpretation: Rethinking Rappahannock Indian History in the 17th-Century
Abstract: This presentation examines the age-old notion that the Rappahannock Indians were under Powhatan control, Using historical, environmental, archaeological. and oral history data along with GIS technology, our research is revealing something quite different, provoking the question: have we missed the real Rappahannock Indians and their contributions to Virginia history?
Author: Julia A King
Date: 11/19/2019
Location: Via Zoom, COL Howard MacCord Chapter, Archaeological Society of Virginia

Using GIS to Decolonize Narratives of Indigenous History: The Distribution of Rappahannock River Indian Towns on the 1608 Smith Map (Article)
Title: Using GIS to Decolonize Narratives of Indigenous History: The Distribution of Rappahannock River Indian Towns on the 1608 Smith Map
Author: Scott M Strickland
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: Although developed in the Western cartographic tradition, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has the potential to decolonize western interpretations of Native spaces. GIS technology is used to challenge a long-standing interpretation of Native political authority in the Chesapeake Tidewater region of North America. The almost exclusive distribution of Native towns along the Rappahannock River’s north bank found on a 1608/1612 English map has, for more than a century, been used to argue for the ambitious, conquering reach of the Powhatans living south of the river. GIS analysis indicates the distribution of towns is grounded in environmental and ecological reasons, not political ones, more closely matching contemporary Rappahannock tribal traditions. The discovery calls into question current understandings of Indigenous social and political life in the region on the eve of invasion.
Year: 2021
Access Model: Subscription / Submitted March 8, 2021
Format: Journal
Periodical Title: Historical Archaeology
Publisher: Springer

Bridging the Divide: A Study of Fourteenth–Eighteenth-Century Native Settlements in the Middle Chesapeake (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Bridging the Divide: A Study of Fourteenth–Eighteenth-Century Native Settlements in the Middle Chesapeake
Author: Julia A King
Abstract: Archaeologists (including the author) investigating seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Native sites in the Chesapeake point out how materially different these assemblages are from those recovered from contemporary colonial sites. Characterized by materials almost wholly produced by Native hands with some objects of European manufacture, they are indeed different and have been used to argue that Native people in a colonized land resisted colonial control in part through the maintenance of Native practices. These assemblages, however, are rarely examined vis-à-vis assemblages from earlier Native sites or from contemporary Native sites, resulting in a not-so-subtle reinforcement of the deep history/colonial divide along with the assumption that the template (the “norm”) for this period is the European colonial site.
Date: 04/17/2021
Conference Name: Society for American Archaeology


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