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Products for Grant RZ-51162-10

RZ-51162-10
Mitrou Archaeological Project
Aleydis Van de Moortel, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Grant details: https://securegrants.neh.gov/publicquery/main.aspx?f=1&gn=RZ-51162-10

Late Helladic IIIA:2 Pottery from Mitrou and its Implications for the Ceramic Chronology of the Mycenaean Mainland (Book Section)
Title: Late Helladic IIIA:2 Pottery from Mitrou and its Implications for the Ceramic Chronology of the Mycenaean Mainland
Author: Vitale, Salvatore
Editor: W. Gauß, M. Lindblom, A. Smith, and J.C. Wright
Editor: J.C. Wright
Editor: M. Lindblom
Editor: A. Smith
Abstract: In 1941, A. Furumark divided LH IIIA2 into two successive sub-phases. Until recently, however, no pure settlement contexts belonging to the earlier horizon had been published from the Greek mainland and a detailed definition of the period remained elusive. This lack of evidence has now been partially overcome by the discovery of some important LH IIIA2 deposits from Nichoria, Tsoungiza, and Ayios Stephanos. Nevertheless, no significant assemblages of this date have been published thus far from central Greece and, as a result, the validity of Furumark’s subdivision for the entire Mycenaean world still awaits confirmation
Year: 2011
Access Model: Printed book
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports
Book Title: Our Cups are Full. Pottery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. Papers Presented to Jeremy B. Rutter on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday
ISBN: 9781407307855

‘Our Storerooms are Full.’ Impressed pithoi from LBA/EIA East Lokris and Phokis and their socio-economic significance (Book Section)
Title: ‘Our Storerooms are Full.’ Impressed pithoi from LBA/EIA East Lokris and Phokis and their socio-economic significance
Author: Š. Rückl
Author: B. Lis
Editor: J.C. Wright
Editor: W. Gauß
Editor: M. Lindblom
Editor: A. Smith
Abstract: For various reasons, large storage vessels rarely attract the attention of pottery specialists. It is quite remarkable that prehistoric pithoi from the Greek mainland have not received a thorough treatment so far, in contrast to their Cretan or Cypriot counterparts. The article attempts to fill partially the gap and to show the potential of such a study for approaching wider issues of social, economic, and political developments of LBA/EIA Central Greece. The majority of the pithoi derive from the site of Mitrou. Fragments from two other sites located nearby—the settlement of Kynos and the sanctuary at Kalapodi—complete our dataset. The outstanding characteristic of these pithoi is their size and decoration, consisting of designs made by impressions of a toothed tool. Macroscopic analysis of fabrics supports the existence of several workshops serving more than a single site. Various lines of interpretation of the distributional pattern and the sudden rise of this type of pithos (and pithoi in general) at the LBA/EIA transition are suggested and elaborated.
Year: 2011
Access Model: Printed book
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports
Book Title: Our Cups are Full. Pottery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. Papers Presented to Jeremy B. Rutter on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday
ISBN: 9781407307855

The Bronze Age-Iron Age Transition at Mitrou, in East Lokris: Evidence for Continuity and Discontinuity (Book Section)
Title: The Bronze Age-Iron Age Transition at Mitrou, in East Lokris: Evidence for Continuity and Discontinuity
Author: E. Zahou
Author: A. Van de Moortel
Editor: A. Mazarakis Ainian
Abstract: This article provides a brief overview of 4 years of excavation at Mitrou (2004-2007) with emphasis on the changes seen at the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age, when Mitrou reverted from an urban to a rural settlement.
Year: 2011
Access Model: Printed book
Publisher: University of Thessaly
Book Title: The "Dark Ages" Revisited. Acts of an International Symposium in Memory of William D.E. Coulson, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece, 14-17 June 2007

A Geographical Analysis of the Atalanti Alluvial Plain and Coastline as the Location of a Potential Tourist Site, Bronze through Early Iron Age Mitrou, East-Central Greece (Article)
Title: A Geographical Analysis of the Atalanti Alluvial Plain and Coastline as the Location of a Potential Tourist Site, Bronze through Early Iron Age Mitrou, East-Central Greece
Author: M.D. Green
Abstract: Tourism accounts for 15% of Greece’s gross domestic product. In the wake of a struggling economy many of Greece’s coastal villages have turned to tourism to supplement local economies. Preliminary analysis of structural and cultural materials recovered from an excavation on Mitrou, a small islet near the coastal village Tragana located 140 km north of Athens has established the site’s contribution to a fuller understanding of settlement practices in Central Greece from the end of the Bronze Age through the Early Iron Age. The site’s historic importance combined with its scenic coastal setting has considerable potential to be developed into an important tourist site. The physical geography of the region is the product of the complex interaction of coastal, alluvial, fluvial, and seismic processes. This investigation integrates the archaeological material with a geographical analysis employing a variety of geographical techniques (soil and sediment analysis, past climatic data, environmental surveys, and geospatial modeling) to reconstruct the geomorphological history of the site and to evaluate the area as a potential tourist site.
Year: 2011
Format: Journal
Periodical Title: Applied Geography

Spondylus gaederopus Meals and Tools in Central Greece from the 3rd to the Early 1st Millennium BC (Book Section)
Title: Spondylus gaederopus Meals and Tools in Central Greece from the 3rd to the Early 1st Millennium BC
Author: R. Veropoulidou
Editor: M. Nikolaidou
Editor: R. Ifantidis
Abstract: This paper discusses the Spondylus gaederopus shells from two sites on the North Euboean Gulf in Central Greece. These are the Early Bronze Age settlement of Proskinas, situated 2 km from the coast and the Middle Bronze Age to Early Iron Age site of Mitrou, a small tidal islet in the Bay of Atalanti. The quantitative and qualitative study of the many molluscan species showed that shells were gathered for different purposes, i.e. food, purple-dye production, jewelry and tools. There was a special preference in the gathering of Spondylus gaederopus, however, for eating and for tool making. At the site of Proskynas, Spondylus not only forms the main species of the assemblage (316 out of 784 shells), but there is also clear evidence that it was gathered beach-worn to serve as scraping, scaling or percussion implement. The situation is different at the site of Mitrou; there, Spondylus is in quantity the third species in the assemblage (749 out of 6325), but was primarily gathered for food and was only secondarily used as a tool. The paper explores the choronological and spatial data of the two sites, which indicate the differences in Spondylus gaederopus usage. It will also try to pinpoint differences in the perception and use of Spondylus between the Neolithic and Bronze Age and between Central and Northern Greece.
Year: 2011
Access Model: Printed book
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports
Book Title: Spondylus in Prehistory: New Data and Approaches - Contributions to the Archaeology of Shell Technologies

Middle Helladic Ceramics at Mitrou: The ‘Grey Minyan’ Sequence (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Middle Helladic Ceramics at Mitrou: The ‘Grey Minyan’ Sequence
Author: Christopher M. Hale
Abstract: • In stark comparison to Thessaly and the Argolid, the study of Middle Helladic ceramics in central Greece has had to face a number of significant obstacles. One of these has been a lack of preserved stratigraphy from which to develop a stratified ceramic typology. Where stratigraphy has been recorded, as at Eutresis, the issue has been one of continuity in occupation. While the recent publication of the material from Orchomenos IV by K. Sarri has greatly contributed to an understanding of the development of Middle Helladic pottery, these problems continue to persist. This particularly affects the understanding of the so called ‘Grey Minyan’ material (herein referred to as ‘Fine Grey Burnished’) which seems to have been produced at one or more production centres in central Greece. The recent excavations at Mitrou have revealed in two deep trenches, located in different areas of the site, impressive sequences of MH deposits that are well stratified, related to architecture and span the whole of the Middle Helladic period. This enables the development of a stratified ceramic typology for central Greece which spans the whole of the period for the first time. This paper aims to present characteristics of the Fine Grey Burnished typology from all 7 Mitrou phases ranging from the end of Early Helladic III to the end of the Middle Helladic.
Date: 03/18/12
Conference Name: 4th Archaeological Meeting of Thessaly and Central Greece 2009-2012, From Prehistory to the Contemporary Period, Volos

The LH IIIC Pottery from Mitrou (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The LH IIIC Pottery from Mitrou
Author: B. Lis
Abstract: Our knowledge of the LH IIIC pottery in east Central Greece is defined by discoveries at three major sites: Lefkandi, Kynos and Kalapodi. When starting the excavations at Mitrou, supported by promising results of the CHELP surface survey, it was hoped that Mitrou would join the ‘big three’. It undoubtedly did, but not in an obvious way. At a site like Mitrou, it was reasonable to expect to find a LH IIIC Middle phase with elaborate, pictorial pottery and a rich repertoire of shapes, decent evidence for LH IIIC Late and, in fortunate circumstances, the transition to the EIA with the so-far elusive Submycenaean phase. After 5 years of excavation we are forced to verify these expectations. The LH IIIC Middle is difficult to define and there is nothing even remotely reminiscent of pictorial pottery. Surprisingly, the LH IIIC Late period is the most exciting one with an unusual array of finds. Submycenaean, apart from one or two graves with a few vessels, is not detectable. In this paper, I will briefly describe the local pottery sequence and highlight some of the major discoveries. I will also try to address the relation of Mitrou pottery to the material from Kalapodi and Kynos. At the end of the paper, an interpretation of pottery record for the LH IIIC period will be offered.
Date: 03/18/12
Conference Name: 4th Archaeological Meeting of Thessaly and Central Greece 2009-2012, From Prehistory to the Contemporary Period, Volos

Protogeometric Pottery at Mitrou, East Lokris. Nothing New Under the (Central Greek) Sun? (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Protogeometric Pottery at Mitrou, East Lokris. Nothing New Under the (Central Greek) Sun?
Author: Štepán Rückl
Abstract: During five years of excavation (2004-2008), the Mitrou Archaeological Project (MAP) has produced an unexpectedly large amount of Protogeometric pottery. The assemblages date to all three phases of the period and, most importantly, they come from both settlement and funerary contexts. The pottery stands in the Central Greek tradition (or what has become to be known as ‘Euboean koine’) and, in this respect, will add little to our knowledge in terms of morphology and decoration. However, focusing on a deposit from an apsidal Building A, I will discuss two issues that seem to be new in the field. In a traditional way, the deposit should be characterized as a mixed assemblage of Middle and Late Protogeometric pottery. In spite of this ‘mixture’, I will argue for the deposit being chronologically homogeneous and claim, with some external supporting evidence, that it represents a distinctive ceramic phase dated to the early stage of Late Protogeometric period. In the second part of my talk I will focus on technological aspect of Protogeometric fine wares, namely the building techniques. I will argue that not all the fine pottery was thrown but in fact wheel-coiled or wheel fashioned. The potential of these findings for the interpretation of potters’ identity and the development of ceramic traditions will be discussed shortly.
Date: 03/18/12
Conference Name: 4th Archaeological Meeting of Thessaly and Central Greece 2009-2012, From Prehistory to the Contemporary Period, Volos

The Middle Bronze Age Boat from Mitrou: Evidence for Bronze Age Aegean Shipbuilding (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The Middle Bronze Age Boat from Mitrou: Evidence for Bronze Age Aegean Shipbuilding
Author: A. Van de Moortel
Abstract: In 2007, the remains of a small boat were discovered lying on a dirt road within the settlement of Mitrou, a site on the North Euboean Gulf in East Lokris. The wood was not preserved, but its disintegration had left a black stain in the shape of the boat’s bottom. About half of this boat stain was excavated over a length of approximately 3 m and a maximum width of 1 m. The total hull length is estimated to have been 5.5–6.0 m. It was a slender craft, lanceolate in shape, curving gently in cross-section and profile, and tapering toward a blunt extremity. The boat is dated to the Middle Helladic II Early pottery phase and must have been built ca. 1900 B.C. Its modest size suggests that it was a small transport vessel or fishing boat. This is only the fourth small boat discovered at a prehistoric site in Greece and the first Bronze Age vessel with substantial evidence for the hull shape. Thus, it is highly significant for our understanding of Aegean boatbuilding. With its extremely thin hull and gentle curves, the Mitrou boat closely resembles expanded logboats of ancient and medieval date excavated in northern Europe. It is argued in this paper that the expanded logboat formed the basis of Aegean boatbuilding, and it determined the basic characteristics of Bronze Age and later plank-built ships in this region.
Date: 03/18/12
Conference Name: 4th Archaeological Meeting of Thessaly and Central Greece 2009-2012, From Prehistory to the Contemporary Period, Volos

Late Helladic IIIB Pottery from Mitrou, East Lokris: Relative Chronology, Typology, and Wider Significance (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Late Helladic IIIB Pottery from Mitrou, East Lokris: Relative Chronology, Typology, and Wider Significance
Author: Vitale, Salvatore
Abstract: This paper illustrates the results of the study of Late Helladic (LH) IIIB ceramics from Mitrou, East Lokris, with particular reference to three significant deposits from the northeast excavation sector, one dating to LH IIIB1, the other two to LH IIIB2 Late. The evidence is presented in three main sections: a stratigraphic and contextual overview of the deposits; a description of the most important chronological and typological features of the pottery; and a discussion of the possible significance of the materials in the wider perspective of Mycenaean ceramic developments in central Greece. Two interesting elements emerge from the examination of the LH IIIB2 Late assemblages. First, they include some features that are uncommon in non-Palatial sites, among which the comparatively high frequency of Rosette deep bowls is particularly striking. Second, LH IIIB2 deposits from Mitrou appear to be contemporary with the final catastrophes that affected the palaces of Mycenae, Tiryns, Midea, and Thebes, later than the destructions of Gla and Orchomenos, and slightly earlier than that of Dimini. The combination of these factors raises intriguing questions concerning the political geography of East Lokris in the final decades of the 13th century B.C.: were Mitrou and the surrounding region under the control of any Mycenaean Palace during this period? If this was the case, which of the powerful centres situated in the vicinity may be considered the best candidate?
Date: 03/18/12
Conference Name: 4th Archaeological Meeting of Thessaly and Central Greece 2009-2012, From Prehistory to the Contemporary Period, Volos

Purpurae Florem: Assessing the Role of Purple Dye Manufacture in the Emergence of a Political Elite at Mitrou, (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Purpurae Florem: Assessing the Role of Purple Dye Manufacture in the Emergence of a Political Elite at Mitrou,
Author: Vykukal, Rachel
Abstract: Evidence suggests that purple dye was produced on the islet of Mitrou, a Bronze Age and Early Iron Age site in East-Lokris. The goal of this study is to determine the chronological and spatial patterning of crushed Murex shells in order to better understand the emergence of dye manufacture. The research hypothesis is that Murex dye production was related to the rise of a visible political elite at Mitrou beginning in the Late Helladic I phase, and that the scale of production was large enough to have exceeded the needs of the household, thus providing a cash crop for this elite to obtain goods such as copper and tin from elsewhere. Multi-layered statistical analyses were employed to test this two-pronged hypothesis. The first hypothesis that Murex dye production was related to the rise of the elite at Mitrou was confirmed by a series of chi-squared analyses. Based on site-wide estimates of the original Murex population, the second hypothesis that dye production exceeded domestic scale cannot be rejected, especially if dye was used to color thread rather than large pieces of fabric as is often assumed.
Date: 03/18/12
Conference Name: 4th Archaeological Meeting of Thessaly and Central Greece 2009-2012, From Prehistory to the Contemporary Period, Volos

The Politics of Death at Mitrou, East Lokris (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: The Politics of Death at Mitrou, East Lokris
Author: A. Van de Moortel
Abstract: Our 2004-2008 excavation and surface survey produced an unusually rich Prepalatial data set including settlement and mortuary remains. Preliminary studies indicate that a ruling elite manifested itself from LH I onwards through the creation of a landscape of power. In the settlement two elite complexes were constructed and long paved orthogonal roads were laid out, arguably intended to monumentalize performances of some sort. The manipulation of the mortuary realm played a major role in the visualization of elite power. In LH I, two elite tombs were created in prominent locations and linked to a major road, ostensibly to enhance the performance value of elite mortuary rituals. One of these was Built Chamber Tomb 73, uniquely set inside elite complex D. At the same time, the long-standing practice of burying the dead among settlement buildings was abandoned, and possibly a permanent cemetery established to enhance a sense of community and create a larger mortuary landscape as backdrop for the elite tombs. After the LH IIIA:2 Early destruction of Building D, elite burials ceased in tomb 73, but evidence from the road and dromos points to public rituals continuing into the LH IIIC phase, reflecting a persisting link with the Prepalatial elite.
Date: 01/06/12
Conference Name: 113th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, Philadelphia

Purpurae Florem: Assessing the Role of Purple Dye Manufacture in the Emergence of a Political Elite at Mitrou (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Purpurae Florem: Assessing the Role of Purple Dye Manufacture in the Emergence of a Political Elite at Mitrou
Author: Vykukal, Rachel
Abstract: Evidence suggests that purple dye was produced on the islet of Mitrou, a Bronze Age and Early Iron Age site in East-Lokris. The goal of this study is to determine the chronological and spatial patterning of crushed Murex shells in order to better understand the emergence of dye manufacture. The research hypothesis is that Murex dye production was related to the rise of a visible political elite at Mitrou beginning in the Late Helladic I phase, and that the scale of production was large enough to have exceeded the needs of the household, thus providing a cash crop for this elite to obtain goods such as copper and tin from elsewhere. Multi-layered statistical analyses were employed to test this two-pronged hypothesis. The first hypothesis that Murex dye production was related to the rise of the elite at Mitrou was confirmed by a series of chi-squared analyses. Based on site-wide estimates of the original Murex population, the second hypothesis that dye production exceeded domestic scale cannot be rejected, especially if dye was used to color thread rather than large pieces of fabric as is often assumed.
Date: 01/06/12
Conference Name: 113th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, Philadelphia

Micromorphological Analysis of Sediments at the Bronze Age Site of Mitrou, Central Greece: Patterns of Floor Construction and Maintenance (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Micromorphological Analysis of Sediments at the Bronze Age Site of Mitrou, Central Greece: Patterns of Floor Construction and Maintenance
Author: Panagiotis Karkanas
Abstract: The study of urban sites is usually based on the analysis of architectural or cultural phases. The sediments of the excavated deposits inside or outside houses are rarely studied. The prehistoric site of Mitrou has a ca. 5-m deep archaeological sequence ranging from the Early Bronze Age through the Early Iron Age (ca. 2400-900 BCE). This provides a unique opportunity to study changes in the construction and maintenance of earthen floors and surfaces over a long time and relate them to cultural developments. The preliminary micromorphological study of more than 240 thin sections shows that the surfaces from the Early to Late Bronze I phases Mitrou has all the characteristics of a tell site with multiple replasterings of surfaces and a broad palette of material and techniques used. There is no clear association of a building phase to a floor level but rather to thick sequences of floor build-up. This practice ends sometime in the LH I phase, and from then on, floors are not frequently repaired and their construction technique is more standardized. The observed change can be broadly related to the rise of a local ruling elite at Mitrou. Moreover, the contrasting maintenance techniques are pertinent to the discussions on the difference between tells and 'flat' settlements. Until the end of the Middle Helladic period, Mitrou has all the characteristics of a tell site whereas after that it resembles a 'flat' settlement. In Mitrou it appears that this change is related to a different perception of construction and maintenance of floors that in turn should be traced to the pattern of reconstruction of whole houses. As part of the material culture of a society these changes have a social significance that may reflect differences in household processes and space use.
Date: 09/22/11
Conference Name: DIG (Developing International Geoarchaeology) conference, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating Regional Interaction During the Greek Middle Bronze Age Using Matt-Painted Pottery from Mitrou (Conference Paper/Presentation)
Title: Investigating Regional Interaction During the Greek Middle Bronze Age Using Matt-Painted Pottery from Mitrou
Author: Christopher M. Hale
Abstract: This talk presented preliminary results of the author's research on Matt-Painted ceramic imports at Middle Bronze Age Mitrou.
Date: 09/28/11
Conference Name: Annual Meeting of Postgraduates in Hellenic Or Roman Antiquities and Egyptology (AMPHORAE) 2011, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia


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